The Industrial Revolution• The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world• The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Most notably, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. In the two centuries following 1800, the worlds average per capita income increased over tenfold, while the worlds population increased over six fold. In the words of Nobel Prize winner Robert E. Lucas, Jr., "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth, nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before”
The Great Exhibition 1851• The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park London from 1 May to 15 October 1851• It was the first in a series of worlds fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th century feature.• The great exhibition was organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert
The Arts and Crafts Movement• Arts and Crafts was an international design movement that flourished between 1860 and 1910, especially in the second half of that period, continuing its influence until the 1930s.• It was led by the artist and writer William Morris and Charles Voysey and was inspired by the writings of John Ruskin and Augustus Pugin.• It developed first and most fully in the British isles, which spread to Europe and North America. It was largely a reaction against the impoverished state of the decorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they were produced.• It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms of often applied medieval, romantic styles of decoration.
DeutscherWerkbund• The DeutscherWerkbund was a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists. The Werkbund was to become an important event in the development of modern architecture and industrial design, particularly in the later creation of the Bauhaus school of design.• Its initial purpose was to establish a partnership of product manufacturers with design professionals to improve the competitiveness of German companies in global markets. The Werkbund was less an artistic movement than a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States. Its motto Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau (from sofa cushions to city-building) indicates its range of interest.
The Bauhaus• Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German term Bauhaus, literally "house of construction” stood for "School of Building".The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a total work of art in which all arts, including architecture would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design.• The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.• The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. For instance: the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, even though it had been an important revenue source; when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school, and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it.
GiacomoBalla• GiacomoBalla adopted the Futurism style, creating a pictorial depiction of light, movement and speed. He was signatory to the Futurist Manifesto in 1910 and began designing and painting Futurist furniture and also created Futurist "antineutral" clothing.• He also taught Umberto Boccioni. In painting, his new style is demonstrated in the 1912 work titled Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash. Seen here, is his 1914 work titled Abstract Speed and sound. In 1914, he also began sculpting and the following year created perhaps his best known sculpture called Boccionis Fist.
Fin de siecle• Fin de siècle is French for "end of the century”. The term sometimes encompasses both the closing and onset of an era, as it was felt to be a period of degeneration, but at the same time a period of hope for a new beginning. The "spirit" of fin de siecle often refers to the boredom, cynicism, pessimism and the widespread belief that civilization leads to decadence, that were recognized as prominent in the 1880s and 1890s.• “Fin de siècle” is most commonly associated with French artists, especially the French symbolists, and was affected by the cultural awareness characteristic of France at the end of the 19th century. However, the expression is also used to refer to a European-wide cultural movement. The ideas and concerns of the fin de siècle influenced the decades to follow and played an important role in the birth of modernism
Belle Époque• The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French pronunciation: [bɛlepɔk]; French for "Beautiful Era") was a period in French history that is conventionally dated as starting in 1890 and ending when World War I began in 1914.• Occurring during the era of the Third French Republic, it was a period characterized by optimism, peace at home and in Europe, new technology and scientific discoveries. The peace and prosperity in Paris allowed the arts to flourish, and many masterpieces of literature, music, theater, and visual art gained recognition. The Belle Époque was named, in retrospect, when it began to be considered a "golden age" in contrast to the horrors of World War I.• In the newly rich United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable epoch was dubbed the Gilded Age. In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era, and in Germany, the Belle Époque coincided with the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm II.
Marcel Duchamp• Marcel Duchamp was a French artist whose work is most often associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist movements. Considered by some to be one of the most important artists of the 20th century,Duchamps output influenced the development of post-World War I Western art.• He advised modern art collectors, such as Peggy Guggenheim and other prominent figures, thereby helping to shape the tastes of Western art during this period.Duchamp challenged conventional thought about artistic processes and art marketing, not so much by writing, but through subversive actions. He famously dubbed a urinal art and named it Fountain, though in a 1917 letter to his sister Duchamp indicates that a female friend, possibly the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, conceived of the urinal as sculpture and sent it to him under the pseudonym Richard Mutt. Duchamp produced relatively few artworks, while moving quickly through the avant-garde circles of his time.
Surrealism Movement 1920’s• Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact.• André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.
Andy WarholAndy Warhol was an American artistwho was a leading figure in the visualart movement known as pop art. Hisworks explore the relationship betweenartistic expression, celebrity culture andadvertisement that flourished by the1960s. After a successful career as acommercial illustrator, Warhol became arenowned and sometimes controversialartist. The Andy Warhol Museum in hisnative city, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,holds an extensive permanent collectionof art and archives. It is the largestmuseum in the United States of Americadedicated to a single artist.
Roy LitchensteinRoy Lichtenstein was a prominent American pop artist.During the 1960s, his paintings were exhibited at the LeoCastelli Gallery in New York City and along with AndyWarhol, Jasper Johns, James Rosenquist and others hebecame a leading figure in the new art movement. His workdefined the basic premise of pop art better than any otherthrough parody. Favoring the old-fashioned comic strip assubject matter, Lichtenstein produced hard-edged, precisecompositions that documented while it parodied often in atongue-in-cheek humorous manner. His work was heavilyinfluenced by both popular advertising and the comic bookstyle. He described Pop Art as, "not American painting butactually industrial painting
Alessi• Alessi is a kitchen utensil company from Italy. They design everyday items from plastic and stainless steel.From the 1980s onward, Alessi has been particularly associated with the notion of "designer" objects - otherwise ordinary tools and objects executed as high design, particularly in a post-modern mode, from designers such as Philippe Starck. Most of the memorable "designer kettles," "designer toothbrushes," "designer graters" and so on were Alessiproducts• Alessi was founded in 1921to produce crafted products in metal for eating and drinking, by Giovanni Alessi. In 1935, Carlo Alessi (born 1916), son of Giovanni, was named chief designer. In 1945 he ascended to chief executive and designed the coffee service Bombé, an industrial piece manufactured in four sizes. That same year Carlos younger brother, Ettore Alessi, joined the company as a technician.By the 1980s, Alberto Alessi took over the management of Alessi and launched the Alessi company into the design decade through collaborations with designers and architects such as Alessandro Mendini, Ettore Sottsass, Richard Sapper, and Achille Castiglioni.• In 2004 Alessi launched the Tea & Coffee Towers, with a new generation of architects such as Wiel Arets, Zaha Hadid, Toyo Ito, Tom Kovac, Greg Lynn, MVRDV, Jean Nouvel, and UN Studio.
MOD• Mod (from modernist) is a subculture that originated in London, England, in the late 1950s and peaked in the early-to-mid 1960s.Significant elements of the mod subculture include fashion (often tailor- made suits); music, including African American soul, Jamaican ska, British beat music, and R&B; and motor scooters. The original mod scene was also associated with amphetamine-fuelled all-night dancing at clubs. From the mid-to-late 1960s and onwards, the mass media often used the term mod in a wider sense to describe anything that was believed to be popular, fashionable, or modern.
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