Fundamental classes in java


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Java is a relevant subject area taught in all computer science degree programs. This object-oriented computer language is used to write a variety of Software Applications.

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Fundamental classes in java

  1. 1. +1-732-546-3607 Fundamental Classes Overview of java.lang package Object The package java.lang contains classes and interfaces that are essential to the Java language. These include: • Object Class • Math Class • The wrapper classes • String • StringBuffer • StringTokenizer java.lang (non-objectives)  Cloneable : A class implements the Cloneable interface to indicate to the clone method in class Object that it is legal for that method to make a field-forfield copy of instances of that class.  SecurityManager : The security manager is an abstract class that allows applications to implement a security policy.  Exceptions : The class Exception and its subclasses are a form of Throwable that indicates conditions that a reasonable application might want to catch.  Errors : An Error is a subclass of Throwable that indicates serious problems that a reasonable application should not try to catch. Most such errors are abnormal conditions.  ClassLoader : The class ClassLoader is an abstract class. Applications implement subclasses of ClassLoader in order to extend the manner in which the Java Virtual Machine dynamically loads classes.
  2. 2. +1-732-546-3607 java.lang.Object Class Object is the root of the class hierarchy. Every class has Object as a superclass. All objects, including arrays, implement the methods of this class.  public boolean equals( Object object ) a) should be overrided b) provides “deep” comparison c) not the same as ==! • • == checks to see if the two objects are actually the same object equals() compares the relevant instance variables of the two objects  public String toString() a)should be overrided b) returns a textual representation of the object c) useful for debugging java.lang.Math : The class Math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as the elementary exponential, logarithm, square root, and trigonometric functions.     class is final constructor is private methods are static public static final double E • as close as Java can get to e, the base of natural logarithms  public static final double PI • as close as Java can get to pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
  3. 3. +1-732-546-3607 int, long, float, double int, long, float, double abs() max(x1, x2) int, long, float, double min( x1, x2) Returns absolute value Returns the greater of x1 and x2 Returns the smaller of x1 and x2  double ceil( double d ) • returns the smallest integer that is not less than d, and equal to a mathematical integer • double x = Math.ceil( 423.3267 ); x == 424.0;  double floor( double d ) • returns the largest integer that is not greater than d, and equal to a mathematical integer • double x = Math.floor( 423.3267 ); x == 423.0;  double random() • returns a random number between 0.0 and 1.0 • java.util.Random has more functionality  double sin( double d ) • returns the sine of d  double cos( double d ) • returns the cosine of d  double tan( double d ) • returns the tangent of d  double sqrt( double d ) • returns the square root of d java.lang Wrapper Classes Wrapper class wraps (encloses) around a data type and gives it an object appearance. Wherever, the data type is required as an object, this object can be used. Wrapper classes include methods to unwrap the object and give back the data type. It can be compared with a chocolate. The manufacturer wraps the chocolate with some foil or paper to prevent from pollution. The user takes the chocolate, removes and throws the wrapper and eats it.
  4. 4. Primitive Data Type boolean byte char short int long float double +1-732-546-3607 Wrapper Class Boolean Byte Character Short Integer Long Float Double  encapsulates a single, immutable value  all wrapper classes can be constructed by passing the value to be wrapper to the constructor • double d = 453.2344; • Double myDouble = new Double( d );  can also pass Strings that represent the value to be wrapped (doesn’t work for Character) • Short myShort = new Short( “2453” ); • throws NumberFormatException  the values can be extracted by calling XXXvalue() where XXX is the name of the primitive type.  wrapper classes useful for classes such as Vector, which only operates on Objects java.lang.String The String class represents character strings. All string literals in Java programs, such as "abc", are implemented as instances of this class. Strings are constant; their values cannot be changed after they are created. String buffers support mutable strings. Because String objects are immutable they can be shared.  uses 16-bit Unicode characters  represents an immutable string  Java programs have a pool of literals • when a String literal is created, it is created in the pool • if the value already exists, then the existing instance of String is used • both == and equals() work
  5. 5. Difference between equals() and == Example:1 String s1 = “test”; String s2 = “test”; s1 == s2; // returns true s1.equals( s2 ); // returns true Example:2 String s3 = “abc”; String s4 = new String( s3 ); s3 == s4; // returns false s3.equals( s4 ); // returns true String methods: • char charAt( int index) • String concat( String addThis ) • int compareTo( String otherString ) • boolean endsWith( String suffix ) • boolean equals( Object obj ) • boolean equalsIgnoreCase( String s ) • int indexOf( char c ) • int lastIndexOf( char c ) • int length() • String replace( char old, char new ) +1-732-546-3607
  6. 6. • boolean startsWith( String prefix ) • String substring( int startIndex ) • String toLowerCase() • String toString() • String toUpperCase() • +1-732-546-3607 String trim() java.lang.StringBuffer A thread-safe, mutable sequence of characters. String Buffer represents a String which can be modified and has a capacity which can grow dynamically. String buffers are safe for use by multiple threads. The methods are synchronized where necessary so that all the operations on any particular instance behave as if they occur in some serial order that is consistent with the order of the method calls made by each of the individual threads involved. • StringBuffer append( String s ) • StringBuffer append( Object obj ) • StringBuffer insert( int offset, String s ) • StringBuffer reverse() • StringBuffer setCharAt( int offset, char c ) • StringBuffer setLength( int newlength ) • String toString() java.lang.String Concatenation • Java has overloaded the + operator for Strings • a+b+c is interpreted as new StringBuffer().append(a).append(b).append(c).toString()
  7. 7. +1-732-546-3607 StringTokenizer The string tokenizer class allows an application to break a string into tokens. The tokenization method is much simpler than the one used by the StreamTokenizer class. The StringTokenizer methods do not distinguish among identifiers, numbers, and quoted strings, nor do they recognize and skip comments.  The set of delimiters (the characters that separate tokens) may be specified either at creation time or on a per-token basis.  An instance of StringTokenizer behaves in one of two ways, depending on whether it was created with the returnTokens flag having the value true or false:  If the flag is false, delimiter characters serve to separate tokens. A token is a maximal sequence of consecutive characters that are not delimiters.  If the flag is true, delimiter characters are considered to be tokens. A token is either one delimiter character, or a maximal sequence of consecutive characters that are not delimiters.