History, Science, and Trade<br />Pam Clark<br />
What is History?<br />History is the organic unfolding of events and phenomenon that attempts to recount those experiences that have caused us to evolve into the peoples that we have become. <br />History changes as we gain new information.<br />Historians utilize scientific and technological advances to further their quests for the truth about past events. <br />
Good Historians are Great Detectives <br />In a Los Angeles Times article, entitled “How Scientists Are Solving History’s Riddles,” Joe Nickell, a present-day “sleuth of history,” and many other historians are now applying scientific and technological advances to solving historical mysteries. <br />DNA testing , satellite imaging, and advances in undersea technologies are all utilized today to uncover new facts about our past.<br /> <br />
The Journey of Man, Spencer Wells <br /><ul><li>Spencer Wells, a noted geneticist and molecular scientist, utilized DNA testing of the Y chromosome in men to rewrite the history of our origin, and genetically documented our migration from Africa, to Australia, to Middle Asia, to the Siberian Artic, and on to North America, beginning about 50,000 years ago.</li></li></ul><li>The Journey of Man, Spencer Wells cont. <br />Based on Well’s findings, we <br />are all descendants of the <br />San Bushmen of Africa. <br />
Catastrophe<br />According to noted writer, David Keys, <br />a catastrophic event occurred about 1,500 <br />years ago, that caused extreme climate changes <br />which resulted in two years of cold, then a draught, <br />followed by famine, plague, and death worldwide, <br />that changed the course of history.<br />His theory was supported by Mike Bailey, a <br />dendro-chronologist, who dates tree rings to track <br />worldwide climate changes. <br />Bailey discovered that “tree rings went haywire” in <br />the middle of the sixth century, suggesting a global<br />crisis.<br />
Catastrophe continued<br />Carbon-14 dating of ancient ash deposits <br />around the island of Java indicate that the <br />Volcano, Krakatoa, erupted about 1,500 years<br /> ago, sending up huge clouds of volcanic ash <br />into the atmosphere, which triggered a<br />nuclear winter experienced globally.<br />It has also been proven that plague follows <br />drops in temperature and increases in rainfall, <br />as flea and rat populations increase under <br />these conditions.<br />It is suggested that trade routes from Africa to<br />Alexandria, and on to Europe are responsible <br />for the spread of the plague via rats and fleas.<br />
Changing Interpretations of America’s Past<br />New evidence is changing our <br />view of South American peoples.<br />The discovery of sophisticated <br />burial urns, buried under huge <br />man-made earthen mounds and <br />evidence of a rich, black, man-<br />made soil on the island of <br />Mayuro at the mouth of the<br />Amazon river, have dated this <br />large population to have existed <br />there for 900 years.<br />This debunks our prior theory <br />that South America was sparsely<br />populated by small groups of<br />nomadic people.<br />We now know that disease <br />brought by explorers may have <br />wiped out as much as 95% of <br />this continent’s population.<br />
Changing Interpretations - The World and Trade<br />The Americas of pre-Columbus 1491, held highly populated Native American civilizations.<br />Due to European exploration and trade, by the time the Mayflower arrived at<br />Plymouth Rock, most of these native inhabitants were already dead. <br />
The World and Trade<br />History will continue to <br />re-write itself and change as we <br />continue to discover new <br />information <br />through technological and <br />scientific <br />advances.<br />
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