State of the art in the pu sub sector-technology options and trends

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Latest Technology Developments and Industry Trends in the PU Sector by Miguel Quintero.

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State of the art in the pu sub sector-technology options and trends

  1. 1. 05/07/10 Presentation to RR Meeting Caleb Management Services Limited Addressing tomorrow’s issues today Workshop on low-GWP HCFC replacement in the foam sector Seoul, South Korea 6 th -7 th May 2010 Latest Technology Developments and Industry Trends in the PU Sector Presented by Miguel Quintero Foams Consultant Thursday 6 th May 2010 Mayfield Hotel & Resort, Seoul, South Korea CONFIDENTIAL Document Date This report is solely for the use of client personnel. No part of it may be circulated, quoted, or reproduced for distribution outside the client organization without prior written approval from McKinsey & Company. This material was used by McKinsey & Company during an oral presentation; it is not a complete record of the discussion. Unit of measure * Footnote Source: Source
  2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Uses of HCFCs in Polyurethane Foam </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the blowing agent </li></ul><ul><li>Desired characteristics of blowing agents </li></ul><ul><li>Available options to replace HCFCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. USE OF HCFCs IN POLYURETHANE FOAMS <ul><li>Insulating Foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Insulating Foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integral Skin (steering wheels, car panels, arm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rests, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcellular elastomers - Shoe soles </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. THERMAL INSULATING FOAM <ul><li>Appliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigerators, freezers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial refrigeration (Bottle containers, displays) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water heaters, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construction/ Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Panels (continuous, discontinuous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In situ applications (spray) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. POLYURETHANE (PU) RIGID FOAM Closed cells are the key ! Blowing agents are enclosed
  6. 6. PU Formulation Polyether Polyols Polyester Polyols Catalysts Surfactants Water Blowing Agents PMDI/MDI/TDI + Kinetics Control Stabilizers CO 2 C H 2 OCN NCO 4 , 4 ' - M D I n polymeric MDI CH2 CH2 NCO NCO NCO + f=2.7 Network Formation
  7. 7. FULLY FORMULATED POLYOL Blowing agent content around 18 % ! In total foam 9 % INGREDIENT PARTS BY WEIGHT Polyether Polyol 80 Polyester Polyol 20 Amine catalyst - gelling 1.0 Amine catalyst - blowing 0.5 Silicone surfactant 1.0 Flame Retardant 10 Water 2.0 External blowing agent (HCFC-141b) 22
  8. 8. ROLE OF THE BLOWING AGENT <ul><li>Physical Expansion of the Foam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation of CO 2 by iso-water reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation of the external blowing agent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contribution of thermal performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains in the closed cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low gas thermal conductivity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. REQUIRED FOAM PROPERTIES <ul><li>Easy of Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to fill all the cabinets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De-mould Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insulation Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Strength </li></ul><ul><li>at the lowest foam density ! </li></ul>
  10. 10. REQUIRED FOAM PROPERTIES Application Processing De-mould time Insulation Mechanical strength Domestic refrigeration xxx xxx xxx xxx Other appliances xxx xxx xx xxx Continuous Panels xxx xxx xx xxx Discontinuous Panels xx xxx xx xxx Spray xx xx xx xxx
  11. 11. BLOWING AGENT CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Zero ODP </li></ul><ul><li>Low GWP </li></ul><ul><li>Low toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Chemically/physically stable </li></ul><ul><li>Based on validated technology </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially available </li></ul><ul><li>Economically viable. </li></ul>
  12. 12. BLOWING AGENT CHARACTERISTICS Foam requirement Relevant Blowing Agent Characteristic Ease of Processing Flammability Boiling Point Solubility in the polyols De-mould time Broadly independent Insulating Performance Gas thermal conductivity Permeability through cell wall Mechanical Strength Boiling Point Solubility in the PU matrix
  13. 13. Blowing Agents in PU Rigid Foams CFC 11 CFC 11 50% red. HCFC 141b HFC 245fa HFC 134a c-pentano Iso-/n-pentano c-pentano/LBHC HFC 365mfa/227fa
  14. 14. MATURE TECHNOLOGIES: HYDROCARBONS ^ Measured at 0 0 C * Precise figure varies according to local atmospheric conditions Cyclo-Pentane n-Pentane Iso-Pentane Iso-Butane n-Butane Chemical Formula (CH 2 ) 5 CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 CH 3 CH(CH 3 )CHCH 3 CH 3 CH(CH 3 )CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 Molecular Weight 70.1 72.1 72.1 58.1 58.1 Boiling Point ( 0 C ) 49.3 36 28 -11.7 -0.5 Gas Conductivity (mW/mK @ 10 0 C) 11.0 14.0 13.0 15.9 13.6 ^ Flammable Limits in Air (vol.%) 1.4-8.0 1.4-8.0 1.4-7.6 1.8-8.4 1.8-8.5 TLV or OEL (ppm) 600 610 1000 800 800 GWP (100 yr time horizon) <25* <25* <25* <25* <25*
  15. 15. <ul><li>Most popular blowing technology/ improved with experience </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for spray </li></ul><ul><li>K values slightly higher than HFCs: gap is closing </li></ul><ul><li>Blends (c/ iso) to improve density </li></ul><ul><li>Low operating costs (Low BA cost) </li></ul><ul><li>Max. cost effectiveness factor: US $ 9.79/ Kg of substance (excepting domestic refrigeration) </li></ul><ul><li>What about small/ medium enterprises? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-blending at System Houses? </li></ul></ul>MATURE TECHNOLOGIES: HYDROCARBONS
  16. 16. BTU.in/ft²hr°F Hydrocarbon Technology Brett mold expansion (mm), 8 mins 1 2 3 4 5 Thermal Conductivity, mW/mK 0 °C 18.2 18.4 18.6 18.8 19.0 19.2 19.4 19.6 19.8 20.0 20.2 20.4 20.6 20.8 6 0.1262 0.1276 0.1290 0.1303 0.1317 0.1331 0.1345 0.1360 0.1373 0.1387 0.1401 0.1414 0.1428 0.1442 CP Gen4 CP Gen 3 CP Gen 1 CP Gen 2 HFC134a CP Gen 1+ CP Gen 2+ HCFC 141b CFC 11 50% HCFC 22/142b Iso-/N-Pentano Gen 1 Iso-/N-Pentano Gen 2
  17. 17. <ul><li>Flammable / High investing costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-blending unit/ medium storage tank (buffer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm/Detection system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul>MATURE TECHNOLOGIES: HYDROCARBONS
  18. 18. HYDROCARBONS: Investment costs Item Description Unit Unit Cost Sub-total Hydrocarbon Storage/ Blending     108.000 Buffer tank 250 L 1 28.000 28.000 Premixer 1 70.000 70.000 Double pump transfer unit 1 10.000 10.000         Total Foaming Equipment     145.000 Retrofitting of the existing dosing units by replacing the polyol dosing system 1 135.000 135.000 High pressures L type mixing heads 1 10.000 10.000
  19. 19. HYDROCARBONS: Investment costs Total Safety Related Equipment   223.380 Moulds/ fixtures retrofit 10 8.000 80.000 Safety/ Alarms systems, base panel 1 20.000 20.000 Sensors 6 2.000 12.000 Ventilation system for dosing unit area, 8,000 m 3 /h 1 20.000 20.000 Ventilation system for cabinets/doors, 15,000 m 3 /h 1 30.000 30.000 Fire extinguishing system 1 15.000 15.000 Explosion proof motors and systems 1 10.000 10.000 Sealing of electrical control cabinets 1 10.000 10.000 Starting discharge dissipation 1 10.000 10.000 Electrical modifications (grounding, etc.) 1 10.000 10.000 Connection piping 6 230 1.380 Additional Civil Works 1 5.000 5.000
  20. 20. HYDROCARBONS: Investment costs Total General     110.000 System Optimization 1 30.000 30.000 Nitrogen generator 1 20.000 20.000 Training and International Technical Support 1 20.000 20.000 Trials 1 10.000 10.000 Testing 1 20.000 20.000 Safety Audits 1 10.000 10.000 SUB-TOTAL     586.380 Contingencies     58.638 TOTAL 645.018
  21. 21. HYDROCARBONS: Incremental Operating Costs   Chemical Average Annual Consumption, (2007/2008), kg Unit US$/unit Total cost consumption (US$) Before : HCFC - 141 b 157,242 kg 2.40 377,380   Formulated Polyol A 681,983 kg 2.60 1,773,155   Polymeric MDI 954,776 kg 2.79 2,663,824 Total 4,814,359   Cyclopentane 100,557 kg 3.00 301,670 After: Formulated Polyol B 728,961 kg 2.68 1,952,157   Polymeric MDI 1,020,545 kg 2.79 2,847,321   Nitrogen 2,915 m 3 9.50 27,690 Total 5,128,838 Incremental Operating Costs/year 314,479
  22. 22. MATURE TECHNOLOGIES: Saturated HFCs HFC-134a HFC-245fa HFC-365mfc HFC-227ea Chemical Formula CH 2 FCF 3 CF 3 CH 2 CHF 2 CF 3 CH 2 CF 2 CH 3 CF 3 CHF CF 3 Molecular Weight 102 134 148 170 Boiling Point ( 0 C ) -27 15.3 40.2 -16.5 Gas Conductivity (mW/mK @ 10 0 C) 12.4 12.5* 10.6* 11.6 Flammable Limits in Air (vol.%) None None 3.8-13.3 None TLV or OEL (ppm) 1000 N/A N/A 1000 GWP (100 yr time horizon) 1410 (1300) 1020 782 3140 (2900)
  23. 23. <ul><li>Favorable for energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Non flammable/ option for spray </li></ul><ul><li>High operating costs (High BA cost) </li></ul><ul><li>High GWP: negative climate change impact </li></ul>MATURE TECHNOLOGIES: Saturated HFCs
  24. 24. <ul><li>Used in all formulations for co-blowing </li></ul><ul><li>Used for Spray Foam in Japan: Supercritical CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesion issues due to foam friability </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced energy efficiency/ High K value </li></ul><ul><li>High operating costs/ High molded density </li></ul>MATURE TECHNOLOGIES: CO 2 from Water As Sole Binder
  25. 25. RELATIVELY NEW OPTION: Methyl Formate Ecomate (R) (Methyl Formate) Molecular Weight 60 Boiling Point (  C) 31.3 Gas Thermal Conductivity (Mw/Mk, 25ºC) 10.7 Flammable limits in air (vol %) 5-23 GWP (100yr ITH) Negligible
  26. 26. <ul><li>Patented technology by Foam Supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Become established in Brazil, US and Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial refrigeration, Discontinuous Panels and Integral Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minor equipment retrofit ( flammability ): just for System Houses </li></ul><ul><li>10 – 12 % higher operating costs than HCFC-141b </li></ul><ul><li>Pending data on K factor aging and long term dimensional stability </li></ul><ul><li>…… .. PILOT PROJECT IS BEING FINISHED! </li></ul>RELATIVELY NEW OPTION: Methyl Formate
  27. 27. EMERGING OPTIONS Methylal HFO-1234ze FEA-1100 HBA-2 AFA-L1 Chemical Formula CH 3 OCH 2 OCH 3 Trans- CF 3 CH=CHF Undisclosed Undisclosed Undisclosed Molecular Weight 76.1 114 Undisclosed Undisclosed Undisclosed Boiling Point ( 0 C ) 42 -19 >25.0 15.3<T<32.1 10<T<30 Gas Conductivity (mW/mK @ 10 0 C) Not available 13.0 10.7 Not Reported 15.9 Flammable Limits in Air (vol.%) 2.2-19.9 None to 28 o C^ None None None TLV or OEL (ppm) () 1000 Unpublished Undisclosed Undisclosed Undisclosed GWP (100 yr time horizon) <25* 6 5 <15 <15
  28. 28. <ul><li>Methylal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as co-blowing with hydrocarbons and HFCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot project (sole binder) will be run in 2 nd semester </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated HFCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are liquid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal performance: very promising results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High operating costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid HFCs: 2-3 years for commercialization </li></ul></ul>Emerging options
  29. 29. Integral Skin & Microcellular Elastomers <ul><li>KEY REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Skin formation/ Abrasion resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Blowing agent condensation during the high pressure injection process </li></ul>
  30. 30. MATURE TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>Water (CO 2 ), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin formation issue, polyester polyols for abrasion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HFC-134a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher operating costs & High GWP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pentane (cycle and iso) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammability issue </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. EMERGING OPTIONS <ul><li>Methyl Formate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patented by Foam Supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established in Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Included in the pilot project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquid low GWP HFCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pending toxicology tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial availability </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. SUMMARY <ul><li>All mature technologies have restrictions in safety, cost or performance </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons : the most popular technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-blending at the System House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methyl formate : becoming established in integral skin, commercial refrigeration and discontinuous panels </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies under development: Methylal, Unsaturated HFCs </li></ul><ul><li>Time is of essence to meet 2013 consumption freeze </li></ul>

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