India Mobile Air Conditioning Assessment


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India policy workshop on the status of MAC replacement technologies by S.H. Kapoor

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India Mobile Air Conditioning Assessment

  1. 1. Mobile Air Conditioner (MAC) and Environment India policy workshop on the status of MAC replacement technologies New Delhi, India, 7-8 June 2010 India Mobile Air Conditioning Assessment S H Kapoor Technical Chief, Climate Control TATA Motors Limited, India Email: 1 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  2. 2. MAC System : Impact on Environment Direct GHG Direct GHG is Leakage of Refrigerant to the Atmosphere (GWP) (Refrigerant Leakage through AC Hoses / Joints / Servicing) Atmospheric degradation products COF HCOF TFA HF + R134a (HFC) AC System Indirect GHG AC System Indirect GHG is CO2 From Fuel Used for operating HVAC (Exhaust gases) The leaking refrigerant molecule breaks down into GHG in the atmosphere 2 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  3. 3. MAC Refrigerant: Impact on Environment 1960 - 1987 1996- 2001 2005 2010 - > 2011 Kyoto Forced Europe Europe World Summit The Montreal Earth Summit Kyoto Protocol (2005) Regulation Regulation on Sustainable Protocol Rio De Janeiro Conceived UN Climate Change (2006/40/EC) (2006/40/EC) Development (1989) (1992) (1997) Conference Bali (Leakage rate) (F-Gas) (2002) (2007) (2011) (2011) 8100 Re du cti on Global Warming Potential in Di r ec tG HG e mi ss ion 1410 s ISSUE: ISSUE: 4 OZONE DEPLETION GLOBAL WARMING ODP: 1 (Max) ODP: 0 ODP: 0 CFC-12 [CCl2F2] HFC-134a [C2H2F4] HFO-1234yf [CF3CF=CH2] (Chloro Fluoro Carbon) (Hydro Fluoro Carbon) (Hydro Fluoro Olefin) 3 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  4. 4. MAC initiatives: Environment Sustainability Reduction of Direct Emission Reduction of In-direct Emission 1. Refrigerant Charge Optimization 1. Heat Load Reduction • Compact and High efficiency heat • Effective sealing and insulation exchanger • Tinted glasses • Introduction of IRDC condenser 2. Energy Efficiency • Introduction of MF and flat tube evaporators • New Generation compressor • 30% less refrigerant from above • Improved control strategies initiatives • Customer awareness 2. Refrigerant Leakage Reduction 3. Weight Reduction • Target all new systems to meet 2009 • Compact and High efficiency heat and 2011 European norms exchanger • Improving refrigerant circuit joinery • Light weight and compact • Dealer level awareness regarding compressors servicing of HVAC • Compact HVAC unit design © Copyright TATA Motors Limited 2008 4
  5. 5. MAC System: Impact on Energy Consumption Energy Consumption Ratio (%) 3 9 11 39 Compressor Blower Idle Up Cooling fan Clutch 38 During operation, power absorbed by the Compressor accounts for approx. 40% of total energy requirement. Other major energy losses are from the blower and the need to increase idle speed to provide adequate cooling 5 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  6. 6. MAC : Current Technology Status Energy Environment Sr. Efficiency MAC System Parameter Technology Type Indicator No. Indicator (Impact) (Impact) Refrigeration Cycle & • Vapour Compression Cycle High 1 (GWP: 1410) Medium Working Fluid • Refrigerant HFC R-134a (ODP: 0) • Single AC Medium Low MAC System 2 Architecture • Dual AC Medium Medium • Compressors : Fixed/Variable Displacement Internally Controlled Medium High (Reciprocating/ Scroll/ Rotary) 3 System Aggregates • Compact HVAC units / Blowers • Heat Exchangers Low Medium (Multiflow Evap/ IRD Condenser) • Manual Bowden Cable Type 4 Controls • Manual Electric w/ Actuators Low Low • FATC • Wire Mesh Type Filters 5 Air Purifiers Low Low • Pollen (Paper) Type Filters 6 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  7. 7. MAC : Future Technology Trends Energy MAC System Parameter Technology Type Environment Sr. Efficiency Indicator No. Indicator (Impact) (Impact) Refrigeration Cycle & • Vapour Compression Low High 1 (GWP: 4) Working Fluid • HFO-1234yf (European Union) (ODP: 0) (potential to ) • Thermoelectric devices (localised 2 System Architecture cooling/Heating) Low Low • Compressors – Variable Displacement Externally Controlled Low Medium (Reciprocating), Dual Drive Hybrid 3 System Aggregates • Heat Exchangers (Mechanical Multi-Exchanger) • Internal heat Exchange (IHX) Low Low • Analogue Pressure Transducers • ECON Function in Manual & FATC 4 Controls Controls Low Low • PWM Blower Controllers • Charcoal Anti-Bacterial Filters 5 Air Purifiers Low Low • Plasma Ion Generators 7 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  8. 8. Growth of MAC Vendors Source: Internet The participation and involvement of MAC suppliers in the process to reduce the environmental impact (on direct and indirect GHG) needs to be speeded up 8 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  9. 9. Concluding Remarks 1. INDIAN MAC SECTOR • The Indian automotive market is growing significantly • The prime drivers for the automotive market in India are Cost and Fuel Economy • The Indian market demands high performance MAC systems to meet passenger comfort requirements • The use of MAC systems in Indian vehicles is increasing - particularly in the commercial vehicle sector and as a standard OE fitment for passenger cars • To meet this growing market and passenger comfort requirements there is a demand for higher technology at competitive prices from MAC system suppliers • The participation and involvement of MAC suppliers in the process to reduce the environmental impact needs to be speeded up in the above scenario 2. ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABILITY • OEMs and MAC suppliers should be committed to environment sustainability • There is a need to: a) adapt new technologies to reduce refrigerant charge, weight and MAC power consumption b) assess the impact of alternate refrigerants on MAC system designs to ensure an optimal balance between meeting comfort requirements and reducing impact on environment • Since significant efforts and resources are required for these assessments and future developments, funding by National/World bodies will be required • All MAC systems for export to Europe to be designed to meet EEC refrigerant leakage and future F – Gas legislation 3. LEGISLATION • There are no immediate plans for MAC legislation in India 9 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  10. 10. Compact and High Efficient Heat Exchanger 10 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  11. 11. Compact HVAC units 11 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  12. 12. AC Compressors: Energy Efficiency Rotary Variable Displacement (internally controlled) 12 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  13. 13. Refrigerant Molecule < 1997 1997 – 2010 > 2011 We Are Here R-12 (CFC) R-134a (HFC) HFO-1234yf CCl2F2 C2H2F4 CF3CF=CH2 • Dichlorodifluoromethane 1, 1, 1, 2 – Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) H • Freon – 12 H F C C F F C F CH2F– CF3 • No Chlorine atom (ODP = 0) • Double bond b/w carbon atoms Mechanism of ozone hole formation • Strong single bond b/w • Weaker double bond allows it CCl2F2 + UV Light ==> CClF2 + Cl carbon atoms to break down much more O3 {ozone} + UV Light ==> O2 + [O] quickly in the atmosphere than • Atmospheric lifetime 13.6 R-134a Cl + O3 ==> ClO + O2 ClO + [O] ==> Cl + O2 years (GWP = 1410) • Atmospheric lifetime is 11 days Net: [O] + O3 ==> 2O2 (GWP = 4) 13 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  14. 14. BUDGETORY COST ESTIMATES (PROVING AN ALTERNATE MAC-REFRIGERANT) S No Description % Contribution Material Refrigerant a. Bench validation @30kgs 1 b. Vehicle validation @35kgs 7.0 Compatible HVAC proto parts @ 25sets (Compresor,Oil,Condenser,IHX,TXV,Evaporator, Hoses,controls) Material testing 2 Laboratory Tests 1.0 Vehicle (e.g. flammability tests) Facility & Equipment Bench 3 Hot Chamber 30.0 Refrigerant Recovery and Re-cycle machine Data acquisition system (road trials) Road Trials (Performance and Durability) 4 Vehicles* @12nos. 60.0 Fuel @12vehs. Manpower Bench level (Supervisor,Operator) @60days 5 Vehicle level (Engineer,Supervisor) @60days 2.0 Confirmatory road trials (test engineer, drivers, @90days support staff) Total Budget Approx. 6.5 Cr. * Single AC & Dual AC version / Petrol & Diesel engine version / 2 HVAC suppliers 14 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  15. 15. Dual AC System 15 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  16. 16. Heat Exchanger and Electrical Sensor (to lower energy consumption) Mechanical Multi-Exchanger Internal Heat Exchanger Analogue Pressure Transducer 16 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  17. 17. Controls ECON Function PWM based speed control Fully Automatic (ECON mode) Saving electrical power Air Con Duty Reduction 17 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  18. 18. Controls Manual Control Panel Electric Control Panel FATC control panel HVACunit HVAC unit HVAC unit PWMPWM blower control Blower Control 3 Actuator 3 Actuator AirAir quality Quality motors motors Sensor sensor 3 Actuator motors Evaporator Evaporator sensor Sensor Evaporator Evaporator sensor Sensor Evaporator 18 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  19. 19. AC Compressors Variable Displacement Compressor (belt drive) Dual Drive Compressor (hybrid vehicle) (externally controlled) 19 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  20. 20. Air Purifiers Wire-mesh Filter Pollen Filter Plastic Wire Steel Wire 20 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  21. 21. Air Purifiers Air purifier for vehicles: Ion Generators * Run switching action for 15mins Interval mode over each mode * Purify air by coming out negative and Plasma cluster ion mode positive ions at the same rate * Adjust ion balance by increasing Negative ion mode the rate of negative ion Stop * Stop running 21 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd
  22. 22. Thermoelectric Devices Climate Control Seats (CCS) Application CCS System has the Potential to Increase Comfort & Reduce CO2 Emissions When Combined with Traditional HVAC Systems of Reduced Capacity 22 ©Copyright TATA Motors Ltd