Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards
and 5-Star Labeling Program
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
Established in 2002, under the Energy Conservation Act,
Improve energy efficiency through various regulatory and
– Plan, manage and implement provisions the EC Act
• Appliance standards and labeling
• Industrial energy benchmarks
• Energy Conservation Building Codes
• Monitor energy use in high energy-consumption units
• Certify and accredit energy auditors and energy
– Provide a policy framework and direction to national
energy conservation activities
– Disseminate information and knowledge, and facilitate pilot
and demonstration projects
– Establish EE delivery systems through Public-Private
Partnerships (PPP). 2
Products covered under Indian S&L Program
1. Frost-free Refrigerators
2. Tubular Fluorescent Lamps (TFL)
4. Distribution Transformers
1. Direct cool
3. Pump sets
4. Ceiling fans
5. LPG Stoves Launched on 18th
6. Colour TVs May 2006 , for 4
7. Storage Water Geysers products by BEE
Context for Fuel Economy Standards and
Energy Conservation Act, 2001
– Formation of BEE
Auto Fuel Policy, 2003
– “Declaration of fuel economy standards by automobile
manufacturers would be made mandatory…”(pg. 7)
Integrated Energy Policy, 2006
– “…enforce truthful labelling on equipment….Enforce minimum fuel
efficiency standards for all vehicles…” (overview pg. xxi)
National Action Plan on Climate Change, 2008
– “The Energy Conservation Act of 2001 provides a legal mandate for
the implementation of the energy efficiency measures through the
institutional mechanism of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
…” (pg. 3)
– “…tightening of regulatory standards such as enforcing fuel-
economy standards for automobile manufacturers…” (pg. 29)
Estimated Oil Consumption in 2032 (IEP 2006)
Estimated Oil Imports in 2032 (IEP 2006)
ACTUAL VEHICLE PRODUCTION IN INDIA
International Labeling Programs
Country Metric Measure Type
New Zealand Fuel Consumption l/100km Star Rating across all vehicle
Japan Fuel Economy Km/l Label for meeting/exceeding
Singapore Fuel Consumption l/100km Comparison within engine class
UK (and CO2 emissions gCO2/km Ranking ‘A’ to ‘G’ across all
many EU vehicle classes
United States Fuel Economy Miles/ Comparison within vehicle size
California Greenhouse Gas gCO2e/km Rating 1 to 10 across all vehicle
Brazil Fuel Consumption l/100km Ranking ‘A’ to ‘E’ within vehicle
Passenger Vehicle Market in India
2.4 million vehicles sold in India in FY 2009-2010
– 60% small cars, 20% large cars, 20% utility vehicles
– 60% petrol, 35% diesel, 5% CNG/LPG
– Average vehicle weight 1050 kg
– Average engine size 1.4 liters
– Average test fuel consumption 6.35 l/100km (15.7 km/l)
– >90 percent vehicles have air-conditioning
• Reduces actual fuel economy by up to 20 percent
GoI is considering passenger vehicle fuel economy
standards and labeling programme under the aegis of
the Energy Conservation Act, 2001.
Climate zones of India
a) Hot and dry,
b) Warm and humid,
d) Cold and cloudy,
e) Cold and sunny,
Why MAC is being Hyped…..
There are two mechanisms by which A/C systems contribute to the emissions of
1. Through leakage of refrigerant into the atmosphere and
2. Through the consumption of fuel to provide mechanical power to the A/C
• With leakage, it is the high global warming potential (GWP) of the current
automotive refrigerant (HFC-134a, with a GWP of 1430) and F-22 ( GWP of
1800) results in more fuel consumption/kms and more CO2-equivalent
impact causing greater global warming impact than a similar amount of
emissions of CO2 or other mobile source GHGs. Manufacturers can reduce
A/C leakage emissions by using leak-tight components.
• By increasing the overall efficiency of the vehicle‘s A/C system, which in turn
will reduce the additional load on the engine from A/C operation.
Why AC Systems are so Critical…..
The refrigerant used in vehicle A/C systems can get into the
atmosphere by many different means.
• These refrigerant emissions occur from the slow leakage
over time that all closed high pressure systems will
• Refrigerant loss occurs from permeation through hoses and
leakage at connectors due to deterioration of parts and
connections as well.
• In addition, there are emissions that occur during accidents
and maintenance and servicing events. Finally, there are end-
of-life emissions if, at the time of vehicle scrappage,
refrigerant is not fully recovered.
SO WHAT IMPACT DOES THE MAC HAS……
• Vehicle A/C system account
• 5.5% of total vehicle fuel consumption in the United States
• 3.2% in Europe
• 3.4 % in Japan
19.4% in India.
• Longer Summer time
• Hot and Humid Climate
• Number of Cooling hours is greater than in US, EU or Japan
• Higher usage of A/C through out the year
• Questions on Ambient air quality and
• Changes in Life styles.
All Leads to higher fuel Consumption.
Penalty due to AC usage….
Indian average vehicle kilometres (km) travelled (VKT)
: 14,685 km (9,125 miles).
U.S. annual average VKT : 19,171 km (11,912 miles).
VKT with AC: 12,531 km (7,756 miles)
=> AC requirements are 6 times more than in US
The Indian A/C fuel penalty is almost four times the fuel penalty in the
United States and close to six times that in the European Union.
⇒ It is more imperative that there is a need to improve Fuel economy of the
vehicles in near terms.
⇒ AC systems have to be made more efficient to improve Fuel Economy of
⇒ Quantified reductions are possible which will translate better future for Energy
Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global
warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to
power the car A/Cs
• Current refrigerant systems have to be phased out.
• Improved HFC-134a systems provide the additional benefit
of better refrigerant containment and reduction of refrigerant
emissions by 50%, consumers will realize savings in repair
and recharge costs.
• Regulations may be required for phase out like in US/EU:
EU Directive on MAC Systems:
• With effect from 1 January 2011, air-conditioning systems designed to
contain fluorinated greenhouse gases with a global warming potential
higher than 150 shall not be retrofitted to vehicles type-approved from
that date. With effect from 1 January,2017, such air-conditioning systems
shall not be retrofitted to any vehicles.
• Air-conditioning systems fitted to vehicles type-approved on or after 1
January 2011 shall not be filled with fluorinated greenhouse gases with a
global warming potential higher than 150. With effect from 1 January
2017 air conditioning systems in all vehicles shall not be filled with
fluorinated greenhouse gases with a global warming potential higher
than 150, with the exception of refilling of air-conditioning systems
containing those gases, which have been fitted to vehicles before that
=> Move towards Cleaner and Efficient A/C Systems.
A/C Leakage Credits suggested by USEPA~ Depiction of
• EPA is adopting a design-based method for manufacturers to
demonstrate improvements in their A/C systems and
components. Manufacturers implementing system designs
expected to result in reduced refrigerant leakage will be eligible
for credits that could then be used to meet their CO2 emission
compliance requirements (or otherwise banked or traded). The
A/C Leakage Credit provisions will generally assign larger
credits to system designs that would result in greater leakage
reductions. ( Similar to PAT Scheme).
• In addition, proportionately larger A/C Leakage Credits will be
available to manufacturers that substitute a refrigerant with
lower GWP than the current HFC-134a refrigerant.
A/C Efficiency Credits
• Manufacturers that make improvements in their A/C
systems to increase efficiency and thus reduce CO2
emissions due to A/C system operation may be eligible for A/
C Efficiency Credits. As with A/C Leakage Credits,
manufacturers could apply A/C Efficiency Credits toward
compliance with their overall CO2 standards (or otherwise
bank and trade the credits).
• EPA is adopting a design-based ―menu approach for
estimating efficiency improvements and, thus, quantifying A/
C Efficiency Credits. Beginning in MY 2014, manufacturers
wishing to generate A/C Efficiency Credits will need to show
improvement on the new A/C Idle Test in order to then use
the "menu" approach to quantify the number of credits
attributable to those improvements.
BEE Standards and Labelling Programme
BEE Program based on star ratings
– More stars More savings
Star rating scheme already familiar to consumers
– Mandatory star rating programme for Frost Free
Refrigerators, Room ACs, Tubular Fluorescent Lamps
and Distribution Transformers
Labeling to be based on fuel economy tests
already performed by the vehicle manufacturers
– No additional testing is required.
– Labelling would induce a new dimension for informed
choices to consumers before buying cars
Fuel Economy Labelling Programme
BEE analysis is based on the ARAI test data released by the
Labelling approach based on BEE’s Five-Star Rating Programme.
– Label to be displayed prominently on the vehicle at the time of sale
Labelling bins based on vehicle weight
– Diesel/LPG/CNG fuel economy adjusted for differential fuel energy content
Label includes a numerical fuel economy estimate.
– Estimate on the label based as per CMVR standardized test.
– Label to display vehicle fuel economy in comparison with the fuel economy
of vehicles in it’s market segment, as well as all vehicles.
BEE to actively promote the labels and educate consumers
– Participation of industry members requested in consumer education
Illustration of BEE Label for Passenger Vehicles
In addition to star rating, each label will also show
comparison of vehicle fuel economy in its market segment
Sandeep Garg (email@example.com)
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
(Ministry of Power, Govt. of India)
4th Floor, Sewa Bhawan
New Delhi – 110066