Ozone and climate-friendly alternatives in developing countries

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Ozone and climate-friendly alternatives in developing countries

  1. 1. OZONE- AND CLIMATE-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIESCOMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Prof. Dr. Risto Ciconkov, dipl. ing. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University “Ss. Cyril & Methodius” Skopje, R. Macedonia Delagate to IIR Member of UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  2. 2. OZONE- AND CLIMATE-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGIESCOMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES CONTENT View on the refrigeration industries in the SE region Domestic refrigerators Commercial refrigeration Air conditioners and heat pumps Water-heating heat pumps Liquid chillers Industrial refrigeration Sources of information for industries and low GWP technologies Who decide? Reasons why natural refrigerants not applied Suggestions UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  3. 3. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countriesView on the refrigeration industries in the SE regionBankruptcy of almost all companies manufacturers of refrigeratingequipment in economy transition process in this part of Europe“Frinko” – R. Macedonia“Jugostroj” – Serbia“Termomehanika”, “Termofriz” – Croatia“Soko” – Bosnia & Hercegovina“LTH” – Slovenia“Obod” – MonteNegro“Mraz” – Bulgaria“Fyrogenis” – GreeceConsequences:The refrigeration sector is weakened.Lost of human recsources from the refrigeration sector.Additional confusion caused by the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols.Almost all refrigerating equipment is now imported. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  4. 4. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countriesDOMESTIC REFRIGERATORSApproximately 100 million domestic refrigerators and freezers areproduced annually [RTOC, 2011].In 2008, 36% of production units used HC-600a.Manufacturers of HC refrigerators in: Europe, China, India, Brasil, …Countries of ECA region: import domestic refrigerators. Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Used in the ECA region.Public awarenessThe customer are not informed for the refrigerant inside. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  5. 5. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries MOST COMMON SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONSAccording the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning And Heat Pumps TechnicalOptions Committee (RTOC) applications are grouped as:DOMESTIC REFRIGERATIONCOMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION R22INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATIONTRANSPORT REFRIGERATIONAIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPSWATER-HEATING HEAT PUMPS R22LIQUID CHILLERS R22VEHICLE AIR CONDITIONING UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  6. 6. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATIONSupermarkets; Cold rooms Two levels of temperature,Refrigerant leakage: - medium: fresh food and- in developed countries ~30% beverages (R22, R404A)- in developing countries ? - low: frozen products (R404A) UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  7. 7. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countriesSupermarketsThree main categories of equipment:1. Stand-alone equipment 2. Condensing unit systems 3. Centralised systems UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  8. 8. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries 1. Stand-alone equipment Heat release indoor. Low energy efficiency. Small refrigerant leakage. Condensing unit Evaporator UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  9. 9. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries 2. Condensing unit systems Heat release outdoor. Low energy efficiency. Small/medium refrigerant leakage. Outdoor Evaporator Condensing unit UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  10. 10. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries Stand-alone equipment and Condensing unit systems Alternatives: HCs: R600a; R290; or blend R600a/R290 R744 (CO2) Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Not used in the ECA region. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  11. 11. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries3. Centralised direct systems (supermarket) Direct systems: HFC-404A and HFC-507 are not long term alternatives! R404A R404A R404A R507 UNEP, ECA meeting, 2008
  12. 12. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries3. Centralised indirect systems Secondary coolant Secondary coolant refrigerant Machinery room UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  13. 13. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries Cascade systems NH3/CO2 Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Not used in the ECA region. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  14. 14. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries Centralised CO2 system (transcritical) Higher efficiency in locations with colder climate LT Low GWP technology: MT AVAILABLE Not used in the ECA region. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  15. 15. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPSSelf-contained air conditioners Split air conditioners(window and through-the-wall) (residential and commercial) indoor outdoorSplit air conditioners - ducted outdoor UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  16. 16. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPSNearly all air-cooled air conditioners and heat pumps manufactured priorto 2000 use R22.Since 2000: R407C and R410A A photo made in 2009. Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Not used in the ECA region. ?R290 (Propane) in some low charge applications (with safety mitigation).15 % less energy consumption; 40 % less refrigerant charge (<300 gr).Expected expansion on the market. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  17. 17. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries WATER-HEATING HEAT PUMPS Comfort Heating Air to water heat pump Air-cooled water chiller – heating mode Hydronic system: Fan-coil units (50oC) Floor heating (35oC) Refrigerant: R407C, R410A, HCs Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Not used in the ECA region. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  18. 18. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries WATER-HEATING HEAT PUMPSDomestic Hot Water Air to water heat pump Refrigerants: R407C, R410A, HCs Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Not used in the ECA region. CO2 refrigerant – “Eco cute” COP = 5 Water temperature: 70 oC (85oC) One million units sold by 2008, expexted several million by 2011 (Japan). UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  19. 19. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries WATER CHILLERS Compressors types UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  20. 20. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries Heat exchangers UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  21. 21. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries Heat exchangers air-cooled condenser water-cooled condenser applications 20% applications 80% microchannel shell and plate plate type shell-and-tube evaporator (dry expansion; flooded) UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  22. 22. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries WATER CHILLERS - ALTERNATIVESR407C was first R22 alternative for chillers.Current trends: R410A, R134a; (R717 and HCs).R134a with screw compresors, cooling capacities up to 2200 kW.R410A with scroll compressors, cooling capacities up to 800 kW.R717 (Ammonia) with piston and screw compressors, medium and largecapacities. Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Not used in the ECA region. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  23. 23. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATIONCold Storage;Food and drink processing;Process refrigeration: pharmaceutical, chemical, petrochemical …;Industrial heat pumps. HFCs ?R717 (Ammonia) is widely used in industries in developed countries;Stagnation in the developing world last two decades. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  24. 24. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries Cold Storage INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  25. 25. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATIONBarrier (NH3 systems): safety reason.Decrease the charge (quantity) of ammonia in refrigerating systems.New technologies of heat exchangers;New concepts of ammonia systems;Cascade systems (freezing tunnels);Improved automatic control. Low GWP technology: AVAILABLE Stagnation in the ECA region.Reasons:- Proper information;- Training of personnel; ; Proper maintainance of the refrigerat. systems;- Standards and regulations, … UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  26. 26. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countriesSOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR INDUSTRIES AND LOW GWP TECHNOLOGIES Membership: low rate for developing countries
  27. 27. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countriesSources of information for industries and low GWP technologies
  28. 28. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries WHO DECIDE?What type of equipment (technology) will be applied?1) Investor: - first cost, - reliability, - servicing, spare parts, - energy consumption?! - corruption, -…2) Planners, consultants: - informed (new technologies)? - familiar with HFC equipment.3) Local market: - distributors of equipment, - local manufacturers, contractors, …4) Montreal Protocol bodies (supporting many projects)5) … UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  29. 29. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries REASONS WHY NATURAL REFRIGERANTS NOT APPLIEDLack of information and proper information;First cost (instead Life Cycle Cost);Weak economy with a low purchase potential;The priority of the companies in developing countries is how to survive.Service companies in RAC sector are small. No budget for improvement;No education and training courses (for low GWP technologies);etc.More information in the publications:“Barriers to the use of low-GWP refrigerants in developing countries and opportunities to overcome these”, UNEP, 2010“Natural refrigerants in developing countries, problems and suggestions”, R. Ciconkov, IIR, 2010 UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011
  30. 30. Ozone- and climate-friendly technologies commercially available in developing countries SUGGESTIONSDissemination of information on technologies and practices with naturalrefrigerants from developed to developing countries;Introducing new products on the market in developing countries: newcomponents and new systems. Incentives should be given.Approaching to new concepts of refrigeration and air conditioningsystems with a low refrigerant charge.The importance of energy efficiency in the RAC systems with naturalrefrigerants should be emphasized.Technical assistance, education and training for safe operation withnatural refrigerants. New manuals for maintenance and servicing.Training courses to be organized.To introduce standards and regulations for design and safe operation.Positive experiences of the EU standard EN378.To install demonstration units. etc. Thank you. UNEP, ECA meeting, Belgrade, 2011

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