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  • 1. Regional Ozone Network Europe and Central Asia Options of using low GWP refrigerants Belgrade, SerbiaInternational May 10-13, 2011 Institute ofRefrigeration Didier COULOMB, Director of the International Institute of Refrigeration International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) - www.iifiir.org
  • 2. Member Countries  Intergovernmental organization  60 Member Countries  Developed and developing countriesInternational Institute ofRefrigeration
  • 3. The IIR - Members  Member Countries  Commission Members (nominated by countries) Country Number of Number of Commission Members Category countries per country 1 5 30 2 2 20 3 5 15 4 11 10 5 18 5 6 20 3International Institute of  Corporate and Private MembersRefrigeration - Private companies (equipment, utilities, food and health products,… ), Consultants, Universities,… - For valuable and updated information
  • 4. Mission of the IIR The International Institute of Refrigeration (IIR) is the only independent intergovernmental organization which promotes knowledge of refrigeration and associated technologies that are necessary for life in a science-based, cost-effective and environmentally sustainable manner including:  Food quality and safety from farm to consumer  Comfort in homes and commercial buildings, space heating and hot water with heat pumps  Process cooling in many industries  Health products and servicesInternational Institute of  Low temperatures and liquefied gas technologiesRefrigeration  Energy efficiency  Use of non-ozone depleting and low global warming refrigerants in a safe manner
  • 5. Tools (1)  Selection of scientific, technical and economical articles from all over the world, in various languages, included in a database: Fridoc - 90 000 entries - 3 000 keywords - 50 000 authors  Completely renovated with new functionnalities in 2011. Free accesss until July 2011. Please try it.  Periodicals - International Journal of Refrigeration (IJR) for scientific articles withInternational peer-review. Papers from IIR Conferences can be selected. Institute ofRefrigeration The best impact factor in its field. - Newsletter - Bulletin
  • 6. Tools (2)  Books, guides: Technical books, brochures, diagrams… For instance: the guide, Ammonia as a Refrigerant (2008), with translations into French and Spanish  Reference documents: International Dictionary of Refrigeration (11 languages)… for example  Training courses  International standardsInternational Institute ofRefrigeration  Review articles  Informatory notes
  • 7. Tools (3)  Statements prepared for international events: - Montreal Protocol on ozone depletion: The last one: MOP22 (Bangkok, Thaïland, November 2010) - Mitigation of Global Warming and Kyoto Protocol: The last one: COP-16/CMP-6 (Cancun, Mexico, December 2010) - Sustainable Development: Johannesburg Summit, 2002International Institute ofRefrigeration - Food Safety: FAO Forum, 2009 …
  • 8. Tools (4)  Conferences  3-6 IIR Conferences per year and  8-15 IIR co-sponsored Conferences per year on an average  IIR conferences / IIR co-sponsored / co-organized 23rd IIR International Congress of Refrigeration: Refrigeration for Sustainable Development Prague, Czech Republic, August 21-26, 2011 - 42nd International Conference on Heating, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Belgrade, Serbia, November 30-December 2, 2011 - 10th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids (GL2012) Delft, Netherlands, June 25-27, 2012International Institute of -12th Cryogenics 2012, Dresden, Germany, September 11-14, 2012Refrigeration - LNG 17 - 17th International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas Houston, United States, April 16-19, 2013 See our Web site: www.iifiir.org
  • 9. Key elements to take into account: - Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = various solutions:  Reducing leakage  Reducing the refrigerant charge  Choosing a low-GWP refrigerant  Reducing the energy consumption - The evolution of regulations:  The F-gas regulation and its review in Europe  Montreal Protocol obligations and the current discussions on HFCs  Safety regulations - Industrial strategies:  Refrigerant manufacturers  Refrigerant prices  InstallersInternational Institute of - Each case is different:Refrigeration  Age of the equipment  Size of the equipment and use of it  Location of the equipment  Staff experience
  • 10. Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = Various solutions 1/ Reducing leakage  Variability -> Margins for progress Example: in the EU (30% in the 80s -> 5% and less)  Key factor: the EU example The difficulty: training. 2/ Reducing the refrigerant charge  Issue of safety + GHG emissions: research and development for all refrigerants  Secondary refrigerantInternational  Microchannels Institute ofRefrigeration 3/ Choosing a low-GWP refrigerant  What is a low-GWP refrigerant?
  • 11. ../.. Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = Various solutions  The TEAP report: regulation challenge  All « very-low-GWP refrigerants » present safety risks andInternational drawbacks: flammability, toxicity, corrosion, pressure. Institute ofRefrigeration all need adaptation of the equipment but HFOs need the least: can be a good solution for drop-in. However, they are considered as HFCs, thus with the same kind of regulations as for other HFCs.
  • 12. ../.. Reducing greenhouse gases emissions = Various solutions 4/ Reducing energy consumption  The energy consumption of the equipment has the main impact on GHG emissions  Countries need to reduce the energy consumption for environmental reasons + electrical capacity reasons  The price of electricity will increase: new sources of energy have higher costs Changing the system because of the refrigerant issue must take intoInternational account a reduction in the energy consumption. Institute ofRefrigeration
  • 13. The evolution of regulations 1/ The F-gas regulation review for the European Union = first step for a phase-down of HFCs The new regulation will be stricter. Ideas:  banning pre-charging of equipment (impact on air-conditioning equipment)  reducing the charge limit for controls consequences at least in neighbouring countries 2/ Montreal Protocol obligations and the current discussions on HFCs  HCFC phase-outInternational  and HFC phase-down in the future (very probably) Institute ofRefrigeration  sooner, international financial incentives for « low-GWP » refrigerant solutions / « high-GWP » refrigerant solutions (very probably)
  • 14. ../.. The evolution of regulations 3/ Safety regulations  A barrier for ammonia, a barrier for hydrocarbons, but  Ammonia is still recognized as the most efficient refrigerant The example of France: regulations can change  Hydrocarbons are a good solution for low charges.International The US example: regulations can change; Institute ofRefrigeration barriers would be similar for HFOs and hydrocarbons
  • 15. Industrial strategies 1/ Refrigerant manufacturers  The will to have only one market = lobbying of Dupont + Honeywell for HFC phase-down according to the Montreal Protocol; lobbying for acceptance of HFOs.  Difficulties: manufacturers in developing countries; industrial capacity vs the huge market for car air conditioning.  HFOs will be the refrigerant choice of car manufacturers in Europe; then in the US, then all over the world.International Institute of  HFOs manufacturers are developing products for other uses:Refrigeration foams, commercial refrigeration, stationary air conditioning…
  • 16. ../.. Industrial strategies 2/ Refrigerant prices  There will be shortages: - shortage of HCFCs because of phase-out in developed countries (already in force) and because of manufacturers’ forecasts. - shortage of HFCs produced by HFO manufacturers: they need to convert their plants Their price will increase  The development of HFOs was expensive: their price will be higherInternational than those of HCFCs and HFCs Institute of Even if moving to natural refrigerants is a costly investment, runningRefrigeration costs will be lower.
  • 17. ../.. Industrial strategies 3/ Installers 2 kinds of positions:  Limiting the competition (cf AREA’s position):  Resistance to change, because of lack of expertise, lack of training (some European countries still have not implemented the F-gas regulation!) Working with the installers and funding training when implementingInternational Institute ofRefrigeration an HCFC phase-out plan is a necessity.
  • 18. Each case is different 1/ Age of the equipment  For relatively new equipment: Drop-in solutions with HFCs and maybe HFOs in the future.  For old equipment: replacement solutions, taking into account the energy consumption + solution with natural refrigerant if possible (safety constraints, quality of maintenance) and low charge, even if the investment cost is higher.International 2/ Size of the equipment and use of it Institute ofRefrigeration  No universal solution Refrigerant properties are different
  • 19. ../.. Each case is different 3/ Location of the equipment  Constraints related to the local environment (regulations on ammonia for instance)  Ambient temperature constraints (CO2 efficiency is better in « cold » countries than in « warm » countries for instance). 4/ Staff experience  The maintenance issue is a key elementInternational / leakage Institute ofRefrigeration / safety
  • 20. CONCLUSION  Presentation of the key elements of a strategic plan  However, numerous current technical developments on low-GWP refrigerants and on more efficient equipment  Need for updated information in administrations, in companies, in universities The IIR can help you Become a member.International Institute ofRefrigeration See our Web site: www.iifiir.org