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Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator
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Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator

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Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator

Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator

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  • 1. Next-generation Ejector Cycle for Truck-transport Refrigerator Etsuhisa Yamada, Haruyuki Nishijima, Hideya Matsui, Toshio Ueno, Masami Taniguchi, Akira Fujita DENSO CORPORATION
  • 2. Contents 1. Background 2. Next-generation Ejector Cycle System (EJECS) 3. Application Challenges 4. Solutions 5. Test Results 6. Future Possibilities for EJECS 2
  • 3. 1. Background 3
  • 4. Development Background 2002 2004 2006 2008 World first World first Large truck Large truck Packaged type Expansion Packaged type Ejector type (6-ton class) (6-ton class) (450 mm (H)) (450 mm (H)) valve type (Original EJECS) Jun. Thin type Thin type Expansion (125 mm (H)) (125 mm (H)) Valve type Medium-size Medium-size Packaged type Packaged type Expansion Ejector type truck truck (450 mm (H)) (450 mm (H)) valve type (Original EJECS) (4-ton class) (4-ton class) Sep. Thin type Thin type Expansion (125 mm (H)) (125 mm (H)) valve type World first World first Small truck Small truck Thin type Thin type Expansion New ejector type (2-ton class) (2-ton class) (125 mm (H)) (125 mm (H)) Valve type (Next-generation EJECS) Jan. 4
  • 5. Newly Developed Refrigerator Compressor Condensing unit Compact freezer truck Cooling unit Ejector and main components 125 mm (H) Cold Air 5
  • 6. Field Test Results Annual fuel consumption [L] 5% 27% reduction on refrigerator Refrigerator on Vehicle Vehicle Refrigerator off Developed Conventional refrigerator refrigerator 6
  • 7. 2. Next-generation Ejector Cycle System (EJECS) 7
  • 8. Need for Next-generation EJECS Original Ejector Cycle Refrigerator Condenser Ejector Compressor Engine Evaporator Accumulator (300 mm (H)) Packaged-type refrigerator has sufficient space to house EJECS with accumulator. 8
  • 9. Need for Next-generation EJECS Original Ejector Cycle system Expansion Condenser valve Compressor Two-phase Ejector refrigerant Gas Evaporator Accumulator Accumulator Distribution Retention Liquid 9
  • 10. Need for Next-generation EJECS Original Ejector Cycle system Most Critical Issue Most Critical Issue Necessary to eliminate accumulator in Necessary to eliminate accumulator in order to develop thin type refrigerator. order to develop thin type refrigerator. 10
  • 11. Idea for Accumulator Elimination Distribution Receiver High-pressure High-pressure side side Condenser Compressor Gas Ejector Low-pressure Low-pressure Accumulator side Distribution side Retention Evaporator Liquid 11
  • 12. Idea for Accumulator Elimination Technological Point Technological Point To switch accumulator function from To switch accumulator function from low-pressure side to high-pressure side low-pressure side to high-pressure side 12
  • 13. Configuration Receiver Receiver Condenser Expansion valve Compressor Intermediate Pressure Suction flow pressure Flow control Drive flow valve Nozzle Air Upwind Upwind evaporator evaporator Downwind Downwind evaporator evaporator Enthalpy 13
  • 14. Configuration Receiver Receiver Condenser Expansion valve Compressor Intermediate Pressure Suction flow pressure Flow control Drive flow valve Pressure Air rise Nozzle Two-temperature evaporator Enthalpy 14
  • 15. Benefits Intermediate Less compressor Less compressor pressure power power Iso-entropy line Suction Drive flow flow Pressure rise Pressure rise Recovered Recovered expansion energy expansion energy Improved refrigeration performance Improved refrigeration performance 15
  • 16. Breakdown of COP Improvement Decreasing Decreasing compression ratio compression ratio Improved compressor Improved compressor COP improvement [%] efficiency efficiency Compressor Half refrigerant flow Half refrigerant flow to evaporator to evaporator Ejector Evaporator Reduced pressure loss Reduced pressure loss Ejector pressure rise Ejector pressure rise Compressor power Compressor power savings savings & & Next-generation increased cooling increased cooling EJECS capacity capacity 16
  • 17. 3. Application Challenges 17
  • 18. Challenges Flow control assembly Ejector Pressure Drive flow rise Suction flow Two-temperature evaporator Flow Control Assembly Challenge → To produce ejector benefits at low cost Two-temperature Evaporator Challenge → To design based on pressure rise 18
  • 19. 4. Solutions 4.1 Flow Control Assembly 4.2 Two-temperature Evaporator 19
  • 20. Flow Control Assembly Control Heavy load valve (summer conditions) Ejector Pressure rise Low load (winter conditions) Drive flow Increasing Pressure Pressure Increasing Suction rise pressure rise pressure rise Ejector rise flow nozzle Increasing Increasing drive flow energy drive flow energy Decreasing Decreasing flow ratio flow ratio Flow ratio (suction/drive) 20
  • 21. Flow Control Assembly Expansion valve Flow Control Assembly Flow Control Assembly Separating block Separating Capillary block tube Nozzle Intermediate (fixed throttle) pressure Ejector Ejector Expansion Capillary tube valve (fixed throttle) Fixed throttles enable appropriate flow control at low cost. 21
  • 22. 4. Solutions 4.1 Flow Control Assembly 4.2 Two-temperature Evaporator 22
  • 23. Differences from Conventional Evaporator Upwind Decrease in temp. difference Decrease in temp. difference evaporator between refrig. & air between refrig. & air Downwind Air temp. Pressure evaporator Refrigerant temp. Pressure rise Increase in pressure losses Increase in pressure losses Decrease in heat transfer coefficient Decrease in heat transfer coefficient at the refrig. side at the refrig. side Enthalpy 23
  • 24. Solutions Upwind Evaporator Upwind Evaporator Increased upwind evaporator efficiency. Decreased refrigerant-side pressure losses. Downwind Evaporator Downwind Evaporator Increased refrigerant-side heat transfer coefficient. 24
  • 25. Configuration of Two-temp. Evaporator 4 stages 2 stages (rows) Upwind (rows) evaporator Air 5 paths Downwind evaporator Revolving 2 paths distributor 25
  • 26. 5. Test Results 26
  • 27. Ejector Pressure Characteristics Internal temperature: -22° C Ejector pressure rise Compressor speed: 1020 rpm Stable pressure rise -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Ambient temp. [deg. C] 27
  • 28. Power Saving Advantages Internal temperature: -18° C -50 Power-saving effects [%] -35% -34% -32% -31% -30% -30% -40 -29% -30 -28% -27% -20 -24% -22% -25% -23% -22% 00 m] -10 -17% 25 [rp -9% -8% -8% -11% -10% -12% 20 ed 19 pe 0 s 20 or 5 15 25 35 10 ss e External temp. [deg. C] pr C om 28
  • 29. Field Test Result Annual fuel consumption [L] 5% 27% reduction on refrigerator Refrigerator on Vehicle Vehicle Refrigerator off Developed Conventional refrigerator refrigerator 29
  • 30. Advantages COP COP Cooling Cooling Refrigerant Refrigerant improvement improvement capacity capacity saving saving At same Ambient temp. 35° C cooling capacity Internal temp. -18° C +32% +12% -11% Better Better Better 1.32 1.12 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.88 Next-generation Expansion Next-generation Expansion Next-generation Expansion EJECS valve system EJECS valve system EJECS valve system 30
  • 31. Conclusions • Next-generation EJECS developed and released for small truck refrigerators. • 32% COP improvement over conventional refrigerators • 5% annual fuel consumption reduction on actual trucks • Next-generation EJECS can be applied to CO2 heat pump water heaters and car air-conditioners. 31
  • 32. 5. Future Possibilities for EJECS 32
  • 33. CO2 Emissions Reduction All trucks in the market in Japan Amount of CO2 emission [-] -8.1% Small trucks Small trucks Middle trucks Middle trucks Large trucks Large trucks EJECS Expansion valve refrigerators refrigerators 33
  • 34. Future Applications Ejector Technology - Next generation ejector cycle system - Water heater World first World first “Eco-Cute,” using natural Room Room refrigerant CO2 air-conditioner air-conditioner Transport refrigerator Ejector Hot water Hot water Stationary Stationary supply system supply system Vehicle air conditioner air-conditioning air-conditioning system system Vehicle Vehicle 34

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