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International Workshop on next-generation technologies for Mobile Vehicles’ Air Conditioning

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International Workshop on next-generation technologies for Mobile Vehicles’ Air Conditioning by Julius Banks.

International Workshop on next-generation technologies for Mobile Vehicles’ Air Conditioning by Julius Banks.

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  • 1. United Nations Environment Programme International Workshop on next- generation technologies for Mobile Vehicles’ Air Conditioning June 7, 2010 Julius Banks U.S EPA Office of Air and Radiation Stratospheric Protection Division
  • 2. Welcome Julius Banks Team Lead Refrigerant Recycling and Recovery Regulatory Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation; Stratospheric Protection Division www.epa.gov/ozone/strathome.html banks.julius@epa.gov; (202) 343-9870
  • 3. Scope of Briefing  Overview of EPA’s Ozone Layer Protection Program  U.S. transition from ODS in motor vehicle air conditioning  Regulatory Framework  MVAC transition in U.S.  HFC reductions via voluntary initiatives  Future alternatives in Ref A/C sectors?
  • 4. Turn Off Production Tap & Improve Public Health UNEP/WMO Ozone Assessment, 2006 The Montreal Protocol has slowed and reversed the accumulation of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) in stratosphere By 2165, actions to protect the ozone layer will prevent millions of U.S. skin cancer deaths EPA SunWise program in 22,000 schools K-8 UV Index (Effective stratospheric chlorine is the weighted sum of chlorine and bromine gases in the stratosphere.)
  • 5. Then and Now: Progress in Ozone Protection
  • 6. Global Warming Potential (GWP) of ODS Emissions World Avoided (2-3%/yr growth) 2010: MP will have reduced net* GWP-weightedt emissions 5-6 times the reduction target of Kyoto’s first commitment period *Net offsets for ozone depletion and ODS substitutes, approximately 3.9 G. Velders et al., PNAS, 2007 GtCO2-eqyr-1, not shown. t100-yr GWPs.
  • 7. 2007 Montreal Protocol Agreement Added Significant Climate Protection With U.S. leadership, Parties agreed to more aggressive phaseout for ozone-depleting hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Overall, dramatic HCFC reductions 2010-2040 compared to prior commitments, strengthening ozone layer protection Climate benefit 2010-2040: 3,000-16,000 MMTCO2E  Approximate midpoint is equivalent to eliminating climate emissions from 50% of all U.S. passenger cars each year for next 30 years
  • 8. Montreal Protocol HCFC Transition Will Create Additional HFC Use 700 600 HCFCs (MP) 500 HFCs (BAU) MMTCO2eq 400 300 200 100 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
  • 9. Montreal Protocol Caused Switches to New Chemicals With Significant Environmental Benefits 2,500 2,000 U.S. Consumption Million Metric Tons CO 2 Equivalent 1,500 ODS Other 1,000 ODS Ref/AC 500 Service HFC Ref/AC Service HFC Other ODS Ref/AC New HFC Ref/AC New 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
  • 10. Regulatory Tools to Reduce ODS/GHG Emissions & Encourage Smooth Transitions Conserve and Manage Existing Supplies  U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA) Title VI  Section 604/605 phaseout on production and consumption of ODS  Section 608 safe disposal requirements  Safe disposal requirements for small appliances and motor vehicle air conditioners at end-of-life  Section 609 motor vehicle a/c service requirements  Restriction on the sale of small cans of CFC-12  Required technician training  Mandatory service requirements for MVACs  Section 612 identify safer alternatives to ODS in Ref A/C systems (SNAP)  R-152a (Aug 2008)  R-744 (Mar 1994)  HFO-1234yf (Oct 2009)  Complementary voluntary programs that encourage safer outcomes  Mobile Air Conditioning Climate Protection Partnership  GreenChill for Supermarkets  Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) program
  • 11. Step 1- Phaseout Manufacture and Import January 1, 1994; 75% for CFC January 1, 1996; 100% for CFCs January 1, 2010; 75% HCFC-22 January 1, 2015; 90% for HCFC-22 January 1, 2020; 100% for HCFC-22 Excise tax $12/lb on CFC
  • 12. Step 2- Conserve Existing Stocks  No ban on continued use of CFC or HFC in existing MVACs  Use of existing technology still allowed  Focus is on conservation and recovery/recycling/reclamatio n/reuse  Service requirements and end-of-life recovery
  • 13. Acceptable Alternatives Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program No mandate on alternative selection Suite of alternatives for use in retrofit/new MVAC Option to revisit alternatives as technology evolves
  • 14. MVAC Refrigerants  CFC-12 (or R-12)  100 yr atmospheric lifetime  Potent ozone depleting potential (ODP = 1.0 )  Also contributes to climate change (GWP ~ 10,890 WMO)  HFC-134a (or R-134a)  14 yr atmospheric lifetime  Non-ODS (ODP = 0)  Greenhouse gas (GWP ~ 1400)  Future in U.S.??  HR 2454 and other previous House and Senate bills signal need for low GWP alternatives  Need to expand the suite of potential alternatives
  • 15. Regulatory Considerations  Listing of acceptable refrigerants in MVACs  Concern is recovery of blends or concern for reverse retrofit if new options are scarce or too expensive  Infrastructure for reclamation or destruction – financial incentive/disincentive for service technicians (sales restriction, cylinder return, tax)  Ability to destroy blends at service/end-of-life
  • 16. Statutory Requirements  CAA 609 no later than 1991 required EPA to promulgate regulations establishing standards and requirements regarding the servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners  No person repairing or servicing motor vehicles for consideration may perform any service on a motor vehicle air conditioner involving the refrigerant for such air conditioner without properly using approved refrigerant recycling equipment and no such person may perform such service unless such person has been properly trained and certified.  Certification that each person performing service on motor vehicle air conditioners for consideration shall certify to EPA that they have acquired, and are properly using approved refrigerant recycling equipment in service on motor vehicle air conditioners involving refrigerant and that each individual authorized by such person to perform such service is properly trained and certified  Prohibit the sale and distribution of any ozone depleting refrigerant suitable for use in an MVAC in a container which contains less than 20 pounds of such refrigerant.
  • 17. Expanding Alternatives Menu: Some ref/AC transitioned to high-GWP HFCs; some are moving beyond ‣Current SNAP activities includes evaluating substitutes that, compared to current options, offer significantly lower- or no-GWP options: ‣HFO-1234yf NPRM proposed for MVACs, final rule under development ‣Supports OTAQ GHG rule ‣CO2 NODA issued for MVACs, final rule under development ‣CO2 found acceptable (Notice 24) for commercial refrigeration ‣HC domestic refrigeration NPRM issued 5/10/10 ‣Key sectors still need choices, i.e., unitary
  • 18. What’s Ahead for SNAP: Expanded Menu Some ref/AC uses have transitioned from ODS to HFCs; some have not Consumption Reductions (MMTCO2eq)  SNAP evaluating substitutes that, 25 compared to current options, offer significantly lower- or no-GWP choices  Lower-GWP alternatives in SNAP review 14 (examples):  Hydrocarbon (HC) ice cream cabinets  HCs for refrigerators, freezers, self- contained refrigeration equipment, and window AC units  Residential refrigerator/freezer with HC refrigerant  New motor vehicle air conditioning (MVAC) alternative with 99.7% lower GWP  Supermarket refrigeration using CO2 as a 0 refrigerant  MVAC using R-1234yf, HFC-152a (finalized) or CO2
  • 19. Title VI Regulatory Initiatives & Mobile Air Conditioning Climate Protection Partnership  SNAP Program  International standard for ODS alternatives review  Menu approach not mandate or endorsement of specific alternatives  Next generation of air conditioning technology- HFO -1234yf  Component of OTAQ rulemaking on tailpipe emissions reduction  PMN under TSCA still ongoing  SNAP review still ongoing  Sec 608/609 Service Practices to reduce emissions of CFC-12 and HFC-134a  Work with MACS and SAE to adopt recovery/recycling equipment standards into regulation  Adopted MACS training requirements into mandatory technician certification program  Mandatory recovery of refrigerant prior to auto shredding or crushing  MAACPP reduces the environmental impact of mobile air conditioning  recovery and recycling of CFC-12 and HFC-134a refrigerants  development of new, environmentally superior air conditioning technologies  increased cooling efficiency  improved service procedures  end-of-life servicing  MAACPP provided  Partnership with industry groups  Research cooperation  Development and testing of next-generation mobile air conditioning systems, and  Technical assistance
  • 20. Next Steps Julius Banks Team Lead, Refrigerant Recovery and Recycling Programs U.S. EPA Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Stratospheric Protection Division (202) 343-9870 banks.julius@epa.gov www.epa.gov/ozone/strathome.html