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India’s mobile air conditioning study


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India’s Mobile Air-conditioning (MAC) Study …

India’s Mobile Air-conditioning (MAC) Study

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  • 1. India’s Mobile Air-conditioning (MAC) Study By Sridhar Chidambaram Associate Fellow, TERI India Policy Workshop on the Status of MAC replacement Technologies New Delhi, India 7 – 8th June 2010
  • 2. India MAC study: Overview  Workshop organized by TERI and UNEP on “ Technology Cooperation of Next Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Systems” in March 2005  Workshop recommended that India’s Mobile Air-Conditioning assessment study  The study was awarded in September, 2005 by UNED-DTIE to TERI; US EPA funded NREL work.  National Steering Committee (Chaired by MOEF, Government of India) formed to guide the development, generations and analysis of data (Members : MOEF, SIAM, MAC Mfrs, Auto Mfrs, ARAI, IIP, IIT, CIRT, TERI)  Data Collection by TERI  Analysis of Data by TERI and NREL
  • 3. Objective of the study  Estimation of fuel for MAC using computer models  Analyze suitability of various refrigerants and MAC technologies for use in India.  Benefits expected : Fuel conservation and reduction in GHG emission
  • 4. Estimation of Fuel consumption for MAC
  • 5. Computer Model Approach Thermal Comfort Model ADVISOR 2004 Indian Metrological data Automobile Tech. ( Relative humidity % Dry Bulb Temperature etc.,) Specification & Indian Driving Cycle Mean vote of people Predicted acc. to the ASHRAE Mean Vote thermal sensation Index (PMV) scale (-3 to +3) Fuel Economy Fuel Economy with A/C without A/C Predicted Percentage of dissatisfaction (PPD) % of time AC Fuel Consumption for turned on A/C Total Traveled Distance Total Traveled distance Total Fuel Consumption For with A/C on MAC system
  • 6. Flow chart for “Thermal Comfort Model” Thermal comfort Model Air Temperature Energy Balance: Mean Radiant Temperature •Internal heat production Predicted Mean Vote Humidity Ratio •Water vapor diffusion through (PMV) skin heat loss Air Velocity Predicted (Assume 0.1 m/s) •Sweating heat loss Percent •Respiration latent and dry heat loss Dissatisfied Activity (met) (1.5 met driving) (PPD) •Convection heat loss Clothing •Radiation heat loss (Assume 0.6)
  • 7. Snap shot of ADVISOR 2004
  • 8. Data Inputs for the Models  Thermal comfort model  Indian meteorological data for 9 selected cities (Source: ISHRAE, TERI )  Population of passenger vehicles (2005-2015) (Source: SIAM, TERI)  ADVISOR (ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR)  Technical specification of passenger car model (Source: Hyundai, Tata Motors, Subros, Sanden Vikas)  Indian driving cycle (Source: ARAI)
  • 9. Indian Climate Data for the study  Nine (9) cities selected based on climate zones  These cities account for 80% of vehicle population in India
  • 10. Data on Air-conditioned Car Population  Car sales during 2007 to 2015 was predicted by using LOG LINEAR method which measures the demand of cars based on the per-capita income and urbanization index  Passenger cars with AC model was calculated by assuming  65 % of passenger car is with a/c model in 2002-04  75% of passenger car in 2005 –08  85% of passenger car in 2009-10  100% of passenger car in 2011-15
  • 11. Indian Driving Cycle
  • 12. Selection of Car model for Data Collection  Two compact car models selected – one on Gasoline and one on Diesel, based on car sales which was 58% for these cars only  Finally one on Gasoline (Hyundai Santro) selected for the study  This is a sub A class vehicle in USA or EU  Technical specifications of the car (46.43 kW engine) and it’s a/c compressor (110 CC)  A/C based on HFC-134a system
  • 13. Result from NREL’s Computer Models Fuel Economy of Indian passenger car (compact size) 25 19.9 km/liter 20 15.5 km/liter Fuel economy 15 10 5 0 Without A/C With A/C
  • 14. NREL Studies on Fuel use of MAC in a Vehicle Country % of fuel used by MAC USA 5.5 Japan 3.4 European Union 3.2 India 19.4* (this study) • Reason being high temperature and humidity, high cooling hours, smaller cars and road congestions
  • 15. Magnitude of fuel saving and CO2 reduction (year 2005)  The usage of fuel for MAC in India was estimated to 1,215 million liters of gasoline  The use of improved HFC-134a could reduce the fuel consumption by 30 % or 316 million liters of fuel (As per SAE’s I-MAC Co-operative Research Program)  The equivalent GHG reduction potential is 736,000 MT of CO2 (2.33 kg of CO2 / liter of gasoline)
  • 16. Thank You !!