MAC and evironment India

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Board California's Regulatory Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions fromMobile Air Conditioning

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MAC and evironment India

  1. 1. MAC and Environment: India Policy Workshop on the status of MAC Replacement Technologies New Delhi, India, June 7-8, 2010 California‟s Regulatory Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) California Air Resources Board 1
  2. 2. Overview • Background • Proposed California MAC regulations • California mitigation program for stationary refrigeration 2
  3. 3. California 2006 GHG Emissions (480 MMTCO2E) Transportation 40% Other High GWP 1% Electricity (In State) 12% Other HFC-134a High GWP 1% 3% Electricity (Imports) 10% Mobile HFC-134a Industrial Residential 1% 21% 6% Commercial California new car sales: 3% ~ 1.5 million/yr (~ 9% of US total) Agriculture & Forestry 5% 3
  4. 4. Global Benefit from HFC-134a Phaseout in Mobile Air Conditioning 400 BAU Global Emissions (MMTCO 2 E/year) 350 US & EU HFC Phase-out Global HFC Phase-out 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2015 2020 2025 2030 Year 4
  5. 5. MAC Refrigerant Mass Balance Mass in = Mass out Initial OEM charge in new vehicle System leak System accidental breach End of Life Re-charge: 1) Professional servicing Servicing leak 2) Do-it-yourself Container heel To MVAC To environment Not addressed 5
  6. 6. California Strategies to Reduce MAC Emissions New vehicles In-Use Fleet End-of-Life Vehicle GHG Emissions Regulation on small Enforce federal “no Standard (AB 1493) cans of HFC-134a venting” rule for (2004) for Do-it-yourselfers HFCs (2009) Environmental Performance Label Decommissioned Include AC leak test refrigerated (2007) & repair in I&M shipping containers Program Low-Emission Vehicle (Smog Check) Standard, LEV III (2010) Requirements for professional Adopted HD and off-road fleet servicing (Under development Proposed by US EPA) Planned 6
  7. 7. Evolution of Regulations 2009 2012 2017 MY MY MY CA AB 1493 LEV III MAC improvement earns a credit for Mandatory: GHG emissions • Low GWP refrigerant • Low leak • Indirect emissions limit New Federal Rule to US EPA Federal Rule Align with LEV III? Similar to California AB 1493 approach (credit method) via the „Rose Garden Agreement‟ 7
  8. 8. LEV III MAC Requirement 1: GWP ≤ 150 (100% for 2017 MY) • Provides a nearly 90% direct emission reduction • Industry can choose from 3 SNAP approved refrigerants (HFC-152a, R744, and HFO-1234yf) • Movement toward use of low-GWP refrigerant • Harmonizes with EU 8
  9. 9. LEV III AC Requirement 2: Fleet Average Leak Rate ≤ 9 g/yr • Low leak rate is important to maintain efficiency and reduce maintenance costs • Leak rate is evaluated using SAE J2727-type standards for AC using low-GWP refrigerants • 9 g/yr (refrigerant) is achievable – 18 g/yr per US EPA, 50% reduction feasible per I-MAC – Commercially available AC platforms using premium technologies can achieve 9 g/yr, per Pavley/EPL AC certification – Industry moving toward use of better technologies – Electric compressor market share will likely grow (with growth of hybrid/electric vehicles), thus further lower leakage 9
  10. 10. LEV III MAC Requirement 3: Indirect Emissions Standard • ARB is proposing to develop a fleet average AC indirect emissions standard – Evaluate through a Whole-Vehicle Performance Test Procedure • ARB will propose initial adoption of US EPA‟s Idle Test procedure and AC Efficiency Credits scheme as a placeholder – Amend the regulation after developing a performance test procedure and AC indirect emissions standard in 2012 • Performance test benefits – Able to evaluate all current and new technologies under realistic solar load and driving conditions – Enforceable 10
  11. 11. LEV III MAC Requirement 3 (Cont.): Proposed Performance Test Procedure • Elements of proposed test procedure: – Simulate solar load (e.g., 1-2 hour soak at 850 W m-2) – Moderate ambient cell conditions (e.g., 25⁰C, 50% RH) – Transient test cycle (e.g., SC03) – Evaluate AC during both initial cool down and steady state temperature control • Difference between CO2 from AC-off cycle and CO2 from the weighted average of AC-on cycles (cool down and steady state) must be  the standard SC03 Driving Cycle 11
  12. 12. Measures for Stationary Refrigeration • Refrigerant Management Program – Expands U.S. EPA Section 608 rules to include HFCs for stationary sources • Specifications for New Commercial Refrigeration Systems – Develop California Building Standards for new commercial refrigeration systems to reduce the overall GHG impact due to refrigerant leaks and energy use • Residential Refrigeration Program – Increase comprehensive recycling of residential refrigerator-freezers to recover both refrigerant and foam expansion agent 12
  13. 13. Summary • California developed first comprehensive MAC regulation to address both direct GHG emissions and MAC fuel efficiency • Global GHG emissions will continue to increase due to expanding market in developing countries. ARB continues to show leadership to mitigate GHG emissions, but needs international involvement to accomplish the greatest reduction • ARB staff can provide assistance to other countries, based on our experience 13
  14. 14. ARB Contact Dr. Tao Huai Manager, Climate Change Mitigation and Emissions Research Section, Research Division California Air Resources Board California Environmental Protection Agency thuai@arb.ca.gov (916) 324-2981 More about the topic: http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/hfc-mac/hfc-mac.htm 14

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