zon
e                        vital ozone
                         graphics 2.0
                         climate link

 res...
vital ozone                                                              UNEP is the world’s leading intergovernmental env...
contents
6
8
               con
   01 the hole a damaged UV shield
   02 the culprits ozone depleting substances
14 03 int...
ord
foreword to the second edition
The efforts of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol have, over more than
20 years, tran...
for
On 16 September 1987, the treaty known as the Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed ...
01
6




                                                      a damaged uv shield
    Hovering some 10 to 16 kilometres a...
7




THE ANTARCTIC HOLE
                       THE ANTARCTIC HOLE                                                        ...
02
8




    ozone depleting substances
                                      the culprits
    When they were discovered i...
9


                                                                                                                      ...
02
10




     cooling equipment
     Demand for refrigerators and air-conditioning systems is soaring. This is
     partl...
11
               GROWTH OF REFRIGERATION                                                                 AIR CONDITIONING...
02
12




     methyl bromide
     Methyl bromide, a substance used in agriculture, and also in food
     processing, acco...
nitrous oxide
                                                02
Most people know nitrous oxide as laughing gas that denti...
03
14




     interlinked
          destruction
          higher temperatures, polar
     stratospheric clouds
          ...
15




OZONE DEPLETION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
16




     THE “HOLE”: A RESULT OF SPECIAL WEATHER CONDITIONS OVER THE POLE
     REPEATED THE “HOLE”: A RESULT OF SPECIAL...
consequences
   and effects 1
uv radiation and ecosystems
                                              04
We are particul...
05
18




     consequences
       and effects 2
     uv radiation and human health


     We need the sun: psychologicall...
19




                       VULNERABILITIES                                       VULNERABILITIES

                     ...
20




     Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation
     Per million inhabitants per year
     0        ...
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists
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Includes details on the latest decisions taken by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol to accelerate HCFC phase out and outlines the implications this has on the use of replacement chemicals. The Resource Kit also focuses on the linkages and interconnections between ozone depletion and climate change – and the remaining challenges posed by the considerable amounts of ODS remaining in equipment around the world.

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Vital Ozone Graphics 2.0 - Climate Link is a Resource Kit for Journalists

  1. 1. zon e vital ozone graphics 2.0 climate link resource kit for journalists UNEP DTIE OzonAction
  2. 2. vital ozone UNEP is the world’s leading intergovernmental environmental or- ganisation. The mission of UNEP is to provide leadership and en- graphics 2.0 courage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, in- forming, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality climate link of life without compromising that of future generations. www.unep.org Copyright © 2009 The UNEP DTIE OzonAction Branch assists developing countries UNEP, GRID-Arendal and Zoï Environment Network and countries with economies in transition (CEITs) to enable them to achieve and sustain compliance with the Montreal Protocol. ISBN: 978-82-7701-072-4 The Branch supports UNEP’s mandate as an implementing agen- cy of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. This is a joint publication of the Division of Technology, Industry www.unep.fr/ozonaction and Economics (DTIE) OzonAction Branch, GRID-Arendal and Zoï Environment Network. UNEP/GRID-Arendal is an official UNEP centre located in South- ern Norway. Grid-Arendal’s mission is to provide environmental United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) information, communications and capacity building services for in- United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 20552, Nairobi, Kenya formation management and assessment. The centre’s core focus is to facilitate the free access and exchange of information to support UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics decision making to secure a sustainable future. 15 rue de Milan, 75441 Paris, Cedex 09, France www.grida.no UNEP/GRID-Arendal Zoï Environment Network is a Geneva-based international non-profit Postboks 183, N-4802 Arendal, Norway organisation with a mission to reveal, explain and communicate the connections between the Environment and Society and to promote Zoï Environment Network practical policy solutions to the complex international challenges. 9, ch. de Balexert, Chatelaine, Geneva, CH-1219 Switzerland www.zoinet.org This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part in any form Disclaimer: for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this pub- from the copyright holders, provided acknowledgement of the lication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any of the United Nations Environment Programme concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning material that uses this publication as a source. delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Mention of a commercial com- pany or product does not imply endorsement by the cooperating partners. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any com- We regret any errors or omissions that may unwittingly have been made. mercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in written form Moreover, the views expressed do not necessarily represent the decision or from the copyright holders. The use of information from this publica- the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, nor does tion concerning proprietary products for advertising is not permitted. citing of trade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement.
  3. 3. contents 6 8 con 01 the hole a damaged UV shield 02 the culprits ozone depleting substances 14 03 interlinked destruction higher temperatures, polar stratospheric clouds and a changing climate 17 04 consequences and effects 1 uv radiation and ecosystems 18 05 consequences and effects 2 uv radiation and human health 21 06 mobilization 1 sun protection and sensitization projects 22 07 mobilization 2 successful environmental diplomacy 26 08 mobilization 3 pledging funds for patching the hole 28 09 learning from montreal 1 the secret to success 30 10 learning from montreal 2 how does phasing out ozone depleters hit the temperature brake? 32 11 the legacy ods banks 34 12 side effects illegal trade in ozone depleting substances acknowledgements second and totally revised edition prepared by comments second edition Claudia Heberlein (text and editing), Zoï Environment Julia Anne Dearing, Multilateral Fund Secretariat Emmanuelle Bournay (cartographics), Zoï Environment James S. Curlin, OzonAction Branch Samira de Gobert, OzonAction Branch copy editing Etienne Gonin, consultant Harry Forster, Interrelate, F-Grenoble This publication was produced with financial support from the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. prepared by comments and assistance Emmanuelle Bournay (cartoGraphics) Robert Bisset, UNEP DTIE Claudia Heberlein (text and editing) Ezra Clark, Environmental Investigation Agency Karen Landmark Julia Anne Dearing, Multilateral Fund Secretariat John Bennett, Bennett&Associates Anne Fenner, OzonAction Branch Samira de Gobert, OzonAction Branch copy editing and translations Balaji Natarajan, Compliance Assistance Programme Harry Forster, Interrelate, F-Grenoble K.M. Sarma, Senior Expert Michael Williams, UNEP Geneva overall supervision Sylvie Lemmet, UNEP DTIE UNEP DTIE, GRID-Arendal and Zoï Environment wish to Rajendra Shende, OzonAction Branch thank all of above contributors for helping to make this James S. Curlin, OzonAction Branch publication possible.
  4. 4. ord foreword to the second edition The efforts of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol have, over more than 20 years, translated scientific realities into political decisions leading to concrete action on the ground. The experience of this Protocol can act as both guide and inspiring example of the multilateral system at its best, and should help build confidence for future multilateral environmental agreements. That confidence was given a boost when countries under the Montreal Protocol decided to take quick and early action down the path to ending HCFC consumption and produc- This second, revised edition of “Vital Ozone Graphics” sheds a light onto the latest decisions taken by the Par- ties to the Montreal Protocol to accelerate the phase out tion. These actions, however, must be taken in the spirit of a of HCFCs and the implications this has on the use of new era in which the world embraces the absolute need for replacement chemicals. It also focuses on the links to ‘green growth’ – growth that casts off the ‘business as usual’ climate both physically up in the air and on the insti- approach and accelerates us down the path to low-carbon, tutional ground of international treaty negotiations and resource-efficient economies with an intelligent manage- discusses the remaining challenges posed by the large ment of natural and nature-based assets. Indeed, the accel- amounts of ozone killer banks still present in equipment erated action on HCFCs will achieve maximum benefits in in use and stocked away, only safe for the atmosphere terms of ozone and climate if the phase-out is accompanied once entirely destroyed. by improvements in areas such as energy efficiency and the adoption of alternate technologies. The world has an 10+ new maps and graphics accompany the entirely up- unparalleled opportunity to simultaneously eliminate ozone dated graphical material making it “Vital ozone graphics depleting substances, reap climate benefits, and improve 2.0 – Climate link.” energy efficiency and stimulate growth in green jobs. a note for journalists Vital Ozone Graphics is designed to be a practical tool for designed in such a way that they can easily be trans- journalists who are interested in developing stories related lated into local languages. The on-line version also fea- to ozone depletion and the Montreal Protocol. Besides tures additional materials such as story ideas, contacts, providing a basic introduction to the subject, this publica- a comprehensive glossary and more links to informa- tion is meant to encourage journalists to seek further in- tion related to the ozone hole. formation from expert sources and to provide ready-made visual explantions that can be incorporated into an article. UNEP DTIE OzonAction, UNEP/GRID-Arendal and Zoï Environment Network would appreciate receiving a All of the graphics are available online free of charge copy of any material using these graphics. Please send at www.vitalgraphics.net/ozone. The graphics can be an e-mail to ozonaction@unep.fr, ozone@grida.no and downloaded in different formats and resolutions, and are enzoi@zoinet.org.
  5. 5. for On 16 September 1987, the treaty known as the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed into existence by a group of concerned countries that felt compelled to take action to solve an alarming international environmental crisis: the depletion of the Earth’s protective ozone layer. Since that humble beginning two decades ago, this treaty has taken root, grown and finally blossomed into what has been described as “Perhaps the single most successful international environmental agreement to date”. It has become an outstanding example of developing and developed country partnership, foreword a clear demonstration of how global environmental problems can be managed when all countries make determined efforts to implement internationally-agreed frameworks. But why has it worked so well, how has it impacted our lives, what work lies before us, and what lessons we can learn from it? The story of the Montreal Protocol is really a collective of they need to start developing their own ozone story ideas. hundreds of compelling and newsworthy individual stories The graphics and figures can be used in articles ready- which are waiting for the right voice. There are caution- made. We want the information in this publication and the ary tales of the need to avoid environmental problems at associated web site to inform and inspire journalists to go the start. There are inspiring stories of partnership, innova- out and investigate this story and to tell the ozone tale – the tion and countries working together for the common good. good and the bad – to readers, viewers or listeners. There are stories of hope, of humanity being able to suc- cessfully reverse a seemingly insurmountable environmen- Vital Ozone Graphics was produced jointly by the Ozon- tal problem while balancing economic and societal needs. Action Branch of UNEP’s Division on Technology, Industry Beyond numbers and statistics, the Montreal Protocol is and Economics (DTIE) and UNEP/GRID-Arendal, as part of above all a story with a human face, showing how the con- an initiative to engage journalists on the ozone story, with sequences of a global environmental issue can affect us as support provided by the Multilateral Fund for the Imple- individuals – our health, our families our occupations, our mentation of the Montreal Protocol. communities – and how we as individuals can be part of the solution. While specifically targeted at members of the media, we believe that anyone interested in learning about the Mon- This year, the 20th anniversary of this landmark agreement, treal Protocol and ozone layer depletion will find this publi- affords us all the opportunity to investigate these stories. cation to be an interesting and insightful reference. Each country and region, their institutions and individuals, have all made major contributions to the protection of the I hope the reading of the coming pages is not only enjoy- ozone layer, and their stories must be told. We want to en- able, but will stimulate the creative juices of the media and list the help of journalists in telling this story, and through trigger broader coverage of the ozone protection efforts this publication, we are trying to assist in these broad com- in newspapers and on radio, TV and the Internet across munications efforts. around globe. This Vital Ozone Graphics, the youngest product in a series Achim Steiner, of Vital Graphics on environmental issues, provides journal- United Nations Under-Secretary General ists with the essential visuals, facts, figures and contacts Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme
  6. 6. 01 6 a damaged uv shield Hovering some 10 to 16 kilometres above the planet’s surface, the ozone layer filters out dangerous ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, thus about 400 million years ago, essentially remaining undisturbed for most of that time. In 1974, two chemists from the University of California startled the world community with the discovery that emissions of man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a widely used group of industrial chemicals, might be threatening the ozone layer. The scientists, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina, pos- the hole protecting life on Earth. Scientists believe that the ozone layer was formed The discovery of the “ozone hole” alarmed the general tulated that when CFCs reach the stratosphere, UV radiation public and governments and paved the way for the adop- from the sun causes these chemically-stable substances to tion in 1987 of the treaty now known as the Montreal decompose, leading to the release of chlorine atoms. Once Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. freed from their bonds, the chlorine atoms initiate a chain Thanks to the Protocol’s rapid progress in phasing out reaction that destroys substantial amounts of ozone in the the most dangerous ozone-depleting substances, the stratosphere. The scientists estimated that a single chlorine ozone layer is expected to return to its pre-1980s state atom could destroy as many as 100,000 ozone molecules. by 2060–75, more than 70 years after the international The theory of ozone depletion was confirmed by many sci- community agreed to take action. The Montreal Protocol entists over the years. In 1985 ground-based measurements has been cited as “perhaps the single most successful by the British Antarctic Survey recorded massive ozone loss international environmental agreement to date” and an (commonly known as the “ozone hole”) over the Antarctic, example of how the international community can suc- providing further confirmation of the discovery. These results cessfully cooperate to solve seemingly intractable global were later confirmed by satellite measurements. environmental challenges. Daily measurements OZONE HOLE SIZE Million square kilometres The hole almost reached 30 million km2 30 at the end of September 2006. Yearly averages (August to November mean area size for each year) Range of value 25 fluctuation Million square kilometres between 1979 and 2006 Years for which the hole was exceptionally small: 20 2006 20 1988 1993 2002 2004 15 15 10 2007 10 Average 5 5 1979-2006 0 0 July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 Antarctic Spring Sources: US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements; US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007. The extent of ozone depletion for any given period depends on complex interaction between chemical and climatic factors such as temperature and wind. The unusually high levels of depletion in 1988, 1993 and 2002 were due to early warming of the polar stratosphere caused by air disturbances originating in mid-latitudes, rather than by major changes in the amount of reactive chlorine and bromine in the Antarctic stratosphere.
  7. 7. 7 THE ANTARCTIC HOLE THE ANTARCTIC HOLE CHEMICAL OZONE DESTRUCTION PROCESS CHEMICAL OZONE DESTRUCTION PROCESS October 1981 October 1991 IN THETHE STRATOSPHERE IN STRATOSPHERE Altitude Australia Australia Kilometers Tasmania Tasmania 50 STRATO South America South America Antarctic 40 SPHERE Antarctic UV rays HOLE 2 -...RELEASING HOLE 1 - UV RAYS CHLORINE BREAK DOWN CFC MOLECULES... Cl 30 Total ozone column: 220 310 390 430 Dobson Units (monthly averages) Ozone O3 Less More ozone layer 20 3 - CHLORINE BREAKS DOWN September 24, 2006 CFCs OZONE MOLECULES 10 HCFCs ODS release N20 TROPO Methyl 0 Halons bromide SPHERE 220 0 10 20 30 40 Dobson Units Ozone amounts Pressure, milli-pascals HOLE stratospheric ozone, tropospheric ozone and the ozone “hole” Ozone forms a layer in the stratosphere, thinnest in the tropics and denser towards the poles. Ozone is created when ultraviolet radiation (sunlight) strikes From September 21-30, 2006, the average area of the ozone hole the stratosphere, dissociating (or “splitting”) oxygen was the largest ever observed. molecules (O2 ) into atomic oxygen (O). The atomic Source: US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements; US National Aeronautics and Space oxygen quickly combines with oxygen molecules to Administration (NASA), 2007. form ozone (O3). The amount of ozone above a point on the earth’s surface is measured in Dobson units (DU) – it is typically ~260 DU near the tropics and higher elsewhere, though there are large seasonal fluctuations. The ozone layer over the Antarctic has been thinning steadily since the ozone loss predicted in the 1970s The ozone hole is defined as the surface of the Earth was first observed in 1985. The area of land below the covered by the area in which the ozone concentra- ozone-depleted atmosphere increased steadily to en- tion is less than 220 DU. The largest area observed compass more than 20 million square kilometres in the in recent years covered 25 million square kilometres, early 1990s, and has varied between 20 and 29 million which is nearly twice the area of the Antarctic. The square kilometres since then. Despite progress achieved lowest average values for the total amount of ozone under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone “hole” over the inside the hole in late September dropped below Antarctic was larger than ever in September 2006. This 100 DU. was due to particularly cold temperatures in the strat- osphere, but also to the chemical stability of ozone- At ground level, ozone is a health hazard – it is a depleting substances – it takes about 40 years for them major constituent of photochemical smog. Motor to break down. While the problem is worst in the polar vehicle exhaust and industrial emissions, gasoline areas, particularly over the South Pole because of the vapors, and chemical solvents as well as natural extremely low atmospheric temperature and the pres- sources emit NOx and volatile organic compounds ence of stratospheric clouds, the ozone layer is thinning (VOCs) that help form ozone. Ground-level ozone is all over the world outside of the tropics. During the Arctic the primary constituent of smog. Sunlight and hot spring the ozone layer over the North Pole has thinned weather cause ground-level ozone to form in harmful by as much as 30 per cent. Depletion over Europe and concentrations in the air. other high latitudes has varied from 5 to 30 per cent.
  8. 8. 02 8 ozone depleting substances the culprits When they were discovered in the 1920s, CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODS) were “wonder” chemicals. They were neither flammable nor toxic, were stable for long periods and ideally suited for countless applications. By 1974, when scientists discovered that CFCs could destroy ozone molecules and damage the shield protecting our atmosphere, they had become an integral part of modern life. We would get up in the morning from a mattress contain- ing CFCs and turn on a CFC-cooled air conditioner. The hot water in the bathroom was supplied by a heater in- sulated with CFC-containing foam, and the aerosol cans containing deodorant and hair spray used CFC propel- lants. Feeling hungry we would open the fridge, also chilled with CFCs. Methyl bromide had been used to grow those tempting strawberries, not to mention many other food- stuffs consumed every day. Nor would there be any es- cape in the car, with CFCs nesting in the safety foam in the PRODUCTION OF MAIN ODS GASES dashboard and steering wheel. At work it was much the same, with halons used extensively for fire protection in offices and business premises, as well as in data centres and power stations. Ozone depleting solvents were used in dry cleaning, and to clean metal parts in almost all elec- tronic devices, refrigerating equipment and cars. They also played a part in tasks such as laminating wood for desks, bookshelves and cupboards. Since the discovery of their destructive nature, other sub- stances have gradually replaced ODS. In some cases it is difficult to find and costly to produce replacements, which may have undesirable side-effects or may not be applicable for every use. Experts and the public need to remain vigilant to ensure replacements do not cause ad- verse health effects, safety concerns, or other environ- mental damage (for example global warming). As is often the case, the last mile on the road to complete elimination is the most difficult one. Thousand ODP Tonnes * 1 000 Total reported production 900 of Ozone Depleting Substances 800 Please note that, as new countries ratified 700 Montreal Protocol, the number of reported national production increases. Therefore the total production does not 600 correspond to the same number of countries in 1990 and 2007. 500 400 300 200 100 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007 * Tonnes multiplied by the ozone depleting potential of the considered gas. Source: United Nations Environment Programme Ozone Secretariat, 2009.
  9. 9. 9 CFC END USES ODS can escape during use (for example when used in aerosol sprays), or are released at IN THE US INUSES CFC END 1987 the end of the lifetime of a equipment if proper care is not taken during its disposal. They IN THE US IN 1987 can be captured, recycled and re-used if proper procedures are followed by servicing technicians and equipment owners. Disposing of ODS is possible, though it is relatively In percentage costly and laborious. These chemicals must be destroyed using one of the destruction of all CFC uses processes approved by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. 100% Aerosols * 3.5% Medical sterilants Most commonly used ozone depleting substances and their replacements 6.5% Use ODS Characteristics Alternatives Other refrigeration Refrigeration and air CFC 11, 12, 113, Long‑lived, non‑toxic, non‑cor‑ HFCs, hydrocarbons, ammonia, water conditioning 114, 115 rosive, and non‑flammable. They Alternative technologies: gas‑fired air are also versatile. Depending on conditioning, adsorption chillers 17% the type of CFC, they remain in the atmosphere from between 50 to 1700 years HCFC 22, 123, 124 Deplete the ozone layer, but to HFCs, hydrocarbons, ammonia, water Car air conditioning a much lesser extent. They are Alternative technologies: gas‑fired air being phased out as well. conditioning, adsorption chillers Aerosols CFC 11, 12, 114 see above Alternative technologies: gas‑fired air 20% conditioning, adsorption chillers Foam blowing/rigid CFC 11, 12, 113 see above Non‑foam insulation, HFCs, hydrocar‑ insulation foams HCFC 22, 141b, 142b bons, CO2, 2‑chloropropane 50% Solvents Fire extinction Halons (e.g. halon‑ Atmospheric lifetime of 65 Water, CO2, inert gases, foam, HFCs, 1301, halon‑1211) years fluorinated ketone Pest control/soil fumigation Methyl bromide Fumigant used to kill soil‑borne pests and diseases in crops prior No single alternative Integrated pest management systems 21% to planting and as disinfectants Artificial substrates in commodities such as stored Crop rotation grains or agricultural commodi‑ Phosphine, Chloropicrin, 1,3‑dichloropro‑ ties awaiting export. Takes about pene, Heat, Cold, CO2, Steam treatments 0.7 years to break down. and Combined/Controlled atmospheres Plastic foams Solvents (used for CFC 113, HCFC 141b, see above for CFC, HCFC Change to maintenance‑free or dry cleaning precision 225 processes, no‑clean flux, aqueous and parts) 1,1,1 trichloroethane semi‑aqueous systems Hydrocarbons Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) Chlorinated solvents (e.g. trichloroeth‑ 32% ylene) Volatile flammable solvents (e.g.methyl alcohol) Carbontetrachloride Close to zero flammability see above Toxic ODP 1.1 Low dissolving power 0% Forms poisonous phosgene under high temperatures in air. As its * Note that CFCs in aerosols were use as a feedstock results in the banned in the US in 1978. chemical being destroyed and not emitted, this use is not controlled Source: US Environmental Protection by the Montreal Protocol Agency, 1992 (cited by WRI 1996). Sources: US EPA 2006, www.Wikipedia.org, European Commission 2009. DESTRUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES
  10. 10. 02 10 cooling equipment Demand for refrigerators and air-conditioning systems is soaring. This is partly due to rising living standards spreading across the globe, partly to changing habits and standards of comfort. Furthermore, with a warmer climate the number of the world’s refrigerators (estimated at 1.5 to 1.8 thousand million) and its domestic and mobile (car) air-conditioners (respectively 1.1 thousand million and 400 million) is expected to rise dramatically as developing nations such as China and India modernize. This trend is causing two forms of collateral damage. the culprits senting 60 per cent of the total amount of refrigerants in use (see feature on ODS banks). Cooling equipment needs refrigerants. Commonly used cool- ing agents, when released into the air, either destroy ozone Ironically the success of the Montreal Protocol is causing en- molecules, contribute to warming the atmosphere, or both. vironmental negotiators an additional headache. In the initial With the Montreal Protocol the global community now virtual- phase of the treaty’s implementation, shifting to chemicals ly eliminated CFCs, the chemicals doing the most damage to with a lower ozone destruction potential was actively encour- the ozone layer. Their most common replacements, HCFCs, aged and even financially supported, because they allowed a also destroy the ozone layer, although to a far lesser extent. faster phase out of CFCs. The powerful warming potential of But even if the danger of a given amount of an HCFC gas is these new substances was not a major issue at the time. less than for the same amount of a CFC, the rise in the total amount in use worldwide has resulted in a stock of HCFCs In 2007 growing awareness of the dual threat from HCFCs that poses a comparable threat to the ozone layer and the prompted the parties to decide to speed up the phasing climate. According to the 2006 UNEP refrigeration assess- out of HCFCs. Factories that shifted to HCFC production ment report the CFC bank consists of approximately 450,000 from CFC will need to either close or continue production tonnes, 70 per cent of which is located in Article-5 countries. for non-controlled uses such as feedstock. If a “business HCFCs, which form the dominant refrigerant bank in terms of as usual” approach is taken, this will certainly lead to a quantity, are estimated at more than 1,500,000 tonnes, repre- surge in the use of HFCs. HFCs, however, are greenhouse gases thousands of times stronger than CO2. Unless meas- ures are taken to control HFCs specifically, the well-meant HCFC: A TRANSITIONAL SUBSTITUTE FOR CFC decision will have a huge negative effect on the climate. A IN THE REFRIGERATION SECTOR recent scientific study estimates that assuming that CO2 emissions will continue to grow at their current rate, HFCs will be responsible for 10 to 20 per cent of global warming by 2050. Emissions emanating from HFC releases could amount to 9 Gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent. On top of the growing direct effect of refrigeration equip- ment on the climate, their expansion increasingly affects the climate in an indirect way, as the growing number of refriger- ants and AC appliances increases the overall consumption of electricity. Potential reductions in power requirements for air-conditioner units and refrigerators derived from energy- efficient technology transferred to developping countries
  11. 11. 11 GROWTH OF REFRIGERATION AIR CONDITIONING IN SOUTHERN CHINA GROWTH OF REFRIGERATION AIR CONDITIONING IN SOUTHERN CHINA Index = 100 in 1995 Air conditioners in stock 400 Million units China Turkey 160 Projection Estimations for the 350 High following provinces: Fridges 140 Sichuan, Hubei, Zhejiang, 300 Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Poland 120 Fujian and Guangxi Romania 250 Mexico 100 Ukraine 200 80 Brazil Low 150 60 assumption Russia 100 40 Argentina 20 50 0 0 1990 2005 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 1995 2000 2005 2007 Source: International Energy Agency, Energy efficiency of air conditioners in developing Source: Industrial Commodity Statistics Database, United Nations Statistics Division 2009. countries and the role of CDM, 2007. would therefore have significant benefit. For example, based also being assessed, such as magnetic or solar refrigeration. on calculations from Chinese warm provinces these could The latter compensates the often higher energy demand for result in a reduction in total power generation of between 15 natural refrigerants by powering it with solar energy. and 38 per cent in the next 15 years in China, that is of up to 260 TWh – equivalent to the output from about 50 power plants with corresponding reductions in CO2 emissions. HCFCs and HFCs Less emissions despite higher con- Major application sectors using ODS and their HFC/ sumption? PFC substitutes include refrigeration, air-condition- Whatever the refrigerant used, there are many ways of limit- ing, foams, aerosols, fire protection, cleaning agents ing emissions, even with existing equipment. The first step and solvents. Emissions from these substances is to reduce leakage. Besides harming the ozone layer, leak- originate in manufacture and unintended releases, ing substances can harm the environment and our health. applications where emissions occur intentionally (like Refrigerant leakage could be reduced by 30 per cent by sprays), evaporation and leakage from banks (see 2020 by optimizing the seal on containers (refrigerant con- page 32) contained in equipment and products dur- tainment), particularly in mobile air-conditioners and com- ing use, testing and maintenance, and when products mercial refrigeration, but also by reducing the charge of are discarded after use without proper handling. refrigerants (optimization of indirect refrigeration systems, micro-channel heat exchangers, etc.). Proper maintenance The total positive direct radiative forcing due to in- and servicing of refrigerating plants (regular checks, sys- creases in industrially produced ODS and non-ODS tematic recovery, recycling, regeneration or destruction of halocarbons from 1750 to 2000 is estimated to rep- refrigerants) also helps. Lastly refrigeration professionals resent about 13 per cent of total GHG increases over should be appropriately trained and possibly certified. that period. Most halocarbon increases have occurred in recent decades. Atmospheric concentrations of Natural refrigerants CFCs were stable or decreasing in 2001–03 (0 to –3% In the search for alternatives to HFCs a great deal of atten- a year, depending on the specific gas) whereas halons tion has focused on naturally occurring refrigerants such as and their substitues, HCFCs and HFCs increased (Ha- ammonia, hydrocarbons (HCs) and carbon dioxide (CO2). lons 1 to 3 per cent, HCFCs 3 to 7 per cent and HFCs Their use is already quite common for selected applications 13 to 17 per cent per year). (e.g. HCs in domestic refrigeration) and is growing for others (e.g. CO2 in automobile or aeronautics applications). Barri- What are non-HFC replacements of HCFCs? ers to the spread of natural refrigerants are the lack of inter- Alternatives to HFCs are available across a wide va- national standards regulating their use, the need for training riety of sectors, especially domestic refrigeration, of servicing technicians and, in some cases, the need for commercial stand-alone refrigeration, large industrial updating safety standards. Typically a limit is placed on the refrigeration and polyurethane foams. When evaluat- maximum amount of refrigerant that the thermodynamic cy- ing a potential alternative to HCFCs it is necessary to cle may use. This implies that for applications with a high consider the overall environmental and health impact cooling demand the cycles have to be split up into several of the product, including energy consumption and ef- smaller ones, demanding more equipment. Natural refriger- ficiency. Ammonia and the hydrocarbons (HCs) substi- ants are competitive in most cases, even if technology still tutes have atmospheric life-times ranging from days to needs to be developed for certain uses. months, and the direct and indirect radiative forcings associated with their use as substitutes have a negli- New synthetic refrigerants are also on the horizon, such gible effect on global climate. They do, however, have as HFO-1234yf, which should be available in 2011 for air- health and safety issues that must be addressed. conditioning applications. Completely new technologies are
  12. 12. 02 12 methyl bromide Methyl bromide, a substance used in agriculture, and also in food processing, accounts currently for about 10 per cent of ozone depletion. As a pesticide it is widely used to control insect pests, weeds and rodents. It is used as a soil and structural fumigant too, and for commodity and quarantine treatment. Methyl bromide is manufactured from natural bromide salts, either found in underground brine deposits or in high concentrations above ground in sources such as the Dead Sea When used as a soil fumigant, methyl bromide gas is usually injected into the soil to a depth of 30 to 35 cm before planting. This effectively sterilizes the soil, killing the vast majority of organisms there. Strawberry and tomato crops use the most the culprits As the Montreal Protocol controls methyl bromide, emis- sions have declined significantly over the past decade. In non-Article 5 countries, the phase-out date was 2005, while Article-5 countries are allowed to continue production and methyl bromide. Other crops for which this pesticide is used consumption till 2015. The challenge is to eliminate its use as a soil fumigant include peppers, grapes, and nut and vine by gradually phasing out the amounts still allocated to a crops. When used to treat commodities, gas is injected into small number of non article-5 countries for critical uses. a chamber containing the goods, typically cut flowers, veg- etables, fruit, pasta or rice. Methyl bromide is also used by Both chemical and non-chemical alternatives to methyl bakeries, flour mills and cheese warehouses. Imported goods bromide exist, and several tools can manage the pests may be treated as part of the quarantine or phytosanitary currently controlled with methyl bromide. Research on al- measures in destination countries (referred to as “quarantine ternatives continues, it being necessary to demonstrate the and preshipment” applications). In any application, about 50 long-term performance of alternatives and satisfy risk con- to 95 per cent of the gas ultimately enters the atmosphere. cerns. As with CFC alternatives, researchers must show that alternative substances do not harm the ozone layer or Methyl bromide is toxic. Exposure to this chemical will affect heat up the atmosphere. This is the case for sulfuryl fluoride not only the target pests, but also other organisms. Because (SF), a key alternative to methyl bromide for the treatment methyl bromide dissipates so rapidly to the atmosphere, it is of many dry goods (in flour mills, food processing facilities most dangerous at the fumigation site itself. Human exposure and for household termite control). Recent publications to high concentrations of methyl bromide can result in failure indicate that SF has a global warming potential of about of the respiratory and central nervous systems, as well caus- 4,800, a value similar to that of CFC-11. Its concentration ing specific, severe damage to the lungs, eyes and skin. in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly. METHYL BROMIDE TRENDS
  13. 13. nitrous oxide 02 Most people know nitrous oxide as laughing gas that dentists use as an anaesthetic. But this is only a minor source of emissions. Deforestation, animal waste and bacterial decomposition of plant material in soils and streams emit up to two-thirds of atmospheric N2O. Unlike natural sources, emissions from human-related processes are steadily increasing, currently boosting the atmospheric concentration of N2O by roughly one percent every four years. NITROUS OXIDE: A MAJOR CULPRIT AFTER 2010 the culprits 13 * Tonnes multiplied by the ozone depleting potential of the considered gas. Source: A. R. Ravishankara, John S. Daniel, Robert W. Portmann, Nitrous oxide (N20): The Dominant Ozone-Depleting Substance Emitted in the 21st Century, Science, August 2009. ... MOSTLY RELEASED BY AGRICULTURE Annual global emissions are estimated at about 2 000 mil- ... MOSTLY RELEASED BY AGRICULTURE lion tonnes of CO2-equivalent. Now the main threat to the ozone layer, nitrous oxide is also a greenhouse gas. Lim- Nitrous oxide anthropogenic emissions iting its emissions yields a double benefit. With a global Million tonnes N20 emissions in the warming potential (GWP) of about 300, N2O accounts for 0 agricultural sector are projected almost eight per cent of GHG emissions. Nitrous oxide is to increase due to: not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, but falls under the 1 Kyoto Protocol. An unwanted side effect of the Montreal Growth in meat Agriculture Manure Protocol in stalling CFC emissions is that N2O can now de- consumption represents velop its ozone destructive potential more effectively. (See 2 (more manure almost 80 % of explanation in the graph). Together with the rising concen- produced) all anthropogenic trations this could slow the ozone layer’s recovery. 3 N2O emitted options for control Fertilizers Biofuel crops area extension 4 (more fertilizers used) Because many N2O releases are diffuse, limiting them will be much more challenging than simply controlling indus- 5 trial processes. Farming is a growing source of N2O emis- Industry and transport sions. Widespread and often poorly controlled use of ani- mal waste as a fertilizer also causes substantial emissions. 6 Biomass burning Applying fertilizer dosages in line with demand and what the soil can absorb significantly reduces N2O emissions 7 and at the same time addresses high nitrate levels in drink- Source: Eric A. Davidson, The contribution of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to atmospheric nitrous oxide since 1860, Nature Geoscience, August 2009. ing water supplies and eutrophication in estuaries. Infor- Source: Eric A. Davidson, The contribution of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to atmospheric mation campaigns for farmers should focus on the optimal nitrous oxide since 1860, Nature Geoscience, August 2009. form and timing of fertilizer application.
  14. 14. 03 14 interlinked destruction higher temperatures, polar stratospheric clouds and a changing climate The causes and effects of the depletion of the ozone layer and climate change are seen by scientists, policy makers and the private sector as being inextricably linked in complex ways. Changes in temperature and other natural and human-induced climatic factors such as cloud cover, winds and precipitation impact directly and indirectly on the scale of the chemical reactions that fuel destruction of the ozone in the The fact that ozone absorbs solar radiation qualifies it, Stratospheric cooling creates a more favourable environment on the other hand, as a greenhouse gas (GHG), much for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds, which are a key as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous ox- factor in the development of polar ozone holes. Cooling of the ide (N2O). Stratospheric ozone depletion and increases stratosphere due to the build-up of GHGs and associated cli- in ozone near the Earth’s surface (tropospheric ozone) mate change is therefore likely to exacerbate destruction of the in recent decades contribute to climate change. Simi- ozone layer. The troposphere and stratosphere are not independ- larly the build-up of anthropogenic GHGs, including ent of one another. Changes in the circulation and chemistry of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) and their replace- one can affect the other. Changes in the troposphere associated ments (in particular HFCs), enhances warming of the with climate change may affect functions in the stratosphere. lower atmosphere, or troposphere (where weather sys- Similarly changes in the stratosphere due to ozone depletion tems occur), and is also expected, on balance, to lead can affect functions in the troposphere in intricate ways that to cooling of the stratosphere. make it difficult to predict the cumulative effects. ARCTIC OZONE DEPLETION AND STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE ARCTIC OZONE DEPLETION AND STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE Total ozone above the Arctic Stratospheric temperature Dobson units Degrees Celsius 520 -48 500 -50 Ozone 450 -55 400 -60 “Changes in ozone amounts are closely linked to temperature, with colder temperatures resulting in more polar stratospheric clouds and lower ozone levels. 350 Atmospheric motions drive the year-to-year -65 temperature changes.The Arctic stratosphere Temperature has cooled slightly since 1979, but scientists are currently unsure of the cause.” 320 -68 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Total ozone and stratospheric temperatures over the Arctic Source: www.theozonehole.com/climate.htm, data provided by Paul Newman, NASA GSFC. since 1979.
  15. 15. 15 OZONE DEPLETION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
  16. 16. 16 THE “HOLE”: A RESULT OF SPECIAL WEATHER CONDITIONS OVER THE POLE REPEATED THE “HOLE”: A RESULT OF SPECIAL WEATHER CONDITIONS EVERY SPRING OVER THE POLE REPEATED EVERY SPRING Average areas between 1995 and 2004 Million square kilometres “The Antarctic continent is circled by a strong wind in the stratosphere which flows around Antarctica and 35 isolates air over Antarctica from air in the midlatitudes. The region poleward of this jet stream is called the 1 Vortex area Antarctic polar vortex ( 1 ). The air inside the Antarctic polar vortex is much colder than midlatitude air.” 30 “When temperatures drop below -78°C, thin clouds form of ice, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid mixtures ( 2 ). Chemical reactions on the surfaces of ice crystals in 25 2 Polar stratospheric the clouds release active forms of CFCs. Ozone cloud area depletion begins, and the ozone “hole” appears ( 3 ). In spring, temperatures begin to rise, the 20 ice evaporates, and the ozone layer starts to recover.” 15 Citations from the NASA Ozone Hole Watch website and Jeannie Allen, of the NASA Earth Observatory (February 2004). 10 5 3 Ozone hole area 0 August September October November December Antarctic Spring Source: US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 2006. THE COLDER ANTARCTIC WINTER DRIVES THE COLDER ANTARCTIC WINTER DRIVES FORMATION OF THE HOLE IN THE SOUTH FORMATION OF THE HOLE IN THE SOUTH Arctic Winter November December January February March April Average temperature (1978 to 2006) Degrees Celsius -60 -65 -70 -75 Arctic (North Pole) Temperature -80 under which a polar strato- spheric cloud can form. -85 Antarctic (South Pole) -90 Conditions for accelerated ozone depletion -95 May June July August September October Antarctic Winter Source: Twenty Questions and Answers about the Ozone Layer: 2006 Update, Lead Author: D.W. Fahey, Panel Review Meeting for the 2006 ozone assessment.
  17. 17. consequences and effects 1 uv radiation and ecosystems 04 We are particularly concerned by the potential impact of increased UV radiation on plants and animals, simply because they form the basis of our food supply. Significant changes in the health or growth of plants and animals may reduce the amount of available food. Whereas scientists seem to agree that for any individu- al species, changes may be observed in an organism’s The plants minimize their exposure to UV by limiting the surface area of foliage, which in turn impairs growth. How- 17 growth capacity, it is much trickier to make observations ever the observed drop in yield does not seem serious and forecasts for an entire ecosystem. The task is com- enough for scientists to sound the alarm. plicated by the fact that we cannot single out UV radiation and separate it from other changes in atmospheric condi- aquatic wildlife is particularly vulnerable tions, such as higher temperatures and CO2 concentra- Phytoplankton are at the start of the aquatic food chain, tions, or water availability. which account for 30 per cent of the world’s intake of ani- mal protein. Phytoplankton productivity is restricted to the UV radiation might affect certain species but also insects upper layer of the water where sufficient light is available. and pests, thus counter-balancing the direct negative ef- However, even at current levels, solar UV-B radiation limits fects of increased UV radiation. Similarly it might change reproduction and growth. A small increase in UV-B expo- their ability to compete with other species. In the long sure could significantly reduce the size of plankton popu- term UV-resistant plants may prevail over more vulner- lations, which affects the environment in two ways. Less able ones. plankton means less food for the animals that prey on them and a reduction in fish stocks, already depleted by over- Excessive exposure to UV radiation can cause cancers in fishing. Furthermore, with less organic matter in the upper mammals, much as humans, and damage their eyesight. layers of the water, UV radiation can penetrate deeper into Fur protects most animals from over-exposure to harmful the water and affect more complex plants and animals liv- rays. But radiation may nevertheless damage their nose, ing there. Solar UV radiation directly damages fish, shrimp, paws and skin around the muzzle. crab, amphibians and other animals during their early de- velopment. Pollution of the water by toxic substances may Experiments on food crops have shown lower yields for heighten the adverse effects of UV radiation, working its several key crops such as rice, soy beans and sorghum. way up the food chain. EFFECTS OF ENHANCED UV-B RADIATIONS ON CROPS Possible changes Consequences Selected sensitive crops in plant characteristics Reduced photosynthesis Rice Reduced water-use efficiency Enhanced plant fragility Oats Enhanced drought stress sensitivity Reduced leaf area Growth limitation Sorghum Reduced leaf conductance Modified flowering Soybeans Yield reduction (either inhibited or stimulated) Reduced dry matter production Beans NB: Summary conclusions from artificial exposure studies. Source: modified from Krupa and Kickert (1989) by Runeckles and Krupa (1994) in: Fakhri Bazzaz, Wim Sombroek, Global Climate Change and Agricultural Production, FAO, Rome,1996.
  18. 18. 05 18 consequences and effects 2 uv radiation and human health We need the sun: psychologically, because sunlight warms our hearts; physically, because our body needs it to produce vitamin D, essential to the healthy development of our bones. Yet increased doses of ultraviolet rays penetrating the ozone layer and reaching the surface of the Earth can do a lot of harm to plants, animals and humans. Over thousands of years humans have adapted to varying who is most at risk? intensities of sunlight by developing different skin colours. In the last few hundred years however, there has been rap- The twin role played by the skin – protection from exces- id human migration out of the areas in which we evolved. sive UV radiation and absorption of enough sunlight to trig- Our skin colour is no longer necessarily suited to the en- ger the production of vitamin D – means that people living vironment in which we live. Fair skinned populations who in the lower latitudes, close to the Equator, with intense UV have migrated to the tropics have suffered a rapid rise in radiation, have developed darker skin to protect them from the incidence of skin cancers. the damaging effects of UV radiation. In contrast, those living in the higher latitudes, closer to the poles, have de- Behavioural and cultural changes in the 20th century have veloped fair skin to maximize vitamin D production. meant that many of us are now exposed to more UV ra- Skin colour map (indigenous people) Predicted from multiple environmental factors From lightest ... ... to darkest skin no data Source: Chaplin G.©, Geographic Distribution of Environmental Factors Influencing Human Skin Coloration, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 125:292–302, 2004; map updated in 2007.
  19. 19. 19 VULNERABILITIES VULNERABILITIES Latitude: Most at risk: people living under low latitudes (close to the equator) high Southern latitudes Distance to the ozone hole area Most at risk: people from Australia, Genetic: skin color New Zealand, Southern Chile Most at risk: white people Southern Argentina, Cultural behaviours: Cloud Cover Sun-seeking vs. sun-protective Dress Shade, Sun-sensitization (education) Forest cover Health impacts due to Immune system ultraviolet radiation Altitude competence: + Most at risk: Melanoma Cancers Seriousness HIV-infected people Carcinoma of the skin Snow cover elderlies Solar keratoses children Sunburns Reactivation of herpes labialis - Fac Professional: SKIN t ors Most at risk: + outdoor workers Cortical cataract de Pterygium Conjunctiva ter EYES - m in di in g In vi Weakened immune system th du e loc al al U cto fa V ra rs diati on level Source: World Health Organization, Global burden of disease from solar ultraviolet radiation, 2006. diation than ever before. But it may also result in inad- vated, with more acute infections and a higher risk of dor- equate exposure to the sun which damages our health in mant viruses (such as cold sores) erupting again. other ways. UV radiation penetrates furthest into our bodies through Many people from the higher latitudes grill their skin in- our eyes, which are particularly vulnerable. Conditions tensely in the sun during their short summer holidays, but such as snow blindness and cataracts, which blur the lens only get minimal exposure to the sun for the rest of the and lead to blindness, may cause long-term damage to our year. Such intermittent exposure to sunlight seems to be a eyesight. Every year some 16 million people in the world risk factor. On the other hand populations with darker skin suffer from blindness due to a loss of transparency in the pigmentation regularly exposed to similar or even higher lens. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that UV rays are less prone to skin damage. up to 20 per cent of cataracts may be caused by overex- posure to UV radiation and could therefore be avoided. The what damage is done? risk of UV radiation-related damage to the eye and immune The most widely recognised damage occurs to the skin. system is independent of skin type. The direct effects are sun burn, chronic skin damage (pho- to-aging) and an increased risk of developing various types no reason for reduced attention of skin cancer. Models predict that a 10 per cent decrease Simple counter-measures (see chapter 5) can control in the ozone in the stratosphere could cause an addition- the direct negative effects of UV radiation on our health. al 300,000 non-melanoma and 4,500 (more dangerous) But that is no reason to reduce our efforts to reverse melanoma skin cancers worldwide annually. destruction of the ozone layer. It is difficult to foresee the indirect effects such profound changes in the atmos- At an indirect level UV-B radiation damages certain cells phere may have on our living conditions. Changes to that act as a shield protecting us from intruding carriers plants or animals might affect mankind through the food of disease. In other words it weakens our immune sys- chain, and the influence of ozone depleting substances tem. For people whose immune system has already been on climate change might indirectly affect our ability to weakened, in particular by HIV-Aids, the effect is aggra- secure food production.
  20. 20. 20 Number of extra skin cancer cases related to UV radiation Per million inhabitants per year 0 30 60 90 120 220 2000 2020 2060 Source: Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Laboratory for Radiation Research (www.rivm.nl/m ilieuStoffen/straling/zomerthema_uv/), 2007.

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