Cool Technologies:Working Without HCFCs &HFCs


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Environmental and economic imperatives
Overview and examples of fluorocarbon free-cooling technologies in many applications
Practical strategies for phasing out HFCs and bypassing HFCs by Janos Mate

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Cool Technologies:Working Without HCFCs &HFCs

  1. 1. Cool Technologies:Working Without HCFCs &HFCs Presentation By: Janos Maté
  2. 2. Iceland – April 18, 2010
  3. 3. Volcanic messages Sometimes nature sends us vivid messages in the form of hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions. They teach us how much we depend on nature’s balance and strip us of our false sense of omnipotence. They teach us the value of the precautionary principle.
  4. 4. Greenpeace: Applying the Precautionary Principle basic axiom of ecology is that everything is interconnected and if one factor is changed, all others are affected no substance should be released into the environment until it is proven to be environmentally benign and the burden of proof rests with the proponents of a technology preventive action must take place even before conclusive scientific evidence exists regarding the cause and effect relationship of a potential harm to the environment the polluter pays
  5. 5. Short history of ozone crisis In 1931, DuPont invented CFCs and launched the fluorocarbon era the chemical treadmill. Tens of millions of tons of CFCs HCFCs and HFCs have been emitted into the atmosphere. We are addicted to fluorocarbons. CFCs and HCFCs are powerful ozone depleting substances and together with HFCs are super greenhouse gases.
  6. 6. Short history of ozone crisis The theory of ozone layer depletion due to the impact of man made chemicals presented in 1974. Chemical industry fights early controls on CFCs Antarctic ozone hole appears in 1984 Montreal Protocol is signed in 1987.
  7. 7. Ozone crisis and the chemical industry 4D strategy to protect industry’s global monopoly Deny that CFCs cause ozone depletion Delay regulatory action Dominate the global market for CFC alternatives with HCFCs and HFCs Dump CFC technologies in developing countries
  8. 8. Greenpeace actions to protect the ozone layer
  9. 9. Greenpeace Actions to protect the ozone layer
  10. 10. Greenpeace actions in Vancouver to protect the ozone layer : 1992
  11. 11. Technology Dumping
  12. 12. From the Frying Pan Into the Fire
  13. 13. Short history of the ozone crisis The total annual tonnage of all the CFCs released in 1987 was 941,400 tons, with the total CO2 equivalency of 7.27 billion tons. This equals the year 2000 greenhouse gas emissions of the United States. CFCs were primarily replaced by HCFCs and HFCs.
  14. 14. Lessons from the Ozone Crisis The ozone layer is not expected to fully recover to pre-1970’s levels, but it is expected to sufficiently recover by 2068. It will have taken 90-100 years to partially restore nature’s balance and undo the damage human activity brought upon the ozone layer. Large scale emissions of HFC replacements for CFCs and HCFCs could undermine efforts to limit global warming increases below 2o above pre-industrial levels.
  15. 15. HFCs Headed For Catastrophes HFCs do not directly harm the ozone layer HFCs are super greenhouse gases The most commonly used HFC, HFC-134a, has 3,830 times greater global warming potential than CO2 on a 20 year time span, and 1430 times greater on a twenty year time span. Greenpeace has cautioned the international community about the dangers of HFCs since the early 1990’s and has repeatedly called on governments to get off the CFC, HCFC and HFC fluorocarbon treadmill
  16. 16. Accelerated HCFC Phase Out The 2007 accelerated HCFC phase-out has the potential to reduce the cumulative emissions of approximately 21 billion tons of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases. If HCFCs are primarily replaced by high GWP HFCs those climate benefits will be greatly diminished. Example: The most commonly used HCFC is R-22, with a GWP of 1700. The most likely HFC replacement for R- 22 is HFC-410a with a GWP of 1890.
  17. 17. Climate impact of HFCs If we only focus on reducing CO2 emissions and do nothing about HFCs, they will be responsible for between 28% and 45% of all carbon-equivalent emissions by 2050. HFCs are not sustainable.
  18. 18. Environmental imperative We must meet our cooling needs with sustainable technologies. There are HFC-free solutions for most of our cooling needs. They are provided by natural substances.
  19. 19. No Magic Bullet Just as there was no single “magic bullet” to replace CFCs, there is no single solution to replace HCFCs. But there is a wide variety of environmentally safe and technologically proven, HFC-free technologies to meet our cooling needs. Natural refrigerants and foam blowing substances provide the long term solutions. They therefore make the best business sense.
  20. 20. Long term cooling solutions Natural refrigerants: hydrocarbons, CO2, ammonia, water. Natural foam blowing agents: hydrocarbons, CO2, water. Dessicant, evaporative, absorption cooling. District cooling. Co-generation cooling. Innovative architectural design.
  21. 21. Natural refrigerant solutions Natural refrigerants are available for most cooling applications: Domestic Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning Commercial Refrigeration & Air- Conditioning Industrial Production Mobile Air-Conditioning
  22. 22. Greenfreeze Story ICI in 1991 writes to UK GP supporters: “Can we all go back to the laboratory and spend the next ten years working on Greenpeace ideas to see if they can be made to work in practice? Greenpeace have refused to join in any discussions of what might actually be done about the problem in a practical way. After all it is so much easier to stand on the sidelines and criticize”. And in 1992, a high level ICI representative is quoted as saying: “Greenpeace lacks a sense of urgency. Most alternatives it talks about are not available. They’re either pie in the sky or will only be feasible next century. Our alternatives are available now.”
  23. 23. Greenpeace accepts the challenge In 1992-93 Greenpeace Germany develops Greenfreeze hydrocarbon technology for domestic refrigeration. Isobutane as refrigerant and cyclopentane as insulation foaming agent. Greenpeace gets public support for Greenfreeze and makes technology freely available to industry.
  24. 24. First Greenfreeze production line
  25. 25. Hydrocarbons in Domestic Refrigeration There are over 400 million hydrocarbon Greenfreeze refrigerators in the world today. Annually, 37-40% of the total 100 million global fridge production is Greenfreeze. All the major European, Chinese and Japanese companies produce Greenfreeze. Greenfreeze technology has not yet penetrated the US/Canada market but is available in Mexico. Inpud Factory in Cuba was the first in the Americas to produce Greenfreeze refrigerators.
  26. 26. Greenfreeze photo from China
  27. 27. Refrigerants, Naturally! No HFCs were part of the Sidney Olympics environmental guidelines. In 1998 Greenpeace asks major Olympic sponsors to not use HFCs.
  28. 28. Refrigerants, Naturally! In 2000 Greenpeace launches global campaign against Coca Cola’s use of HFC equipment at Olympics. Greenpeace also challenges McDonald’s.
  29. 29. Refrigerants, Naturally!
  30. 30. Refrigerants, Naturally! Before the beginning of the Sydney Olympics Coca Cola and McDonald’s make public commitments to stop using HFCs as soon as there are feasible alternative technologies.
  31. 31. Refrigerants, Naturally! In 2004, Coca Cola, McDonald’s and Unilever form Refrigerant’s Naturally! with the support of UNEP DTIE and Greenpeace. PepsiCo and Carlsberg join. Aim is to replace HFCs in all point-of- sales applications.
  32. 32. Refrigerants, Naturally! Coca Cola: Developed new CO2 vending machines and announced that by 2015 100% of their new vending machines will be HFC- free. Unilever has deployed over 400,000 hydrocarbon ice-cream freezers. PepsiCo has over 8,000 hydrocarbon and CO2 vending machines around the world. All new units in Turkey are now HFC-free.
  33. 33. HFC-free Cooling in Supermarkets Several supermarket chains in Europe and Australia are now using natural refrigerants (hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide) in their stores. Edeka, REWE, Tesco, Auchan, Sainsbury’s, Aldi Sud, Marks & Spencer, Woolworths, Waitrose Natural refrigerants are used for all forms of commercial refrigeration equipment: show cases, bottle coolers, freezers, fridges, air-conditioning
  34. 34. Hydrocarbon Air Conditioning in Commercial Enterprises and Public Buildings UK: Middlesex University, Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital, University College in London, Sainsbury’s and Tesco’s Supermarket, National Hospital, Royal Institute of British Architects, London Transport Germany: REWE & Edeka Supermarkets Sweden: PUB Department Store, Backhammars Bruk, AG Favor New Zealand: Frucor Processors, Kiwi Dairies Ltd.
  35. 35. Companies producing air-conditioners with natural refrigerants Several companies are producing hydrocarbon and/or CO2 domestic and commercial air-conditioners: De’Longhi, Elstar, Benson, Gree Electric, Godrej & Boyce, Sanyo Electric, York, Mayekawa
  36. 36. Commercial Equipment with Natural Refrigerants Numerous companies are producing or marketing a wide variety of commercial equipment with natural refrigerants. Vestfrost (Denmark), Earthcare (UK), Frigoglas (Greece), Carrier Corp (USA), Sanyo (Japan), Koxka (Global) Commercial freezers, fridges, bottle coolers, display coolers
  37. 37. Propane replacing HCFC-22 Propane is the optimal replacement for HCFC-22. Companies in are converting existing R-22 installations to R290 in Asia, South East Asia and Latin America. Ecozone of Netherlands, Energy Resources Group of Australia, Nat Energy Resources of Singapore, Maple Edge Sendirian Berhad of Malaysia and APL ASIA of Thailand. Such conversions must follow safety guidelines. Provide new business opportunities.
  38. 38. Examples of Ammonia Cooling in Commercial Enterprises International Space Shuttle Canada: Campbell’s Soup Denmark: University Righospitalet, Copenhagen Airport, Magasin Department Store, Scandic Hotel, Danish National TV, SAS Building Germany: Hannover Trade Fair Building, Berlin Shopping Center Lindplatz Centrum, Leiptzig Trade Fair Building
  39. 39. Ammonia Cooling- Continued Japan: Ashai Brewery Luxembourg: Palais Grande Ducal & Parliament, Cactus Supermarket Spain: Carlos III University United States:Stanford University, McCormick Place Convention Center, University of Miami York Company of Denmark produces smaller chillers for computer centers, radio stations and offices.
  40. 40. District Cooling Distributes cooling from a central source to multiple buildings through a network of pipes. Better quality cooling Maximum cost effectiveness Environmentally friendly Numerous examples
  41. 41. Passive Cooling Intelligent architectural design making use of natural ventilation, coupled with efficient insulation, can eliminate or reduce the need for mechanical air- conditioning and thus save energy.
  42. 42. Natural refrigerants in MACs Hydrocarbons in primary or secondary loop systems could be used efficiently in MACs. A total estimate of 7 million cars have been converted from CFCs and HFCs in Australia, United States, Canada, Philippines and Caribbean countries. CO2 MAC systems were developed in Germany but the decision to switch to CO2 MACs has now been put on hold due to the advent of HFC-1234yf Greenpeace is opposed to the uptake of the new HFCs, such as HFC-1234yf for environmental, safety and cost reasons.
  43. 43. SolarChill The SolarChill Project has developed an HFC-free, led battery free, solar vaccine cooler and refrigerator for parts of the world without reliable electricity. The development Project Partners are UNEP, WHO, UNICEF, DTI, GTZ ProKlima, PATH and Greenpeace. World Bank is now a Partner. SolarChill is now commercially produced by Vestfrost. Large demonstration and technology transfer projects will soon be started in Colombia and Kenya.
  44. 44. SolarChill
  45. 45. Leapfrog HFCs Going HFC-free makes good business sense: Natural substances offer the long term environmental solutions. Their operating costs are less. HFCs will have to be phased out and there won’t be another round of financial support. Export opportunities for HFC products will shrink.
  46. 46. Strategic HCFC phase-out Start the HCFC phase-out in those sectors where technologies with natural refrigerants and foam blowing agents are most readily available.
  47. 47. Thank you The time to end the fluorocarbon era is now.