Sometimes nature sends us vivid
messages in the form of hurricanes,
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions.
They teach us how much we depend on
nature’s balance and strip us of our
false sense of omnipotence.
They teach us the value of the
Greenpeace: Applying the
basic axiom of ecology is that everything is interconnected and if
one factor is changed, all others are affected
no substance should be released into the environment until it is
proven to be environmentally benign and the burden of proof
rests with the proponents of a technology
preventive action must take place even before conclusive
scientific evidence exists regarding the cause and effect
relationship of a potential harm to the environment
the polluter pays
Short history of ozone crisis
In 1931, DuPont invented CFCs and launched the
fluorocarbon era the chemical treadmill.
Tens of millions of tons of CFCs HCFCs and HFCs
have been emitted into the atmosphere. We are
addicted to fluorocarbons.
CFCs and HCFCs are powerful ozone depleting
substances and together with HFCs are super
Short history of ozone crisis
The theory of ozone layer depletion due to the impact
of man made chemicals presented in 1974.
Chemical industry fights early controls on CFCs
Antarctic ozone hole appears in 1984
Montreal Protocol is signed in 1987.
Ozone crisis and the chemical
4D strategy to protect industry’s global
Deny that CFCs cause ozone depletion
Delay regulatory action
Dominate the global market for CFC alternatives with
HCFCs and HFCs
Dump CFC technologies in developing countries
Short history of the ozone
The total annual tonnage of all the CFCs released in 1987 was
941,400 tons, with the total CO2 equivalency of 7.27 billion tons.
This equals the year 2000 greenhouse gas emissions of the
CFCs were primarily replaced by HCFCs and HFCs.
Lessons from the Ozone
The ozone layer is not expected to fully recover to pre-1970’s
levels, but it is expected to sufficiently recover by 2068.
It will have taken 90-100 years to partially restore nature’s
balance and undo the damage human activity brought upon the
Large scale emissions of HFC replacements for CFCs and
HCFCs could undermine efforts to limit global warming
increases below 2o above pre-industrial levels.
Headed For Catastrophes
HFCs do not directly harm the ozone layer
HFCs are super greenhouse gases
The most commonly used HFC, HFC-134a, has 3,830 times greater
global warming potential than CO2 on a 20 year time span, and 1430
times greater on a twenty year time span.
Greenpeace has cautioned the international community about the
dangers of HFCs since the early 1990’s and has repeatedly called on
governments to get off the CFC, HCFC and HFC fluorocarbon treadmill
Accelerated HCFC Phase Out
The 2007 accelerated HCFC phase-out has the potential
to reduce the cumulative emissions of approximately 21
billion tons of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases.
If HCFCs are primarily replaced by high GWP HFCs
those climate benefits will be greatly diminished.
Example: The most commonly used HCFC is R-22, with
a GWP of 1700. The most likely HFC replacement for R-
22 is HFC-410a with a GWP of 1890.
Climate impact of HFCs
If we only focus on reducing CO2
emissions and do nothing about HFCs,
they will be responsible for between
28% and 45% of all carbon-equivalent
emissions by 2050.
HFCs are not sustainable.
We must meet our cooling needs with
There are HFC-free solutions for most
of our cooling needs.
They are provided by natural
No Magic Bullet
Just as there was no single “magic bullet” to replace
CFCs, there is no single solution to replace HCFCs.
But there is a wide variety of environmentally safe
and technologically proven, HFC-free technologies to
meet our cooling needs.
Natural refrigerants and foam blowing substances
provide the long term solutions. They therefore make
the best business sense.
Long term cooling solutions
Natural refrigerants: hydrocarbons, CO2, ammonia,
Natural foam blowing agents: hydrocarbons, CO2,
Dessicant, evaporative, absorption cooling.
Innovative architectural design.
Natural refrigerant solutions
Natural refrigerants are available for
most cooling applications:
Domestic Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning
Commercial Refrigeration & Air-
ICI in 1991 writes to UK GP supporters: “Can we all go back to the
laboratory and spend the next ten years working on Greenpeace
ideas to see if they can be made to work in practice? Greenpeace
have refused to join in any discussions of what might actually be
done about the problem in a practical way. After all it is so much
easier to stand on the sidelines and criticize”.
And in 1992, a high level ICI representative is quoted as saying:
“Greenpeace lacks a sense of urgency. Most alternatives it talks
about are not available. They’re either pie in the sky or will only be
feasible next century. Our alternatives are available now.”
Greenpeace accepts the challenge
In 1992-93 Greenpeace Germany develops
Greenfreeze hydrocarbon technology for
Isobutane as refrigerant and cyclopentane as
insulation foaming agent.
Greenpeace gets public support for
Greenfreeze and makes technology freely
available to industry.
Hydrocarbons in Domestic
There are over 400 million hydrocarbon Greenfreeze
refrigerators in the world today.
Annually, 37-40% of the total 100 million global
fridge production is Greenfreeze.
All the major European, Chinese and Japanese
companies produce Greenfreeze.
Greenfreeze technology has not yet penetrated the
US/Canada market but is available in Mexico.
Inpud Factory in Cuba was the first in the Americas to
produce Greenfreeze refrigerators.
Before the beginning of the Sydney
Olympics Coca Cola and McDonald’s
make public commitments to stop using
HFCs as soon as there are feasible
In 2004, Coca Cola, McDonald’s and
Unilever form Refrigerant’s Naturally!
with the support of UNEP DTIE and
PepsiCo and Carlsberg join.
Aim is to replace HFCs in all point-of-
Coca Cola: Developed new CO2 vending
machines and announced that by 2015 100%
of their new vending machines will be HFC-
Unilever has deployed over 400,000
hydrocarbon ice-cream freezers.
PepsiCo has over 8,000 hydrocarbon and
CO2 vending machines around the world. All
new units in Turkey are now HFC-free.
HFC-free Cooling in
Several supermarket chains in Europe and
Australia are now using natural refrigerants
(hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide) in their
Edeka, REWE, Tesco, Auchan, Sainsbury’s, Aldi
Sud, Marks & Spencer, Woolworths, Waitrose
Natural refrigerants are used for all forms of
commercial refrigeration equipment: show cases,
bottle coolers, freezers, fridges, air-conditioning
Hydrocarbon Air Conditioning in Commercial
Enterprises and Public Buildings
UK: Middlesex University, Great Ormond Street
Children’s Hospital, University College in London,
Sainsbury’s and Tesco’s Supermarket, National
Hospital, Royal Institute of British Architects, London
Germany: REWE & Edeka Supermarkets
Sweden: PUB Department Store, Backhammars
Bruk, AG Favor
New Zealand: Frucor Processors, Kiwi Dairies Ltd.
Companies producing air-conditioners
with natural refrigerants
Several companies are producing
hydrocarbon and/or CO2 domestic and
De’Longhi, Elstar, Benson, Gree Electric,
Godrej & Boyce, Sanyo Electric, York,
Commercial Equipment with Natural
Numerous companies are producing or
marketing a wide variety of commercial
equipment with natural refrigerants.
Vestfrost (Denmark), Earthcare (UK),
Frigoglas (Greece), Carrier Corp (USA),
Sanyo (Japan), Koxka (Global)
Commercial freezers, fridges, bottle
coolers, display coolers
Propane replacing HCFC-22
Propane is the optimal replacement for HCFC-22.
Companies in are converting existing R-22
installations to R290 in Asia, South East Asia and
Ecozone of Netherlands, Energy Resources
Group of Australia, Nat Energy Resources of
Singapore, Maple Edge Sendirian Berhad of
Malaysia and APL ASIA of Thailand.
Such conversions must follow safety guidelines.
Provide new business opportunities.
Examples of Ammonia Cooling in
International Space Shuttle
Canada: Campbell’s Soup
Denmark: University Righospitalet, Copenhagen
Airport, Magasin Department Store, Scandic Hotel,
Danish National TV, SAS Building
Germany: Hannover Trade Fair Building, Berlin
Shopping Center Lindplatz Centrum, Leiptzig Trade
Ammonia Cooling- Continued
Japan: Ashai Brewery
Luxembourg: Palais Grande Ducal & Parliament,
Spain: Carlos III University
United States:Stanford University, McCormick Place
Convention Center, University of Miami
York Company of Denmark produces smaller chillers
for computer centers, radio stations and offices.
Distributes cooling from a central source
to multiple buildings through a network
Better quality cooling
Maximum cost effectiveness
Intelligent architectural design making
use of natural ventilation, coupled with
efficient insulation, can eliminate or
reduce the need for mechanical air-
conditioning and thus save energy.
Natural refrigerants in MACs
Hydrocarbons in primary or secondary loop systems could be
used efficiently in MACs.
A total estimate of 7 million cars have been converted from
CFCs and HFCs in Australia, United States, Canada,
Philippines and Caribbean countries.
CO2 MAC systems were developed in Germany but the decision
to switch to CO2 MACs has now been put on hold due to the
advent of HFC-1234yf
Greenpeace is opposed to the uptake of the new HFCs, such as
HFC-1234yf for environmental, safety and cost reasons.
The SolarChill Project has developed an HFC-free,
led battery free, solar vaccine cooler and refrigerator
for parts of the world without reliable electricity.
The development Project Partners are UNEP, WHO,
UNICEF, DTI, GTZ ProKlima, PATH and
Greenpeace. World Bank is now a Partner.
SolarChill is now commercially produced by
Large demonstration and technology transfer projects
will soon be started in Colombia and Kenya.
Going HFC-free makes good business
Natural substances offer the long term
Their operating costs are less.
HFCs will have to be phased out and there won’t
be another round of financial support.
Export opportunities for HFC products will shrink.
Strategic HCFC phase-out
Start the HCFC phase-out in those
sectors where technologies with natural
refrigerants and foam blowing agents
are most readily available.
The time to end the fluorocarbon era is