Relation between the Montrealandthe Kyoto ProtocolDanijela BozanicClimate Change DivisionMinistry of Environment, Mining and Spatial Planning“Annual meeting of the Regional Ozone Network for Europe & Central Asia” Belgrade, Serbia, 10-13 May 2011
Presentation outline• Basic information;• Relation between the Montreal and the Kyoto Protocol;• State-of-play of climate change policies;• Current situation;• Possibilities for cooperation.
Basic information (1)1) The UNFCCC:• Adopted 1992, entered into force in 1994;• Objective: “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”;2) The Kyoto Protocol:• Adopted in 1997, entered into force in 2005.• Objective: ”GHG emissions reduction by 5% from 1990 level in the period 2008 – 2012“;• The major distinction: The Convention encouraged industrialised countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.
Basic information (2)• The Kyoto Protocol quotas take into account GHG emissions except those regulated by the Montreal Protocol: CO2, CH4, N2O, PFCs, SF6 and HFCs;• The ozone-depleting gases are not included in the Climate Convention and its Kyoto Protocol.
Relation between the Montreal and the Kyoto Protocol• The most ozone depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol are powerful greenhouse gases;• The Montreal Protocol, restricting the use of ozone-depleting substances, has helped both to reduce global warming and to protect the ozone layer;• HFC-23 controlled by the Kyoto protocol is an unwanted byproduct of the production of HCFC-22 (phase-out under the Montreal Protocol);• One of the first types of projects established under CDM was the investment in the destruction of the compound HFC-23 which is generated as a byproduct during the manufacturing of HCFC-22;• HFCs, used as alternatives for CFCs in some applications;• Reducing ozone-depleting gases alone will not solve global warming, but efforts to reduce all types of emissions to limit global warming will also contribute to the recovery of the ozone layer.
State-of-play of climate change policies• Associated with Copenhagen Accord - Assessment of mitigation potential on national level indicates possibility for emission limitation from 29% to 18% until 2020 compared to emissions in 1990 under the business as usual scenario;• Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC - First climate change strategic document which defines mitigation and adaptation related measures and activities; - Includes inventory for 1990 and 1998, and emissions projections until 2012 and 2015, mitigation possibilities and options and defines plans for capacity building and awareness raising, etc;• SNC should include: - 10 years period GHG Inventory; - Projections and mitigation plan until 2020; - Long-term framework mitigation strategy...
Current situation• Recognized relation;• Good exchange of information;• Need for:• Improvement of cooperation;• Formulation of joint projects;• Better coordination among stakeholders.
National GHG inventories• Emission of synthetic GHG in 1990 and 1998: - According to the available data, there was no production of synthetic gases (halogenic hydrocarbons: HFC and PFC, or sulphur hexafluoride SF6); - In the available official documents, there is no record of import and consumption, i.e., the available amounts of synthetic gases, and thus the related emissions could not be estimated according to the international method; - Certain data exist starting from the year 2004.
National GHG projections• Under the baseline scenario, the total GHG emissions would reach a level of 112.23 % in 2012, and 120.41 % in 2015 of the 1990 value;• According to the alternative scenario GHG emissions in 2012 would reach the level of 110.56 %, and in 2015, the level of 111.66 % of the total GHG emissions in the base year 1990; 120000 basic scenario• Primary based on improvement 100000 alternative scenario of energy efficiency through CO2eq. Emissions (Gg) 80000 transfer of new technologies. 60000 40000 20000 0 1990 1998 2012 2015 Year
Relevant projects• “Feasibility study: Efficient ways for GHG emissions reduction under the post-Kyoto framework“ - the Government of Spain; Objective: assessment of costs for different options for GHG reduction, as well as elaboration of overall reduction potential within the country based on different factors. Duration: from the end of October 2010 until end of April 2011.• “Capacity Development Project on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)“ - Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA); Objective: Identification of appropriate mitigation actions in a measurable, reportable and verifiable way, trough calculation of financial needs, timeframe and identification of responsible institutions in energy efficiency sector. Partners: previous Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy and Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency. Duration: from August 2010 until the end of February 2011.
CB and RA• Identification of opportunities for an efficient and continuous system of organizing training and workshops, development of educational material, dissemination of information, and educational reform;• The main goal of the state is to build and strengthen the existing capacities of national experts, decision makers, representatives of academia, industry, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the media;• Exchange of information on experiences and technologies.