Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning        ANNUAL MEETING OF THE      ...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning                      Case study:  ...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning         For chilling and storing a...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning          Freon 404A as three compo...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning         Ammonia as a natural refri...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning         Because R404A is three-com...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning          Ammonia as a refrigerant ...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning        In order to achieve the nec...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning           In order to present real...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning         Tables show that in instal...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning         Analyses of different solu...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning           Advantage of the chiller...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning                                   ...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning    AUTOMATIC OIL RECOVERY SYSTEM  ...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning   Belgrade, May 10, 2011   Sloboda...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Unit prices for the equpment:     ...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Price for the cooling system:     ...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning CONCLUSION Advantages of ammonia a...
Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning                Thank You For Your ...
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Ammonia as a refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling

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Ammonia as a refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling

  1. 1. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning ANNUAL MEETING OF THE REGIONAL OZONE NETWORK FOR EUROPE & CENTRAL ASIA BELGRADE, SERBIA, 10-13 MAY 2011 Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 1 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  2. 2. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Case study: Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling (cold storage capacity is 8000 t) Dipl.-Ing. Slobodan Pejković Filter Frigo - Serbia E-mail=filfrigo@EUnet.rs Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 2 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  3. 3. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning For chilling and storing apples, cooling installation has been planned with water chiller using Freon 404A as a refrigerant, and cools secondary fluid, mix of water and glycol to -6ºC temperature and lower. Advantage of the secondary fluid is the possibility of temperature control in cold storages with small difference between the air and secondary fluid’s temperature. In this way loss in weight of products is decreased. Besides that, it is also important that the quantity of a refrigerant in such cooling systems is small. Necessary cooling capacity for cooling and storing 8000 tons of apples is around 1.1 MW. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 3 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  4. 4. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 4 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  5. 5. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Freon 404A as three component mixture of a refrigerants R143a / R125 / R134a has high global warming potential (GWP=3780). Therefore in the European Union measures are contemplated which would lead to decreased use of this refrigerant. The first of the measures introduced by Denmark since 2011 is ecological tax for use of Freon 404A amounting to 79€/kg, which shall be collected during Freon procurement. That made us think of envisaging some of the natural refrigerants for this cold storage. The choice was ammonia. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 5 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  6. 6. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Ammonia as a natural refrigerant has GWP=0, meaning that it does not influence global warming of the Earth, therefore its use is being stimulated. Advantages in using ammonia with strong smell is that during leakage which happens occasionally in cooling installations is that you can immediately sense it, remedy the failure and top-up the installation with refrigerant without stopping. Differently from that, Freons, even R404A are without smell and its leakage from the cooling installation can not be observed until pressure drops, that is, capacity decreases. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 6 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  7. 7. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Because R404A is three-component mixture of different Freons, in case of leakage one must discharge the whole quantity from the installation (installation charge is around 300 kg), the failure must be remedied, than the installation should be vacuumed and refilled. This procedure requires several hours work and during that period the cooling installation can not operate. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 7 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  8. 8. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Ammonia as a refrigerant is cheaper. Exploitation costs and maintenance costs of modern ammonia installations are lower than for Freon installations. Installations with ammonia as a refrigerant are more energy efficient, meaning that for achieving the same cooling capacity they shall spend less electricity. Due to poor mixing with oils for lubricating compressor, ammonia can be used in flooded evaporators at higher evaporating temperatures in relation to Freons, simultaneously using less electricity. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 8 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  9. 9. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning In order to achieve the necessary glycol temperature of -6ºC with ammonia as a refrigerant, the compressors can work with evaporation temperature of -10ºC in flooded plate&shell evaporator and with suction gas superheat of 1K. In order to achieve the same conditions (glycol temperature and capacity) with Freon R404A as a refrigerant, the installation must have an direct expansion evaporator where the evaporation temperature can not exceed -12ºC while suction gas superheat must be from 6 to 10K. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 9 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  10. 10. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning In order to present real difference between the ammonia and Freon 404A installations, we shall present table with the cooling capacity and power consumption of screw compressor, product of Bitzer. Ammonia R717 Freon R404A Bitzer Energy Energy Cooling Power Cooling Power screw Efficiency Efficiency compressor capacity Consumption Ratio capacity Consumption Ratio [kW] [kW] EER [kW] [kW] EER Model 324 83.4 3.88 293 94.7 3.09 OSKA8581-K Operating regimes Bitzer Ammonia R717 Freon R404A screw compressor OSKA8581-K OSKA8581-K Evaporation Temperature [° C] -10 -12 Condensing Temperature [° C] 35 35 Liquid Subcooling [K] 3 3 Suction Gas Superheat [K] 1 10 Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 10 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  11. 11. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Tables show that in installations using ammonia as a refrigerant for the same compressor model, cooling capacity is 10% higher in relation to R404A with smaller absorbed power for 11.3 kW. During the first 27 days of work of the cold storage with full capacity, when the daily apple intake exceeds 300 t/day, electricity savings during work of 4 screw compressors, products of Bitzer, model OSKA8581-K with ammonia as a refrigerant would be 29 MWh. Simultaneously, these compressors would have 10% higher cooling capacity than the Freon ones, and would enable quicker cooling of apples, which is very important for apple quality. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 11 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  12. 12. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Analyses of different solutions using ammonia have been made. One of the solutions was a chiller with one screw compressor of 1150 kW cooling capacity. Maximum cooling capacity for this type of cold storage is necessary during the first 30 days of work, from start of apple picking. After that, needs for cooling decrease, as well as the external temperature, and the water chiller has better condensing conditions. Therefore a solution with three water chillers has been discussed – chillers in variant 1 with water cooled condenser, and in the variant 2 with air cooled condenser. Both solutions have their advantages and shortcomings. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 12 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  13. 13. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Advantage of the chiller with air cooled condenser is installed in the container outside the cold storage facility, so no special safety measures are required. Besides that, apples are stored in the period from October to June, when we don’t have extremely high air temperatures, and the condensing temperatures are such that they render sufficiently high Energy Efficiency Ratio – EER. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 13 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  14. 14. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 14 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  15. 15. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 15 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  16. 16. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Microchannel Condenser Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 16 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  17. 17. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 17 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  18. 18. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning AUTOMATIC OIL RECOVERY SYSTEM For a regular, efficient and continuous operation of a chiller, it’s necessary to guarantee oil recovery to the compressor. Oil often collects in the bottom part of the evaporator, with the risk to compromise efficiency and heat exchange of the evaporator. For this reason an oil recovery system has been introduced; thanks to an ejector, oil at low pressure is conveyed from evaporator, with high pressure ammonia to the compressor suction. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 18 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  19. 19. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 19 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  20. 20. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 20 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  21. 21. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 21 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  22. 22. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 22 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  23. 23. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 23 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  24. 24. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 24 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  25. 25. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Unit prices for the equpment: Ammonia water chiller; piston compressor, water cooled condenser - - - - - - - - - - - - - - € 135.000 R134a water chiller; 2 Turbocor compressors, water cooled condenser - - - - - - - - - - - - - - € 92.000 R134a water chiller; 2 screw compressors, water cooled condenser - - - - - - - - - - - - - - € 59.000 Cooling capacity 400 kW Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 25 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  26. 26. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Price for the cooling system: R404a glycol chiller system; cooling capacity – 1.200 kW 4 screw compressors, 1 evaporative condenser for 4 compressors € 260.000 Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 26 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  27. 27. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning CONCLUSION Advantages of ammonia as a refrigerant: Ammonia as a natural refrigerant does not influence global warming of Earth. Ammonia as a refrigerant is cheaper than Freon. Exploitation costs and maintenance costs of modern ammonia installations are lower than for Freon ones. Installations with ammonia as a refrigerant are more energy efficient. Shortcomings of ammonia as a refrigerant: Investment costs in making ammonia installations significantly exceed the costs of making Freon installations. Safety measures that should be undertook in using ammonia installations due to its explosiveness cause fear with investors and influence the final price of the installation. Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 27 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling
  28. 28. Roundtable on climate & ozone-friendly technologies in refrigeration & air-conditioning Thank You For Your Attention Question? Belgrade, May 10, 2011 Slobodan Pejković 28 Ammonia as a Refrigerant in the Water Chiller for apple storage cooling

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