Low GWP Refrigerant, Mobile Air Conditioning Systems and Components


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Low GWP Refrigerant
Mobile Air Conditioning Systems and Components by Timothy Craig

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Low GWP Refrigerant, Mobile Air Conditioning Systems and Components

  1. 1. Low GWP Refrigerant Mobile Air Conditioning Systems and Components 低GWP值冷媒在汽车空调系统的应用 Timothy Craig Engineering Manager, R&D for Alternate Refrigerants 3.June.2010 Thermal Systems
  2. 2. Agenda (议程 ) Introduction (介绍) – Delphi (德尔福) – Alternate Refrigerants Background (冷媒替代的背景) – Customer Requirements for Low GWP Refrigerant (对低GWP值冷媒的客户要求) – Green House Gas (GHG) and Regulations (温室气体与环保法规) Technical Presentation (技术资料) – New Refrigerant and System Development (新冷媒及系统的研发) – AC Compressor Lubricant Qualification Protocol (空调压缩机润滑剂的合格验证协议 ) – Material Compatibility (材料兼容性 ) Conclusion (结论) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 2
  3. 3. Introduction Introduction 介绍 介绍 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 3
  4. 4. Delphi: Market-Driven Product Lines, Segmented into Five Divisions Electrical/Electronic Architecture - Electrical/Electronic Distribution Systems - Connection Systems Electronics & Safety - Electronic Controls - Infotainment & Driver Interface Powertrain Systems - Gas Engine Managements Systems - Diesel Engine Management Systems Thermal Systems - Thermal Automotive - Thermal Residential and Commercial Heat Exchangers Product & Service Solution - OE Service & Independent Aftermarket - Diesel Aftermarket Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 4
  5. 5. Thermal Systems Delivering enhanced energy efficiency and world-class comfort through fully integrated heating and cooling systems, modules and components for automotive, residential and commercial HVAC markets. Delphi’s Thermal portfolio includes: – HVAC Systems – Powertrain Cooling (Heat Exchangers) – Compressors – Residential and Commercial Heat Exchangers Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 5
  6. 6. Thermal Automotive Area of Technical Expertise Expertise in product / process / application engineering in the following areas: Refrigerant subsystem PTC & Heating subsystem Air-delivery subsystem Controls Subsystem – Electronics hardware – Software Electrical Subsystem Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 6
  7. 7. Delphi Thermal Systems Automotive Products Portfolio Powertrain Cooling Systems Radiator Condenser Charge Air Cooler HVAC Systems HVAC Controls HVAC Control HVAC Module Evaporator Compressors Fixed Displacement Internally Controlled Externally Controlled CVC (SP/CSP) Compact Variable (CVC) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 7
  8. 8. Delphi Thermal Systems Automotive Products Portfolio Air to Oil Cooler; AOC Advanced Systems High Performance iR/D Condenser Chiller/Cooler Liquid Cooled CAC Combi-Cooler (Condr & oil) Specialty & Hybrid Power Train and Battery Cooling Air Cooled Hybrid Batteries Center Mounted PTC Fan Energy Efficient Internal Heat Exchanger Series Re-heat Control ePTC (IHX) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 8
  9. 9. Delphi Thermal Systems 2010 Global Presence North America North America Europe & Middle East Europe & Middle East Countries: Countries: 22 Countries: Countries: 44 Headcount: Headcount: 2,600 2,600 Headcount: Headcount: 1,900 1,900 Manufacturing sites: Manufacturing sites: 66 Manufacturing sites: Manufacturing sites: 44 Joint ventures: Joint ventures: -- Joint ventures: Joint ventures: -- Technical centers: Technical centers: 22 Technical centers: Technical centers: 11 Total Delphi Thermal Total Delphi Thermal Countries: Countries: 12 12 Headcount: Headcount: 6,100 6,100 Manufacturing sites: Manufacturing sites: 14 14 Joint ventures: Joint ventures: 2 2 Technical centers: Technical centers: 4 4 South America South America Asia Pacific Asia Pacific Countries: Countries: 11 Countries: Countries: 4 4 Headcount: Headcount: 600 600 Headcount: Headcount: 1000 1000 Manufacturing sites: Manufacturing sites: 11 Manufacturing sites: Manufacturing sites: 3 3 Joint ventures: Joint ventures: -- Joint ventures: Joint ventures: 2 2 Technical centers: Technical centers: -- Technical centers: Technical centers: 1 1 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 9
  10. 10. Delphi Thermal Systems Global Manufacturing – Asia Pacific SOUTH KOREA INDIA Radiators Radiators Condensers Condensers Oil Coolers HVAC Modules Charge Air Coolers Heater Cores Evaporators HVAC Modules Heater Cores PTC Modules HVAC Controls Compressors THAILAND HVAC Modules PTC Modules CHINA Radiators Condensers Evaporators HVAC Modules Heater Cores A/C Lines – Hoses PTC Modules HVAC Controls STAC/R Condensers Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 10
  11. 11. Alternate Refrigerant Background Alternate Refrigerant Background 冷媒替代的背景 冷媒替代的背景 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 11
  12. 12. Delphi’s Refrigerants Background 德尔福冷媒方面的背景 – Delphi (Harrison) First Introduced Under-the-Hood Air Conditioning in 1953 – First Refrigerant use in MAC Industry was R-12 (CFC-12) » R-12 is very stable with good cooling properties » Identified as contributing to Ozone Depletion (ODP) (Montreal Protocol 1989) – Delphi (GM / Harrison) led the MAC Industry Conversion to HCFCs in 1992-1995 » R-134a (HCFC-134a) Selected as the New Global Refrigerant; ODP = 0 » Developed New Synthetic Lubricant (PAG) Needed for A/C Compressor Durability – Kyoto Protocol (1997) Identified Impact of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) on Climate Change » Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a Major Contributor and Reference Gage for Other Substances » Current MAC Global Refrigerant, R-134a, is 1430x Stronger GHG then CO2 (GWP = 1430) – EU Legislation to Take Effect January 2011 Limits GHG Effect to 150x CO2 Max. (150 GWP) » Industry Focused on Developing a New, Low GWP Refrigerant Systems since 1998 » Delphi Instrumental in EU Establishing Limit at 150 GWP Instead of 1 GWP (R-152a is GWP 124) » Worked closely with Chemical Companies to Identify the new refrigerant R-1234yf (2003 - 2007) – US EPA (2009) – Tailpipe Credit Regulation of 1.April.2010 » Delphi’s Comprehensive Risk Assessment of R-152a (2005) Basis for R-1234yf Risk Assessment » SAE R-1234yf Risk Assessment Proposed as Basis for US EPA Rule » Provides Very Strong Incentive for Low GWP Refrigerant If Need to Meet US Fuel Economy Target Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 12
  13. 13. Overview – Low GWP Refrigerant 概观 - 低GWP值冷媒 Governmental Regulation 政府法规 Customer Requirements 客户要求 Mobile Air Conditioning System Development for Thermal and Energy Performance 汽车空调系统对热交换与能效的研发 Qualification of Compressor – Evaporator – Condenser – Internal Heat Exchanger 合格验证:压缩机-蒸发器-冷凝器-内部热交换器 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 13
  14. 14. GHG and Regulatory GHG and Regulatory 温室气体与环保法规 温室气体与环保法规 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 14
  15. 15. Environment Impact Why a new refrigerant ? 环境的影响 为什么需要新冷媒? 为什么需要新冷媒? MAC Green House Gas (GHG) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) 汽车空调的 温室气体(GHG)与 全球变暖潜势(GWP) – Direct GHG is Leakage of Refrigerant to the Atmosphere (GWP) 直接温室气体是: 冷媒对大气的泄漏 – Indirect GHG is CO2 From Fuel Used for A/C 间接温室气体是: 用于汽车空调的燃油产生的CO2 MAC Refrigerant GHG Impact Chart Basis 图表根据: 400 - Direct: 100g/yr/car of Refrigerant 350 to atmosphere (production based) 300 kg CO2eq/year 直接:量产车每车每年每100克的冷媒 250 Indirect 进入大气 200 Direct 150 100 - Indirect: 5.5% of Fuel Used for 50 A/C in NA; i.e.. Efficiency 0 间接:在北美的汽车效率:5.5%的燃油 R-134a R-1234yf (GWP = 1430) (GWP = 4) 用于空调 Refrigerant Goal: “Eliminate” Refrigerant GHG Impact 目的:“消灭” 冷媒的温室气体效应 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 15
  16. 16. Regulatory EU Regulatory requirements 法规 欧洲法规要求 CY 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Reg. 443/2009 EC of 23Ap09 setting emission performance standards for light-duty vehicles * OEM voluntary target 140 gCO2/km Timing for 120 gCO2/km 95 gCO2/km 2008 EU average emissions = 154 gCO2/km Indirect Direct 2006/40/EC – directive on emissions from air conditioning in motor vehicles Low-leak R134a New Type-approvals GWP<150 GWP<150 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 16
  17. 17. Regulatory US EPA CO2 Credits 法规 美国CO2信用 美国 A/C Technology EPA Final Credit (gCO2/mile) R-1234yf (avg. of cars & trucks) 15.5 US-EPA Greenhouse Gas Reduced reheat, with externally-controlled, variable- displacement compressor 1.7 2016 2016 Rule and Credits Credits Proposed Rule and Reduced reheat, with externally-controlled, fixed- 350 displacement or pneumatic variable-displacement compressor 1.1 Default to recirculated air with closed-loop control of 5.7 the air supply (sensor feedback to control interior air 17.2 quality) whenever the ambient temperature is 75 ° F 300 V e h icle E m is sio n s (g C O 2/m ile) or higher (although deviations from this temperature are allowed if accompanied by an engineering 5.7 analysis) 1.7 250 15.5 Default to recirculated air with open-loop control air 5.7 supply (no sensor feedback) whenever the ambient 13.8 temperature 75 ° or higher lower temperatures are F allowed) 1.1 200 Blower motor and cooling fan controls which limit waste energy (e.g. pulse width modulated power controller) 0.9 Electronic expansion valve NA 150 302 Improved condensers and/or evaporators (with 250 system analysis on the component(s) indicating a 224 COP improvement greater than 10%, when 100 compared to previous industry standard designs) 1.1 Oil Separator (with engineering analysis demonstrating effectiveness relative to the baseline design) 0.6 50 Reduced reheat, with cycling pneumatic variable- included in 3rd item 250 gCO2/mile = 35.5 displacement compressor from top now mpg IHX 1.1 0 Passenger Light-Duty Combined Model Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Cars Trucks A/C Indirect Emissions Credit A/C Direct Emissions Credit Proposed Vehicle emissions: 361 down to 250 gCO2/mile 2016 EPA Vehicle Requirement Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 17
  18. 18. Customer Requirements Customer Requirements 客户要求 客户要求 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 18
  19. 19. Customer Requirements for Low GWP Refrigerant MAC System 对汽车空调系统的低GWP值冷媒的客户要求 – Refrigerant GWP < 150 – 冷媒GWP值小于150 – Cooling Performance Equal to System with R-134a – 制冷效果等同于R-134a系统 – Energy Use Equal to or Lower Than System with R-134a – 使用的能量果等同于或低于R-134a系统 – Components and Cost of System Equal to or Lower Than R-134a – 零件与系统价格 等同于或低于R-134a系统 – Reliability and Quality Equal to R-134a System – 可靠性与质量等同于R-134a系统 – Service in Field Equal to R-134a System – 售后服务等同于R-134a系统 – Compatible with R-134a System – 与R-134a系统有兼容性 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 19
  20. 20. New Refrigerant & Systems Development New Refrigerant & Systems Development 新冷媒及系统的研发 新冷媒及系统的研发 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 20
  21. 21. R-1234yf – Refrigerant Impact Overview R-1234yf 冷媒的影响概观 Context 背景 GWP= 4 Refrigerant Thermodynamic Properties – Directive 2006/40/EC 欧洲法规 冷媒的热传特性 – US EPA Tailpipe CO2 Credits 美国CO2信用 5 -10 % Drop-in performance loss 直接替换性能损失为 5–10% – Lower Pressure Drop; Enhanced Condensing 需降低压降,增加冷凝能力 – Components adaptations (pass arrangements / valve settings) 零件变化 如 流道设计 及TXV特性点的设定 – Potential for new component: IHX 增加新零 件 如 IHX 的可能性 Oil change necessary 改变油的需要 – Separation at low refrigerant operating temperature 低温条件下油与冷媒的分离 Refrigerant Classification A2L 冷媒已划分为A2L类 冷媒已划分为 类 – Refrigerant handling guidelines 冷媒使用指导书 New Material – Risk assessment to be documented 风险评估归档 New Manufacturing process Refrigerant supply 冷媒供应 – Supplier Readiness 供应商到位 R-134a R-1234yf – Patent Impact 专利的影响 CF3CF=CH2: 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene Fluorocarbon Number: 1234yf Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 21
  22. 22. New Refrigerant Qualification Checklist 新冷媒合格验证检查清单 = Complete OK – Technical Protocol for 技术协议: 完成合格 » System Performance Simiulation 系统性能模拟 » System Performance Testing 系统性能实验 » Component Adaption 零件适应性 » Compressor and Lubricant Readiness 压缩机与润滑油准备好了 » Materials Compatibility 材料兼容性 » Serial Production Start-up 开始投产 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 22
  23. 23. System Component Effects Simulation of Changing One Component at a Time 系统零件变化对性能的影响:模拟一次改变一个零件 Small Vehicle System Simulation Parametric Study Idle Recirc, High Blower (Steady State) Grill T=54 C, Tair In Evap=28 C x 32% RH, Cond Out SC=11 C 1.20 +15% Compressor Displacement Compressor Power Ratio (1234yf/R134a) 1.15 Each 1.10 component change has a different 1.05 impact on +22% Evap Perf capacity and power. 1.00 28% Effective IHX (150 mm) +18% Cond Perf = Target 0.95 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 Capacity Ratio (1234yf/R134a) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 23
  24. 24. Design Guidelines System Performance with Component Changes 设计导向:零件变化对系统性能的影响 Recommended System Performance Ratio Component R-1234yf/R-134a Modification Performance Ratio R1234yf/R134a >1 Best <1 <<1 Drop in Improve Suction Line (lower delta P) X X 降低进气管压降 Increase sub-cooling - (increase m2) X X 增加过冷换热面积 Add IHX 增加 增加IHX零件 零件 X Increase Condensing (m2, ε, CMM, °C) X 增加冷凝-面积 效率,风量, 增加冷凝 面积,效率,风量,温差 面积, Optimize TXV X X X 优化 TXV 特性 Increase Evaporator Performance X X X 增加蒸发器性能 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 24
  25. 25. Internal Heat Exchanger Benefit Description 内热交换器 – IHX 优点 IHX Provides Increased Sub-Cooling of Liquid Refrigerant IHX增加了冷媒的过冷度 Result: Additional Evaporator Capacity 增加了蒸发器的制冷能力 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 25
  26. 26. For Delphi: System and Components R-1234yf Ready 对德尔福来说,R-1234yf的系统与零件都准备好了 Expansion Condenser R/D Evaporator IHX 12mm & 16mm XTC Condenser R/D 冷凝器 – 12 与 16 毫米 带储 液器的超薄平行流式 Tube & Center or Plate Type Compressor FOD Evaporator 蒸发器 – 平行流式 或 层叠式 Pneumatic or Electronic Controlled Compact Internal Heat Exchanger Variable Compressor (IHX) 压力或电子控制的变排量压缩机 紧凑型的内热交换器 - IHX Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 26
  27. 27. Delphi’s R-1234yf Work Overview 德尔福R-1234yf所做的工作概观 History (已做的工作) – Delphi started evaluating refrigerant R1234yf in December 2007 (2007 十二月开始) – Delphi has developed systems with Thermal & Energy = R-134a (与R-134a等效的系统) » 5 Passenger Car Systems (5种乘用车) » 2 SUV Systems (Dual Evaporator) (2种SUV – 双蒸发器系统) – Full Bench Durability on 5 compressors is completed, OK (完成了5种压缩机的耐久性台架实 验,实验结果满意) » More currently ongoing (更多的实验还在进行中) – Multiple Customer Fleet Test Vehicles 160,000 km (多种OEM车队整车实验,16万公里) » 2 – Complete, OK (已完成2种OEM车队整车实验 -实验结果满意) » 5 – Ongoing ( 5种OEM车队整车实验还在进行中) – Full Oil Study (pure oil; bench compressor tests after; durability testing vehicle) (对压缩机油 的全面研究 – 纯油,压缩机台架实验后的油,整车耐久性实验后的油) – Migration (Static Vehicle Oil Movement) (迁移-静态车油的运动) – Active technical contribution for specification development (积极地投入新标准的制定) Now (正在做的工作) – Working on Serial Production Programs (项目的投产工作) – Final Validation of components and oil underway (零件与油的最终合格验证) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 27
  28. 28. A/C Compressor and Lubricant Qualfication A/C Compressor and Lubricant Qualfication 空调压缩机润滑剂的合格验证 空调压缩机润滑剂的合格验证 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 28
  29. 29. Compressor Based Development Lubricant (Oil) Qualification Protocol 压缩机研发 - 润滑油合格验证协议 Working Fluid: R-1234yf & Oil Field Usage Based Testing 工质: R-1234yf 与 油 工质: 在车辆正常使用时的评估 -Customer Usage Test (客户使用实验) Special Conditions Evaluation - Migration (system specific) (迁移) OK 特殊条件评估 - Low Charge (油量充注过低时) Basic Evaluation - Over-charge (油量充注过高时) 基本评估 OK - Low Lubrication (油的润滑性低时) - Oil Only Properties (油本身的特性) - Oil Circulation (油的循环量) - Oil Crankcase Retention (压缩机箱中油的存留量) - Mechanical Stress Test (机械应力实验) Oil Selection Strategy Used Successfully on Two Generations of R-134a Oil 对润滑油的选择策略已成功的应用于对两代R-134a润滑油的选择了 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 29
  30. 30. R-1234yf Base Lubricant (Oil Only) Properties Nominal Lubricant: VG40 = 42 cSt 油本身的特性 Property Test Method Rationale / Background Physical Appearance ASTM D1500-color by UV-Vis Objective color standard to judge product Viscosity @ 40°C ASTM D445 Base Rating Viscosity @ 100°C ASTM D445 Secondary Rating Viscosity Index ASTM D2270 Rate of change of viscosity with temp. > is better Key Properties Solubility 3%, 10%, 20% Lube in R-1234yf How do refrigerant and oil mix? One or two phases? 关键特性 Critical Sol. Temp (0C) Use lubricant % lowest on Solub. Curve Minimum phase separation temperature of Upper Curve 0 Pour Point ( C) ASTM D97 Ensure "pourable" at minimum application temp. - Viscosity f(T) 粘度 Water Content (bulk) ASTM D4377 (Karl Fischer) How much water is in the oil "as delivered" Acid No. (TAN) pH ASTM D 664 How much OH needs to be added to neutralize oil? As Rec'd > Lubrication 润滑性 Sealed Tube Stability Visual; Reference Para. 4.1.3 Test Delphi TM-217 - Solubility 溶解度 (177° for 14 days) C GC-MS > Mixing 混合 Method for measuring the formation of Acid when the – as received TAN (Total Acid Number) (ASTM D6645) @ 5000 ppm H2O mixture of refrigerant + Oil + water is exposed to high temperature for two weeks - Stability 稳定性 @ Saturation (STP) > Acid Formation 酸的形成 Gel Permeability Indication of MW distribution - how many molecules in oil? ASTM D5296 Chromatography Any blending of oils? A vs. B comparison of lub. not related to in compressor Wear Testing TM-320 End of Life Compressor Testing lubrication Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 30
  31. 31. Compressor Based Lubricant Basic Evaluation Tests 压缩机油基本评估实验 Test Title Test Objective Test Method 实验名称 实验目的 实验方法 Oil Circulation Rate Measure amount of oil 1. Collection Recovery 搜集回收量 油的循环量 flowing in the AC System 2. Measuring Device 测量装置 测量空调系统中油的流量 Oil Retention Measure amount of oil 1. By compressor weight change 压缩 油的存留量 remaining in the 机重量的变化 compressor 测量压缩机中 2. Drain and weigh oil from 油的存留量 compressor 倒出压缩机的油来称重 Mechanical Stress Test compressor on Failure mode analysis 失效模式分析 Test progressively more 机械应力实验 severe conditions to identify failure 通过逐渐加 大压缩机的负载来查明故障 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 31
  32. 32. Compressor Based Lubricant Special Evaluation Tests 压缩机油特殊条件评估实验 Test Title Test Objective Test Method 实验名称 实验目的 实验方法 Low Refrigerant How long can the Operate compressor at multiple Charge 油量充注过低 compressor run with low loads and speeds and evaluate refrigerant 测在油量充注过 compressor parts for wear 低时压缩机可以运行多久 在不同的负载与转速下运行压缩机, 然后评估零件的摩损结果 Operate compressor at multiple High Refrigerant How long can the loads and speeds and evaluate Charge 油量充注过高 compressor run with high compressor parts for wear refrigerant 测在油量充注过 在不同的负载与转速下运行压缩机, 高时压缩机可以运行多久 然后评估零件的摩损结果 Low Lubrication Test compressor on Operate compressor at multiple 油的润滑性低 progressively more loads and speeds and evaluate severe conditions to compressor parts for wear identify failure 通过逐渐加 在不同的负载与转速下运行压缩机, 大压缩机的负载来查明故障 然后评估零件的摩损结果 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 32
  33. 33. Compressor Based Lubricant Field Usage Base Tests 压缩机油在车辆正常使用时的实验 Test Title Test Objective Test Method 实验名称 实验目的 实验方法 Customer Usage Run compressor bench 1. Compressor passes all testing 压缩 Testing test that simulates the 机通过所有的实验 客户使用实验 field usage 2. End of Test: Evaluate compressor 在实验台架上运行压缩机来模 parts for wear 实验完成后,评估压 拟车辆正常使用的情况 缩机零件的摩损结果 Migration Static movement of Check compressor after 30 or more 迁移 refrigerant from daily days of static testing for sufficient temperature change can lubrication remove oil from 在30天或更长的迁移实验后,检查压缩机 compressor 是否有足够的润滑油 由于每天的温度变化,在空调 系统不运作(静态)的情况 下,冷媒会在系统中流动而把 润滑油带离压缩机 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 33
  34. 34. Delphi Compressors (德尔福压缩机) Completed All Necessary Testing for R- 1234yf Refrigerant Successfully (顺利 完成了使用R-1234yf冷媒所有必要实验) Low Side Oil Return - via Detailed Review of Lubrication System OCR (对润滑系统的详细分析) Pd-Pc Flow via Control Valve Delphi’s Variable and Pc-Ps Flow via Fixed Bleed Fixed Compressors are Oil Separation / Crankcase Lubrication Validated for R-1234yf Oil Migration Crankcase Oil Retained into CC Due to 德尔福所有的定排量及变排量压缩 Pd- Pc Pressure Differential 机都对R-1234yf进行了合格验证 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 34
  35. 35. Delphi Product Portfolio Compact Variable Compressors - CVC (德尔福变排量压缩机 – CVC) VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT Internal Control 7CVC185 (内控) 内控) 内控 LARGE 7CVC165 Vehicle Size / AC Capacity 6CVC160 6CVC140 External Control- MID - SIZE Clutched (外控 - 带离合器) 带离合器) 6CVC125 SMALL 5CVC120 External Control- Clutchless MINI (外控 - 不带离合器) 不带离合器) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 35
  36. 36. Delphi Product Portfolio Fixed Displacement Compressors (德尔福定排量压缩机) FIXED DISPLACEMENT SP 20 HE LARGE SP 17 HE Vehicle Size / AC Capacity SP 15 HE MID - SIZE SP 13 HE SMALL SP 11 HE MINI Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 36
  37. 37. Materials Compatibility Materials Compatibility 材料兼容性 材料兼容性 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 37
  38. 38. Delphi Testing Approach – Lockport Technical Center Materials Lab (德尔福测试途径 –Lockport技术中心材料实验室) Test Methods (实验方法) – Compatibility with Mixture of R-1234yf and PAG (R-1234yf与PAG油混合的兼容性) » Hoses (Hose supplier – Delphi Limited Checks) (软管 – 仅德尔福供应商) » 75mm x 75mm “Slabs” of Material (75x75毫米的板材) » Thermoplastics (热塑性塑料 ) Key Properties (关键特性) – Swelling (肿胀 ) – Tensile Strength (拉伸强度) – Elongation (伸长率) – Hardness(硬度) Test Standards (实验标准) – General: PAG/ R1234yf at 150 C/ 168 hours (一般:PAG/ R1234yf 在150℃/ 168小时) – Tensile and Elongation ASTM D412 (拉伸伸长率: 美国ASTM标准 D412) – Volume Swell ASTM D471 (体积膨胀率: 美国ASTM标准 D471) – Change in hardness ASTM D2240 (硬度 变化率: 美国ASTM标准 D2240) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 38
  39. 39. Delphi Material Testing Plan Summary – Compressors (德尔福压缩机材料实验计划小结) Compatibility Testing of Nonmetallics for R-1234yf (非金属材料对R-1234yf兼容性测试) 兼容性测试) Tests: Compatibility (实验:兼容性) COMPRESSOR (压缩机) 压缩机) Part (零件) 零件) Material Type 材料种类 Visual /FTIR/TGA Dual Lip Seal 双密封唇轴封 HNBr Rubber No change / OK Electronic Control Valve 电子控制阀 HNBr Rubber No change / OK Body O-ring 壳体O型圈 EPDM Rubber No change / OK HPRV Outer O-ring Seal 高压阀O型圈外圈 HNBr Rubber No change / OK HPRV Inner O-ring Seal 高压阀O型圈内圈 HNBr Rubber No change / OK Pulley Bearing Seal 滑轮轴承密封垫 NBr Rubber No change / OK Torque Cushion 转矩靠垫 Butyl Rubber pending test Muffler Cover O-ring 消声器盖力矩O型圈 EPDM Rubber pending test Shipping Plug 运输保护盖 NBr Rubber pending test Piston Ring 活塞环 10% Graphite Teflon No change / OK Rear Head Gasket 后壳密封垫片 NBr Rubber pending test Delphi Materials Tested – OK 德尔福材料测试结果 - OK Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 39
  40. 40. Conclusion Conclusion 结论 结论 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 40
  41. 41. Conclusion(结论) Low GWP Refrigerant R-1234yf Has Been Developed for MAC Applications (R-1234yf 作为低GWP值冷媒在汽车空调系 统的应用已完成) Delphi Thermal Ready For Serial Production Programs With R-1234yf (德尔福热系统已对汽车空调系统的投产使用R-1234yf 做好了准备) R-1234yf Systems Cooling Capacity And Energy Use Can Match R-134a (R-1234yf 空调系统的制冷能力及能效可以达到R-134a系 统的制冷能力及能效) – May Require Addition of an IHX (也许要加一个IHX换热器) Common Component and Lubricant Between R-1234yf And R-134a Possible (在R-1234yf 和R-134a空调系统中使用共同的零件和润 滑剂是可能的) Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 41
  42. 42. Thank You Thank You 谢谢 谢谢 Thermal tdc 3.June.2010 42