Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Alternative Refrigerant Development

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GM-Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Alternative Refrigerant Development by Harry Eustice

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Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Alternative Refrigerant Development

  1. 1. A Vehicle Manufacturer’s Perspective on Alternative Refrigerant Development Presented By: June , 2010 Harry Eustice General Motors Company Engineering Group Manager 1
  2. 2. 一个整车制造企业对于替代制冷剂开发的观点 2010年6月 发言人: Harry Eustice 美国GM 工程经理 2
  3. 3. Perspective Outline • Status of Near Term New Low Global Warming Potential Mobile A/C Refrigerants • Review of Vehicle Manufacturer’s Refrigerant Strategies and Goals • Recommended Next Generation Alternative Refrigerant Development & Study Process 3
  4. 4. 观点概要 • 潜在汽车空调低GWP(全球变暖指数)制冷剂的 近况 • 汽车生产商对于制冷剂的策略和目标总结 • 已推荐的下一代替代制冷剂开发和研究过程 4
  5. 5. Alternative Refrigerants Evaluated • New Refrigerant Technologies Recently Evaluated by the MAC Industry – Multiple New Candidates Proposed by the Fluoride Chemical Industry (e.g., DP-1, AC-1,Fluid H etc.) – Several Flammable Refrigerant s via a Secondary Loop – R744 (CO2) – R1234yf 5
  6. 6. 曾经被评估的替代制冷剂 • 近年来被汽车空调行业评估过的新制冷剂 – 氟化物化工行业推荐的多种制冷剂(如DP-1, AC-1,Fluid H等) – 几种需要二次回路的可燃制冷剂 – R744 (CO2) 二氧化碳 – R1234yf 6
  7. 7. R744 & HFO1234yf System Development • 2 New Low GWP Refrigerant Candidates were Initially Identified that Might be Used without a Secondary Loop – Under Development for EU 2011 Regulations and US EPA Fuel Economy Credits • R744 (CO2) – All New MAC Technology • R1234yf – Modified existing R134a Technology 7
  8. 8. R744 & HFO1234yf 系统的开发 • 起初被认定可以应用并无需二次回路的2种低GWP的替代 制冷剂 – 在欧盟2011年的法规和美国环保局燃油经济性的要求 下进行了开发 • R744 (CO2) – 全新的汽车空调技术 • R1234yf – 在现有R134a技术的基础上进行更改 8
  9. 9. High Level R744 System Challenges • All New MAC Technology – Higher Pressures & Temperatures than R134a Drive All New System Designs • Reliability Issues – Sealing - Robust Joint Connections & Hose Couplings Not Available – Compressor - Maximum Temperature & RPM limitations, Poor Noise & Vibration • Fuel Economy Impact – Negative Impact in Hot Ambients • Cost – All New MAC Design System on-costs ~$400 USD per Vehicle • Supplier Readiness – Extremely Limited Qualified Supplier Base • Service Impact – Pressure Guidelines Limit the Reserve Charge Quantities (Limited Field Life) 9
  10. 10. R744 系统的挑战性概况 • 全新的汽车空调技术 –高于R134a系统的运行压力和温度要求全新的系统设计 • 可靠性问题 – 密封 – 可靠的管路连接方式尚未研究完成 – 压缩机 – 存在最高温度和转速的限制,噪声和振动差强人意 • 燃油经济性的影响 – 在较热环境温度下的负面影响突出 • 成本 – 所有全新系统设计带来的单车成本增加最高可达 $400 • 供应商的准备 – 非常有限的合格供应商资源 • 售后维修影响 – 过高的系统压力限制了系统预留充注量 (消费者对于车辆的使用寿命受 限) 10
  11. 11. R1234yf System Challenges • Material Compatibility – New PAG Oil Formulations are Required – New Oil Formulas Drive Considerable Compressor Validation • A/C Performance – 10-15% Less Thermodynamic Efficient as Compared to R134a – Almost “Drop-in” Vehicle Designs but Must be Optimized for Acceptable Comfort Performance Levels • Flammability – SAE Collaborative Risk Assessment Indicated Risks Comparable to R134a – Managed by DFMEA Practices and New SAE Standards • Commercialization and Patent Rights – Global Production Quantities are Hampered by Multiple Patent Claims Control – Global Supply Shortfall Caused by Patent Controls • Excessive Unit Cost – Estimated Refrigerant Cost is $80 to $100 USD per Kilogram – Current R134a Cost is $4 USD (average) 11
  12. 12. R1234yf 系统的挑战性 • 材料的兼容性 – 需要新配方的压缩机油 – 新配方的压缩机油需要考虑压缩机的新一轮验证 • 空调性能 – 与R134a系统相比,R1234yf的热力学效率有10-15%的降低 – 虽然无需其它改变,但设计必须进行优化来满足可接受的舒适性要求 • 可燃性 – SAE共同协作的风险评估指出同R134a相比,R1234yf存在风险 – 通过DFMEA(潜在失效模式分析)和新的SAE标准来加以控制 • 商品化和专利权益 – 全球生产总量受限于多种专利保护 – 由于专利控制,全球的供应将不足 • 系统的额外费用 – 预计每公斤制冷剂的成本在$80至$100 – 目前R134a的费用是每公斤 $4 (平均水平) 12
  13. 13. Near Term MAC Alternative Refrigerant Status • R744 Systems have Numerous Technical Challenges – All New MAC System Designs ─ Very High Total MAC System On-Cost ─ Questionable Reliability ─ After Several Years of Very Active Development Work, Most Work to Implement R744 in MACs has Stopped • Global Vehicle Manufacturer’s have Selected R1234yf as the Refrigerant to Meet the 2011 EU 2011 MAC Regulations ─ Only Low GWP Refrigerant & Technology Available to Meet Deadline ─ Validated by Intensive SAE Collaborative Evaluations • Challenges that May Prevent R1234yf from Becoming a Global Solution – High Refrigerant Cost – Global Production Controlled by Patent Claims – Anticipated Global Supply Shortages 13
  14. 14. 近期汽车空调制冷剂的状况 • R744 系统有下列技术难点: – 全新的汽车空调系统设计 ─ 非常高的整车成本 ─ 有质疑的可靠性 ─ 在几年非常积极的开发工作之后,多数的R744系统的开发工作目前已停止。 • 全球汽车生产商已经选定 R1234yf 来满足欧盟2011年的法规要求 ─ 只有R1234yf作为低GWP的制冷剂以及可用技术能够满足期限 ─ SAE共同广泛评估和验证了该制冷剂 • 下列因素可能阻止 R1234yf 成为全球制冷剂 – 过高的制冷剂成本 – 受限于专利控制的全球规模生产 – 比预期少的全球供应短缺 14
  15. 15. Reassessment of MAC Refrigerant Goals • One MAC Refrigerant Globally • Compliant to EU/US EPA and Other Future Global Initiatives – Global Warming Potential Less than 150 • Low toxicity – Comparable to R134a or R1234yf • Low Cost – Similar to R134a • Flammability – Non-flammable (preferable) – Comparable to R1234yf • Single compound, single molecule – Not a Multiple Compound Blend (preferable) 15
  16. 16. 汽车空调制冷剂目标的再次评估 • 只有一种全球认可的制冷剂 • 符合欧盟/美国环保要求以及其它未来的全球目标 – 潜在全球变暖 (GWP) 指数小于150 • 低毒性 – 与R134a 或者 R1234yf 相当 • 低成本 – 类似于 R134a • 可燃性 – 没有可燃性 (最好) – 与 R1234yf 相当 • 单一化合物,单分子结构 – 不是多种化合物的混合 (最好) 16
  17. 17. Reassessment of MAC Refrigerant Goals • Azeotropic Behavior Like a Single Compound – Minimal Temperature Glide and Fractionalization • Similar to R134a or Improved Thermodynamic Properties – Promotes a Known, Drop-in Technology – Faster Global Conversion, Lower Design & Retooling Costs • Chemical stability – No Sufficient Refrigerant or Oil Breakdown During Extended Usage • Acceptable Miscibility and Solubility with Current Refrigerant Oils • Compatibility with Today’s Refrigerant Materials and Elastomers • Acceptable Dielectric Properties (for Electric Compressors) 17
  18. 18. 汽车空调制冷剂目标的再次评估 • 如单分子的共沸特性 – 物理特性随温度和成分变化较小 • 类似于R134a 或者更加好的热力学特性 – 已知的制冷剂并可直接采纳现有技术 – 更快的全球转变,低设计和模具成本 • 化学稳定性 – 在长期使用中制冷剂或油不分解 • 与现有制冷剂油的可混合性和可溶解性 • 与现有制冷剂材料和橡胶材料兼容 • 可接受的介电性能(对于电动压缩机而言) 18
  19. 19. Next Generation MAC Alternative Refrigerant Development Recommendations • First Establish a Collaborative MAC Industry Effort – Do Not Wait for a Refrigerant Manufacturer Proposed Solution and Then React Thru Evaluations with Un-optimized Technology or Hardware. • A New Alternative can be Developed Faster by Several Key MAC Sectors Collaborating together Simultaneously. – For Example: A Lower Cost MAC Refrigerant may Need to Operate at Slightly Different Pressure Regimes. The Required Heat Exchangers &/or Compressors Revisions could be Developed in Parallel during any Long Lead Toxicity Testing Period (if needed). • Consider a Public Effort – Use Universities & Industry to Propose Refrigerant Candidates, – Form a Global Evaluation Team of Key Vehicle Manufacturers, HVAC Suppliers and Refrigerant Producers. – Utilize Global Engineering Societies, such as, CRAA, SAE & JAMA for Sanction and Guidance 19
  20. 20. 下一代汽车空调替代制冷剂开发建议 • 首先建立汽车空调行业的协作团队 – 不要等待制冷剂生产商来建议制冷剂,然后通过对未经过优化的技术和零件进行 评估后来反应 • 汽车空调行业的关键人员同时工作可以使新替代制冷剂开发得更快 – 如:一种低成本的汽车空调制冷剂可能需要在不同压力下运行,相关的换热器和/ 或者压缩机的开发就可以在长周期毒性试验(如果需要)中同步进行. • 考虑公共的资源 – 通过大学和行业来推荐潜在的替代制冷剂 – 形成一个主要汽车生产商、空调供应商和制冷剂生产商的全球评估团队 – 利用全球的工程协会如中国制冷学会 (CRAA),汽车工程学会 (SAE),日本汽车 学会(JAMA) 作为批准和指导。 20
  21. 21. Follow the Latest SAE Process to Evaluate Alternative Refrigerants Major SAE Refrigerant Successes ─ The MAC Industry Worked Together for the Conversion from R-12 to R-134a ─ R-134a Successfully Used Over the Past 19 years ─ Formed Lasting Global Committee of SAE Engineers Dedicated to Improving MAC Systems ─ Developed standards Covering all Aspects of R134a & R1234yf Usage including: Emissions, System Design, Safety, Best Practices, Service Equipment and Recovery ─ Developed good working relationship with EU & US EPA • Over the Past 3 years, SAE has Organized Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) • The Cooperative Research Programs Focused the MAC Industry to Successfully Address the Final Technical Hurdles of R1234yf Implementation
  22. 22. 采纳最新的SAE流程来评估替代制冷剂 SAE在制冷剂上取得的主要成就 ─ 汽车空调行业共同协作实现了R-12 到 R-134a 的转换 ─ 在过去的19年中,R-134a成功地得到应用 ─ 成立了由SAE成员参加的以改善汽车空调系统为目的的永久全球工作委员会 ─ 开发的标准囊括 R134a & R1234yf 应用的所有方面:排放,系统设计,安全,最佳 实践,维修设备和回收 ─ 建立了和欧盟&美国环保局的良好工作关系 • 在过去3年间,SAE组织了合作研究项目 - CRP • CRP致力于汽车空调行业,成功地指出了应用R1234yf所涉及的最后的技术障碍。
  23. 23. Follow the Latest SAE Process to Evaluate Alternative Refrigerants Establish Cooperative Research Teams • Follow the SAE Cooperative Research Program Process • Sponsored by Vehicle Manufacturers and HVAC & Refrigerant Suppliers • Utilize Universities to Help Define Possible Refrigerant Candidates • Utilize International Laboratories to Access the Best Available Expertise and to Guarantee Acceptance • Focused Investigations should Include: – Safety and risk assessment • Toxicity • Flammability – Air-conditioning system efficiency and performance – Material compatibility
  24. 24. 采纳最新的SAE流程来评估替代制冷剂 建立共同研究团队 • 采纳SAE CRP的流程 • 由整车生产商和空调 &制冷剂供应商赞助 • 利用大学来帮助确定可能的制冷剂 • 利用国际试验室资源来获取最好的专家支持和接受保证 • 致力的研究应该包括: – 安全和风险评估 • 毒性 • 可燃性 – 空调系统的效率和性能 – 材料的相容性
  25. 25. New SAE Alternative Refrigerant Standards Incorporate New SAE Standards Five Sub-Committees Industry Experts Develop Documents Interior Climate Control Standards Committee Members • Vehicle OEMs • A/C System Suppliers • Chemical Industry
  26. 26. SAE的新标准 一体化的SAE新标准 汽车委员会(MVC) 5个分委员会 行业专家 文档开发 乘客舱气候控制标准委员会 成员 • 整车制造企业 • 空调系统供应商 • 化工行业
  27. 27. New SAE Alternative Refrigerant Standards An Excellent Example: New R1234yf SAE Standards (Under development or revision to be published in 2010) Refrigerant Standard • J2844 Refrigerant Purity and Container Requirements for New HFO-1234yf Refrigerant Used in Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems System Design Standards • J2772 Measurement of Passenger Compartment Refrigerant Concentrations under system refrigerant leakage conditions • J2773 R-744 and HFO-1234yf Refrigerant Standard for Safety and Risk Analysis for use in Mobile Air Conditioning Systems • J2842 HFO-1234yf and R-744 Design Criteria and Certification for OEM Mobile Air Conditioning Evaporator and Service Replacements • J2064 R-134a and HFO-1234yf Refrigerant Automotive Air-Conditioning Hose and Assemblies 27
  28. 28. SAE替代制冷剂的新标准 一个优秀的例子: R1234yf SAE标准 (正在开发中并将于2010年颁布) 制冷剂的标准 • J2844:对于HFO-R1234yf 应用于汽车空调系统的制冷剂纯度和容器的要求 系统设计标准 • J2772:在系统泄露条件下乘客舱内制冷剂浓度的测量 • J2773:R-744 和 HFO-1234yf 应用于汽车空调系统中安全和风险分析的标准 • J2842:HFO-1234yf 和 R-744 在OEM 汽车空调应用中蒸发器和维护的的设计标准和 认可 • J2064:R-134a 和 HFO-1234yf 在汽车空调系统中使用对管路和装配的要求 28
  29. 29. New SAE Alternative Refrigerant Standards Service Equipment Standards • J2843 HFO-1234yf Recovery/Recycling/Recharging Equipment for Flammable Refrigerants for Mobile Air-Conditioning Systems • J2851 HFO-1234yf Refrigerant Recovery Equipment for Mobile Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems • J2888 HFO-1234yf Service Hose, Fittings and Couplers for Mobile Refrigerant Systems Service Equipment • J2912 HFO-1234yf Refrigerant Identification Equipment for Use with Mobile Air Conditioning Systems • J2913 HFO-1234yf Refrigerant Electronic Leak Detectors, Minimum Performance Criteria Technician Requirement Standards • J2845 Technician Training for Safe Service and Containment of Refrigerants Used in Mobile A/C Systems (R-744 and HFO-1234yf) • J2911 Procedure For Certification That Requirements For Mobile Air Conditioning System Components, Service Equipment and Service Technicians Meet SAE J Standards 29
  30. 30. SAE替代制冷剂的新标准 设备及售后维护标准 • J2843:汽车空调使用的可燃制冷剂 - HFO-1234yf 回收/ 再循环/ 再充注设备 • J2851:汽车空调使用 HFO-1234yf 的回收设备 • J2888:汽车空调售后维护 HFO-1234yf 的管路、接头装置 • J2912:汽车空调使用 HFO-1234yf 作为制冷剂的认可设备 • J2913:HFO-1234yf 制冷剂泄露的电子探测器,保证最低性能的标准 技术要求标准 • J2845:对维护应用 R744和 HFO-1234yf 汽车空调技师安全的培训要求 • J2911: 汽车空调系统零件、维护设备和维修技师满足SAE J 标准的认可步骤 30
  31. 31. New SAE Alternative Refrigerant Standards Incorporate SAE System Design Standards • J639 Safety Standards for Motor Vehicle Refrigerant Vapor Compression Systems – This document provides design standards and safety requirements – Also included are cautionary statements for the mobile air conditioning service industry – J639 Provides requirements and identifies SAE J Standard requirements for MAC systems including: J2842 Certification for OEM • System Design Requirements • Service Equipment Mobile Air Conditioning • Technician Certification Evaporator and Service Replacements J2845 Technician Training for Safe Service and Containment of Refrigerants 31
  32. 32. SAE替代制冷剂的新标准 集成的SAE 系统设计标准 • J639:汽车使用制冷剂压缩系统的 安全标准 – 这份文件提供了设计标准和安全要求 – 同时包括了汽车空调维护时所涉及的警 示标签 – J639 提供的汽车空调系统的SAE J 标准 可概况为: • 系统设计要求 • 维护设备 • 技师认可 J2842 是对OEM使用的空调 系统中蒸发器更换的认可标 准 J2845 是培训技师安全维护制冷 剂的标准 32
  33. 33. Follow the Latest SAE Process to Evaluate Risk of Alternative Refrigerants Implement Detailed Risk Assessments • Establish Fault Tree Analysis Method for Key Exposure Scenarios – Vehicle exposures – Repair exposures – HF Concentrations Produced by Thermal Decomposition • Incorporate Qualitative Evaluation of other Scenarios – Assembly plant workers – Parking garages, tunnels – Ecological impacts • Base Fault Tree Inputs on Measured data, Public Databases, and by Consensus of Vehicle Manufacturers HVAC and Safety engineers • Compare Results to other Refrigerant Risk Assessments & non-AC Related Automotive Risks
  34. 34. 采纳最新的SAE流程来评估替代制冷剂的风险 实施最详细的风险评估 • 建立问题分析树来分析主要的可能情况 – 车辆使用情况 – 维修情况 – 由于热分解产生的 氢氟化物 (HF) 浓度 • 对其它可能情况的定性评估 – 对装配厂员工的影响 – 停车库,隧道 – 生态影响 • 基本的问题输入来自于测量数据、公共数据库以及整车生产商空调和安 全工程师的共识意见 • 对比评估制冷剂本身的风险和非空调相关的整车风险
  35. 35. SAE Risk Assessment Process to Evaluate Alternative Refrigerants Potential risk of open flame in Engine Compartment Top Event AND Frequency of Probability Probability of Probability Initiating Event Refrigerant Sufficient Ignition attenuating (e.g. vehicle Concentration Source occurs factors absent collision) Exceeds LFL (e.g. hot surface) Considered •Event causes Considered normal •No other break in collisions, AC and refrigerant release operation, system fault, system non-AC failures, •Refrigerant not and extreme operating •Person present vehicle fires dispersed by air conditions •Person doesn’t leave •Concentration in •Windows/doors closed contact with •Blower ignition source •Vehicle speed exceeds LFL •OSA/recirc
  36. 36. SAE 对替代制冷剂的风险评估流程 发动机舱起火的潜在风险 极端事件 和 足以引燃制冷剂的 触发事件的频率 ( 制冷剂超过可燃 未列出因素削弱 可能性 如车辆碰撞) 上限的可能性 事件的可能性 (如热表面) 考虑碰撞,空调和非 • 事件导致制冷剂泄 考虑一般操作,系统失 • 系统没有其它泄露 空调失效,车辆起火 露 效和极端操作条件 • 有人出现制止 • 制冷剂不随空气扩 • 乘客没有离开 散 • 窗/门紧闭 • 有引燃源且浓度超 • 有一定车速 过可燃上限 • 外循环/ 内循环
  37. 37. SAE Risk Assessment Process to Evaluate Alternative Refrigerants Top Risk Event AND Speed Independent Speed Independent Events OR Speed Dependent High Medium Low Events Speed Speed Speed OR Frontal Side Impact Location Impact Impact Events Initiating event AND Other factors required for exposure (e.g., collision) AND AND Pre-Crash Breakage Breakage Breakage Refrigerant Energy or Volume or Windows/ Windows/ Type Occupant Occupant Timeline of concern of other AC Concentration Temperature Size Doors/ Doors/ Frequency Location Mobility component component Blower Blowers System and Passenger Variables Ignition or HBL Variables
  38. 38. SAE 对替代制冷剂的风险评估流程 Top Risk Event AND Speed Independent Speed Independent Events OR Speed Dependent High Medium Low Events Speed Speed Speed OR Frontal Side Impact Location Impact Impact Events Initiating event AND Other factors required for exposure (e.g., collision) AND AND Pre-Crash Breakage Breakage Breakage Refrigerant Energy or Volume or Windows/ Windows/ Type Occupant Occupant Timeline of concern of other AC Concentration Temperature Size Doors/ Doors/ Frequency Location Mobility component component Blower Blowers System and Passenger Variables Ignition or HBL Variables
  39. 39. The SAE Process Provides the Basis of Industrial Confidence “Voice of the MAC Industry” = Basis of Confidence • Focused Collaboration – Multiple & Parallel Resources, Speed, Best Customer Value • SAE Standards – Standards and Practices to Assure Proper System Design, Engineering, Manufacturing and Servicing for MAC Alternative Refrigerants • Risk Analyses – Conservative Assumptions – Scientifically Valid – Reviewed by Industry Experts – Ensures that Refrigerant & Vehicle are Acceptable for Market – • Addresses Regulatory Concerns • Ensures that Vehicle Safety Will Not Be Compromised
  40. 40. SAE 流程提供了基本行业信心 “汽车空调行业呼声” = 基本信心 • 专注的共同协作 – 多样的 & 并行资源利用,速度,最佳客户价值 • SAE 标准 – 标准和实践保证汽车空调替代制冷剂的应用有恰当的系统设计、工程工作、生 产和维护 • 风险分析 – 保守的假设 – 科学有效 – 行业专家的评审 – 确保制冷剂和车辆被市场接受和认可 • 提出质疑 • 确保车辆安全不会受到影响
  41. 41. GM Pioneering Refrigerant History • In the 1930’s GM Frigidaire Led the Refrigerant Industry to Develop R-12 Technology • In the 1940’s GM Cadillac Pioneered Mobile A/C System Design & Development • In the 1990’s GM Helped the Globe Implement R134a • Recently GM has Accelerated the Global Development of Several Low GWP Refrigerants “Today….GM Continues to Lead and Assist MAC Alternate Refrigerant Initiatives that Will Protect the Global Environment” 41
  42. 42. GM 在制冷剂应用历史上的先锋作用 • 二十世纪三十年代,GM 的 Frigidaire公司领导了制冷剂 行业开发R-12的技术 • 二十世纪四十年代,GM 凯迪拉克引领了汽车空调系统 的设计和开发 • 九十年代,GM 帮助全球采纳了R134a • 近来,GM 加速了全球开发几种低GWP制冷剂的进程 “今天….GM 继续引领和帮助汽车空调行业替代制 冷剂的研究,必将起到保护全球环境的重要作用 42
  43. 43. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!! 谢谢! 43

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