Danfoss CO2 solutions                        www.danfoss.com/CO2
History of using CO2 as refrigerant1850 Aleksandar Twining in his British patent suggested CO2 as  refrigerant1867 Thaddeu...
History of using CO2 as refrigerant                       CO2 compressor                       from 1900                  ...
Characteristics of CO2                  (Carbon dioxide / R744)•   Natural substance ( ODP = 0 ; GWP = 1 )•   Refrigerant ...
Characteristics of CO2                (Carbon dioxide / R744)• High volumetric cooling capacity      smaller dimensions of...
Drivers of future refrigerantsTradition ….                                  Environmental                                 ...
Global warming potential GWP iOzone depletion potential ODP        Global Warming Potential (GWP)100a       20.000        ...
Global warming potential GWP iOzone depletion potential ODP                                 8
Global warming in perspective What is the mileage you can make with Volkswagen Golf 2.0 TDI in order to emit same amount o...
CO2 - a natural choice for refrigeration•   No tax on refrigerant•   No charge limitation•   Cascade systems applicable in...
CO2 in comparison with other refrigerants                  Refrigerant         R134a        R404a   NH3     CO2Natural sub...
12
Transcritical Energy Savings        Energy savings of                                                          Mean Annual...
Transcritical vs. Subcritical         Transcritical & Subcritical CO2                                           • Copenhag...
Principal diagram CO2 cascade system with 2 temperaturelevels (e.g. supermarket refrigeration)                      Pump c...
Characteristics of CO2 cascade system                             •   Efficient in all climate areas                      ...
Experiences• Mostly good experiences, but larges issues can occur with  dimensioning of pipes, heat exchangers and problem...
Cascade HFC - CO2 system
CO2 cascade system                      Industrial                     refrigeration                        19
Why CO2 in industrial applications ?• Faster reaction time  to any temperature change• Pipelines are much smaller  compari...
Program for calculating energy savings with CO2 assecondary refrigerant www.danfoss.com/COtoo CO2 calculator helps you est...
Energy efficiency comparison between R404A/CO2 cascade  system and conventional R404A i R22 systems in retail  storesA. Si...
Energy efficiency comparison between R404A/CO2 cascadesystem and conventional R404A i R22 systems in retailstores         ...
Energy efficiency comparison between R404A/CO2 cascadesystem and conventional R404A i R22 systems in retailstores         ...
CO2 Transcritical Booster             5       4    6                        39            7           810        11       ...
CO2 Transcritical Booster                            CO2 Trans-critical Booster                            •   Efficient i...
CO2 Transcritical Booster   Gas cooler                                              HT compressorHigh pressureregulatorGas...
Market Drivers for Refrigerants 1. Legislation    – Tax on refrigerants    – Refrigerant charge    – F-gas 2. Operating co...
Legislation, Subsidies, & Taxes                                 Subsidies: Japan, Germany,                                ...
Taxes on refrigerants in Denmark, Sweden and Norway                                  2010     2011      2010     2011Refri...
Taxes on refrigerants in Slovenia Company responsible for keeping record about refrigerants, pays after first installation...
Market trends CO2 status Nordic•   Subcritical CO2    – Several hundreds of various types of installations    – more than ...
Market trends CO2 status Great BritainThe Environmental Investigation Agency releases  Chilling Facts III report ; March 2...
Market trends CO2 in Eastern EuropePolandSince 2008 several industrial cascade NH3/CO2 plants; capacities 300-600 kWOne su...
Future trends• Today systems build are between 25 and 300 kW• Future systems will be smaller to cover gas stations and sma...
Large systems•   Netto Central storage facility    vest of Århus (Denmark)•   Total installed capacity    approx 1,5 MW•  ...
Large systems  Storage of fruit and vegetables  Måkested Norway:  Booster with gas-by-pass, DX  Capacity: 2 x 400 kW  Evap...
Parken in Copenhagen – AC with DX CO2   Gas by-pass system with DX CO2   3 x 400 kW installed capacity   Evaporation tempe...
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Carbon dioxide solutions

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Transcript of "Carbon dioxide solutions"

  1. 1. Danfoss CO2 solutions www.danfoss.com/CO2
  2. 2. History of using CO2 as refrigerant1850 Aleksandar Twining in his British patent suggested CO2 as refrigerant1867 Thaddeus S.C. Lowe (adviser of Abraham Lincoln) experimented with military balloons and designed first ice making device with CO2. He also constructed device for transport frozen food on ships.1920 – 1930 systems with CO2 are at their peak, mostly in marine applications, while NH3 was mostly used on land.By apearing of “Freon” R12 use of CO2 significantly dropped, mostly because of drop of cooling capacity and high pressure on higher outside temperatures.1993 New focus on CO2 as natural refrigerant, encouraged by limitations of CFC i HFC as well as demands to limit amount of NH3 in installations. 2
  3. 3. History of using CO2 as refrigerant CO2 compressor from 1900 Peak of CO2 usageSuggestion to useCO2 as refrigerant(Alexander Twining, Rediscover of CO2British patent) cooling technology (Gustav Lorentzen) 1850 1920 ----------1930 1960 1993 3
  4. 4. Characteristics of CO2 (Carbon dioxide / R744)• Natural substance ( ODP = 0 ; GWP = 1 )• Refrigerant classified as non toxic and non flammable• Dangerous for humans if concentration exceeds 5000 ppm (0,5% v/v)• Odourless• Heavier than air (app 1,5 times)• High volumetric cooling capacity smaller dimensions of suction pipeline smaller compression volume in compressor• Compatible with most of materials (non corrosive)• Less sensitive to pressure drop in pipeline• Low critical point (31° high triple point (-56.6° C) C), 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of CO2 (Carbon dioxide / R744)• High volumetric cooling capacity smaller dimensions of suction pipeline smaller compression volume in compressor• Low viscosity liquid and gas pipelines (small pressure drop)• High coefficient of heat exchange during evaporation and condensation• Compatible with most of materials (non corrosive)• Less sensitive to pressure drop in pipeline• Low critical point (31° high triple point (-56. 6° C), C) 5
  6. 6. Drivers of future refrigerantsTradition …. Environmental Protection Charges or Initial subvention costs Buduće Legislations Efficiency rješenje “Green” Sustainable profile development Safety 6
  7. 7. Global warming potential GWP iOzone depletion potential ODP Global Warming Potential (GWP)100a 20.000 protokol Kyoto 4.000 R404A 2.000 Montreal protokol 7
  8. 8. Global warming potential GWP iOzone depletion potential ODP 8
  9. 9. Global warming in perspective What is the mileage you can make with Volkswagen Golf 2.0 TDI in order to emit same amount of CO2 equivalent to leakage of 1kg R404A. 30.000 kmEquatorial Retail store with 500 kg load of R404A and 10%circumference of early leakage meansthe Earth 1.500.000 km**40.070 km! * CO2 emission per km. 129 g/km **GWP of 404a is 3983 according to IPCC AR4 (100 year radiative forcing)
  10. 10. CO2 - a natural choice for refrigeration• No tax on refrigerant• No charge limitation• Cascade systems applicable in all weather conditions• Green profile• Less energy consumption than indirect systems• One refrigerant ( transcritical)• Simple system (transcritical) CO2
  11. 11. CO2 in comparison with other refrigerants Refrigerant R134a R404a NH3 CO2Natural substance NO NO YES YESOzone Depletion Potential (ODP) * 0 0 0 0Global Warming Potential (GWP) * 1300 3784 - 1Critical point bar 40.7 37.3 113 73.6 °C 101.2 72 132.4 31.1Triple point bar 0.004 0.028 0.06 5.18 °C -103 -100 -77.7 -56.6Flamable or explosive NO NO (YES) NOToxic NO NO YES NO * prEN 378-1 (2003) 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Transcritical Energy Savings Energy savings of Mean Annual transcritical CO2 Temperature compared to single stage s •Stockholm 10% R404A 0 - 5°C •Copenhagen 9% •Berlin 3% •London 4% 5- 10°C •Paris 0% •Vienna 1% 10 - •Rom -10% 15°C •Istanbul -9% •Madrid -7% 15 - 20°C
  14. 14. Transcritical vs. Subcritical Transcritical & Subcritical CO2 • Copenhagen 9% Paris 0%• Seattle 3%• • Buffalo 1% • Rom -10% Sapporo 3%• Subcritical CO2 Subcritical CO2 Cape Town -10%• Melbourne -4%• Energy savings of Transcritical & Subcritical CO2 transcritical CO2 compared to single stage R404A
  15. 15. Principal diagram CO2 cascade system with 2 temperaturelevels (e.g. supermarket refrigeration) Pump circulating system / -7° C Direct expansion / -20° C 15
  16. 16. Characteristics of CO2 cascade system • Efficient in all climate areas • Usage of CO2 lowers the amount of HFC refrigerant (system charge) • If combined with NH3 or Hydrocarbons on upper side of cascade, 100% ecological solution • CO2 is practical when used in low temperature cooling • Highest pressure in the system is 40 bar, so copper pipelines and standard components can be used • 70% - 90% lower consumption of el. energy for recirculation, comparing to brine systems 16
  17. 17. Experiences• Mostly good experiences, but larges issues can occur with dimensioning of pipes, heat exchangers and problems on HT system• HC or HFC system on HT side• CO2 on LT and MT (25/40 bar systems)• Typical system: -30°C evaporation on LT CO2 system -10° evaporation on MT CO2 system C• CO2 condensation at -10° C• Direct expansion on LT and pump (or natural) recirculation on MT• In large systems, CO2 pump uses app. 10% el. energy 17
  18. 18. Cascade HFC - CO2 system
  19. 19. CO2 cascade system Industrial refrigeration 19
  20. 20. Why CO2 in industrial applications ?• Faster reaction time to any temperature change• Pipelines are much smaller comparing to brine systems• Energy consumption for recirculation is few percentage comparing to classical systems 20
  21. 21. Program for calculating energy savings with CO2 assecondary refrigerant www.danfoss.com/COtoo CO2 calculator helps you estimate energy savings using CO2 as secondary refrigerant comparing traditional systems with water mixtures 21
  22. 22. Energy efficiency comparison between R404A/CO2 cascade system and conventional R404A i R22 systems in retail storesA. Silva(a) , E. Almeida(b) ,E.P. Bandarra Filho(c)(a), (b)Bitzer Compressores Ltda , Brazil.(c)Faculty of Mechanical Engineering – FederalUniversity of Uberlandia, Brazil9th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference 2010,Sydney 22
  23. 23. Energy efficiency comparison between R404A/CO2 cascadesystem and conventional R404A i R22 systems in retailstores 23
  24. 24. Energy efficiency comparison between R404A/CO2 cascadesystem and conventional R404A i R22 systems in retailstores 24
  25. 25. CO2 Transcritical Booster 5 4 6 39 7 810 11 1 2 12
  26. 26. CO2 Transcritical Booster CO2 Trans-critical Booster • Efficient in mild climates • One refrigerant • Controls available today – Gas-cooler controls – Receiver pressure controls • Standstill security • Oil management solved • Excellent potential for heat reclaim.
  27. 27. CO2 Transcritical Booster Gas cooler HT compressorHigh pressureregulatorGas “by-pass” “by-valve MTExpansionvalve Booster / LT compressor LT
  28. 28. Market Drivers for Refrigerants 1. Legislation – Tax on refrigerants – Refrigerant charge – F-gas 2. Operating cost – Energy – Service – Refrigerant cost 3. Green profile - Carbon footprint
  29. 29. Legislation, Subsidies, & Taxes Subsidies: Japan, Germany, Quebec TAX on F-gases: DK, NO, SE, etc. Russia North America Europe Japan Middle East Asia California? Africa Charge limitations: Denmark, Austria, …. South America Australia Legislation forces the use of natural refrigerants
  30. 30. Taxes on refrigerants in Denmark, Sweden and Norway 2010 2011 2010 2011Refrigerant KR / kg KR / kg € / kg € / kgHFC-23 (R-23) 400 600 54,1 81,1HFC-134a (R-134a) 130 215 17,6 29,1R-404A (HFC-143a/HFC-125/134a) 378 588 51,1 79,5R-407C (HFC-32/HFC-125/134a) 165 266 22,3 35,9R-410A (HFC-32/HFC-125) 198 313 26,8 42,3R-507 (HFC-125/HFC-143a) 385 598 52,0 80,8http://www.skm.dk/tal_statistik/satser_og_beloeb/184.html
  31. 31. Taxes on refrigerants in Slovenia Company responsible for keeping record about refrigerants, pays after first installation 5% targeted tax level for 2013. For refilling of the installation, following taxes apply: Tax 1.1.2013 GWP € / kg R404A 3784 93,4 40,5 R134a 1300 93,4 13,9 01.01.2009 01.01.2010 01.01.2011 01.01.2011 01.01.2013 10% 20% 40% 80% 100% R404A 4,05 8,1 16,2 32,4 40,5 R134a 1,39 2,78 5,56 11,12 13,9
  32. 32. Market trends CO2 status Nordic• Subcritical CO2 – Several hundreds of various types of installations – more than 10 years of experience but now in decline because of simpler transcritical systems and high taxes on HFC refrigerants• Transcritical stores – 2006 > 5 stores – 2007 > 50 stores – 2008 > 150 installations – 2009 > 300 – 2010 > 500 – 2011 > 700• Market standard appears to become 1. Cascade MT pump CO2 and LT CO2 DX 2. Transcritical booster systems Most ambitious is IKEA saying a carbon footprint of 0% !!!
  33. 33. Market trends CO2 status Great BritainThe Environmental Investigation Agency releases Chilling Facts III report ; March 2011HFC-free refrigeration in UK – 2008 > 14 – 2009 > 193 – 2010 > 239TESCO ; HFC-free, 57 in UK, 23 outside UKMarks & Spencer ; 29 stores by April 2011. Totally HFC-free by 2030Sainbury ; 2 stores in 2009, 71 stores by March 2011Morrisons ; hybrid systems in 23 stores• Tesco, Sainsbury, COOP and many others say reduction of carbon footprint by 20-30 % by 2020
  34. 34. Market trends CO2 in Eastern EuropePolandSince 2008 several industrial cascade NH3/CO2 plants; capacities 300-600 kWOne supermarket applicationRussiaIndustrial cascade NH3/CO2 plants ; 2 storage, 2 production, 1 sport facilityHungary4 years of experienceIn beginning subcritical systems but now transcritical is more attractiveApplications in supermarket and industrial refrigerationAprox. 10 subcritical and 40 transcritical systems
  35. 35. Future trends• Today systems build are between 25 and 300 kW• Future systems will be smaller to cover gas stations and small stores segment• Bigger systems will also be a more common application taking over from ammonia in some cases• Transcritical CO2 will also be used in large AC systems
  36. 36. Large systems• Netto Central storage facility vest of Århus (Denmark)• Total installed capacity approx 1,5 MW• Transcritical gas by pass system• Heat reclaim 1,5 MW at 70/40 ºC water• Start up Q2 2009
  37. 37. Large systems Storage of fruit and vegetables Måkested Norway: Booster with gas-by-pass, DX Capacity: 2 x 400 kW Evaporation temperature: -10ºC/ -35ºC Economy: 20 % saving on installation and approx 20 % saving on energy. Compared to cascade systems
  38. 38. Parken in Copenhagen – AC with DX CO2 Gas by-pass system with DX CO2 3 x 400 kW installed capacity Evaporation temperature 7-8 ºC Economy: 20% saving on installation and 15% saving on energy compared with high end HFC chillers
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