Computers Then: Solvents containing CFCs and methyl chloroform were used to clean circuit boards during their production. Now: Some companies have eliminated the need to clean circuit boards during their production. Others use water or have temporarily switched to HCFCs. Polystyrene Cups and Packing Peanuts Then: Some polystyrene cups and foam packing “peanuts”were made using CFCs. Now: These products are made with materials that do not deplete the ozone layer. Aerosol Cans Then: CFCs were the propellant used in various spray cans. Now: Pumps and alternative propellants using hydrocarbons are being used. Air Conditioners Then: CFCs were used as the coolant in household and car air conditioners. Now: HCFCs and HFCs have replaced CFCs in household units; HFCs have replaced CFCs in car air conditioners. Furniture Then: Foam-blowing agents containing CFCs were used in furniture making. Now: Water-blown foam is being used. Refrigerators Then: CFCs were used in refrigerator coolants and foam insulation. Now: HFCs have replaced CFCs, and substitutes are on the horizon that will have reduced greenhouse gas impacts. Fire Extinguishers Then: Halons were commonly used in hand-held fire extinguishers. Now: Conventional dry chemicals, which don’t deplete the ozone layer, and water have replaced halons. HFCs are also used. Degreasers Then: CFCs or methyl chloroform were used in many solvents for degreasing. Now: Water-soluble compounds and hydrocarbon degreasers that do not deplete the ozone layer are available for many applications.
Replace HFC-134a with HFO-1234yf in MVAC, isobutane in household refrigerators and freezers, and propane in retail refrigerators and freezers. Numbers are per year at some date in future – not meant to be cumulative….numbers would increase as market increases Assume a transition over time from HFC-134a (GWP of 1430) to: - HFO-1234yf, with same charge size as for 134a and GWP=4 (MVAC) (assume consistent with F-gas rule so 2011-2017 timeframe) isobutane, with reduced charge size of 50 g (compared to 125 g for HFC-134a), and GWP=8 (Household refrigerators/freezers) propane, with reduced charge size of 90 g (compared to 220 g for HFC-134a), and GWP=3 (Commercial freezers) Background: European directive restricts future use of high-GWP refrigerants in car A/C systems Current HFC phaseout in EU from 2011-2017 U.S. car manufacturers examining options, including CO 2 Moving to low-GWP alternatives: a positive step for climate Action: Allow safe use of CO 2 refrigerant as option for new car A/C systems Final rule at OMB since 2007 Annual climate benefits: 14 MMTCO 2 E emissions avoided
United Nations Environment Programme International Workshop on next-generation technologies for Mobile Vehicles’ Air Conditioning June 3, 2010 Stratospheric Protection Division
CAA §609 no later than 1991 required EPA to promulgate regulations establishing standards and requirements regarding the servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners
No person repairing or servicing motor vehicles for consideration may perform any service on a motor vehicle air conditioner involving the refrigerant for such air conditioner without properly using approved refrigerant recycling equipment and no such person may perform such service unless such person has been properly trained and certified.
Certification that each person performing service on motor vehicle air conditioners for consideration shall certify to EPA that they have acquired, and are properly using approved refrigerant recycling equipment in service on motor vehicle air conditioners involving refrigerant and that each individual authorized by such person to perform such service is properly trained and certified
Prohibit the sale and distribution of any ozone depleting refrigerant suitable for use in an MVAC in a container which contains less than 20 pounds of such refrigerant.
Refrigerant Choices 1987 MONTREAL PROTOCOL FUTURE? Future is still not certain in the U.S. unknown. 1950 HCFC CFC NH3 1930 CFC NH3 CO2 HC 2010 HCFC HFC NH3 CO2 HCs 1990 HFC CFC HCFC NH3
Refrigeration and A/C Sectors Across the board HCFC-22 Industrial Process Refrigeration HFC-134a R-404A HCFC-22 Transport Refrigeration (ship, rail, truck cargo HFC-134a R-410A R-407C Ammonia HC CFC-11 HCFC-22 HCFC-123 Chillers HFC blend R-410A HCFC-22 Residential a/c (split and heat pumps) HFC blends (R-404A, R-507, R-422D) HCFC-22 Supermarket refrigeration HFC-134a HCFC-22 Residential Dehumidifiers N/A HFC-134a/HCFC-141b foam Residential freezers HFC blend R-152a, CO2, HFO-1234yf HFC-134a Motor vehicle a/c HFC blends R-410A and R-407A available HCFC-22 Window a/c HFC-134a HFC-245fa HCFC-141b foam HFC-134a foam N/A HFC-134a Residential refrigerators Possible Transition in the U.S. Current Refrigerant (majority of sector new sales) Sector
Expanding Alternatives Menu: Some ref/AC transitioned to high-GWP HFCs; some are moving beyond
Current SNAP activities includes evaluating substitutes that, compared to current options, offer significantly lower- or no-GWP options:
HFO-1234yf NPRM proposed for MVACs, final rule under development
Supports OTAQ GHG rule
CO2 NODA issued for MVACs, final rule under development
CO2 found acceptable (Notice 24) for commercial refrigeration