Replacing HCFC in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Bogota

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Replacing HCFC in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Technology and introduction to UNEP case study report. (Klas Berglof, Consultant).

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Replacing HCFC in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Bogota

  1. 1. REPLACING HCFC IN REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITININGTechnology and introduction to UNEP case study reportBogota, April 2010<br />Klas Berglöf, <br />Berglof Refrigeration Technology Ltd <br />SWEDEN<br />klas@berglof-kylteknologi.se<br />Tel. int +46 70 594 95 52<br />
  2. 2. What is affected by HCFC phase out?<br />HCFC refrigerants main product and applications<br />R-22 used in <br />Air-conditioning<br />Split and unitary systems<br />Chillers<br />Industrial Refrigeration<br />Commercial Refrigeration<br />Super market, Specialty shops<br />Cold rooms, Restaurants, bars<br />Transport refrigeration<br />Trucks<br />Trains <br />Boats<br />R-123, R-124, “Service Blends” with R-22 and/or R-124 <br />
  3. 3. Need for alternatives to HCFC in<br />New installations<br />Existing plants<br />Retrofits<br />Standard HFC<br />Drop in blends<br />Replacement of system<br />Minimize leaks<br />
  4. 4. Evaluate situation first<br />Application and system status should be evaluated before decision <br />Replacement might be a more cost/energy efficient alternative<br />Retrofits to standard HFC ensure availability of refrigerants at service<br />Refrigerant from retrofitted systems important for re-use<br />Retrofit to “standard” HFC ODS is often possible from R-22<br />More focus on proper installation and service methods required<br />Knowledge and experience is important to avoid problems<br />
  5. 5. Four main routes to replace HCFCs in the RAC sector.<br />Ammonia NH3<br />Hydrocarbons Isobutane, Propane and propylene <br />Carbon dioxide CO2<br />Hydrofluoro carbons HFCa. “Standard HFCs”, R-134a, R-404A, R-407C, R-410Ab. Drop-in blends to extend life in existing systems at lower cost<br />The three first low global warming but more challenging to use cost effectively and safe.<br /> Future may include new alterantives? <br /> Low GWP options from chemical industry - HFO1234yf +<br />
  6. 6. UNEP Report onAlternatives to HCFC with case studies<br />Report describe <br />Markets using HCFC (in particular R-22)<br />Available alternatives<br />Technical options and challenges<br />Cases from different technologies and applications<br />
  7. 7. Ammonia<br />Good refrigerant properties except not compatible with copper<br />Toxic<br />Well known refrigerant in industrial applications<br />Increased market chare in these applications<br />Some introduction in larger air-conditioning chillers<br />
  8. 8. Case Study Ammonia<br />State of the art low charge Ammonia replaces screw chiller converted from R-22 to R-404A as leakage was to high with ester oil and HFC.<br />Low charge ammonia with miscible oil and expansion valve reduce charge and facilitates unmanned operation.<br />
  9. 9. Hydrocarbons<br />Good refrigerants but flammable<br />Extremely soluble in traditional refrigeration oils <br />need attention/change of oil and/or design<br />R-600a iso-butane<br />Fully accepted in domestic appliances <br />R-290 propane<br />Introduced in domestic heat pumps but withdrawn due to high rate of compressor failures<br />Introduction in compact systems and air to water chillers and water to water chillers placed outside or with special exhaust ventilation<br />Tested in many other applications as similar to R-22 and low GWP<br />R-1270 propylene (mainly same market as R-290)<br />Less capacity loss relative R-22 than R-290<br />Otherwise as R-290<br />Mixtures of hydrocarbons to match existing CFCs/HCFCs<br />
  10. 10. Case Study on Hydrocarbons<br />5 chillers in fruit storage with R-1270<br />A secondary fluid used to transport the cooling to the storage to minimize flammability risk.<br />
  11. 11. Carbon dioxide<br />Used in refrigeration before “safety refrigerants”<br />High pressures require totally new design ( 100 Bar(g) +) <br />Low critical temperature (32 deg. C) - <br />COP is normally negatively affected in supercritical operation<br />Supercritical operation at normal condensing temperatures at high ambient<br />Introduced in larger low temperature cascade systems<br />Field tests in supercritical supermarket systems especially in colder regions with average low ambient = condensing<br />Large introduced in domestic hot water heat pumps in Japan (subsidised)<br />Some introduction in Scandinavia in domestic heat pump for space heating <br />
  12. 12. Carbon Dioxide applications<br />Sub critical (condensing <32 dgC)<br />Low temperature stage industrial cascade systems<br />Field tests low temperature cascade in super market<br />Super critical (condensing >32dgC)<br />Heat pumps air to water for domestic hot water<br />commercialised in Japan with assistance of subsidies<br />Automotive air-conditioning large scale field test<br />Field test in supermarket good COP claimed in colder climate<br />Evaluated in many projects issues are:<br />- Pressure, COP and price<br />
  13. 13. Low temp<br />Medium temp<br />Case Studies on Carbon Dioxide<br />Supermarket application and air to water heat pump<br />Carbon dioxide systems are installed in significant number in Europe today<br />Cost and energy efficiency are the challenges<br />Carbon dioxide heat pump for heating and hot water<br />
  14. 14. HFC alternatives ”standard” range<br />R-134a to replace R-12 and R22 in some sectors (i.e larger chillers)<br />R-404A and R-507 to replace R-502 (very similar) (i.e. commercial refr.) R-22 in commercial refrigeration<br />R-407C, R-410A, R-134a to replace R-22 in AC<br />R-410A mainly in smaller AC-systems such as split air conditioning <br />High pressure/capacity without glide<br />R-407C most common in medium sized systems<br />Similar to R-22 in pressure and capacity but have ”glide”<br />R-134a mainly in larger chiller systems (in particular screw/centrifugal)<br />Lower pressure/capacity but cost effective in larger system<br />
  15. 15. Alternatives to R-22 in air conditioning <br />R-134a <br />Lower capacity (60%) <br />Often preferred in larger chillers<br /> R407C<br />Closest match in pressure and capacity <br />Have a “Glide” of 4-6 K which require relevant knowledge<br />Often the preferred alternative in small and medium sized chillers<br />R407A <br />Marketed again after several years on the shelf due to low GWP<br />R410A<br />High pressure alternative (+ 40 Bar(g)) <br />High capacity > compact systems<br />Often preferred alternative in reversible unitary and split systems <br />
  16. 16. UNEP Report describeHFC market situation - major trends<br />Split and unitary system > R-410A<br />Chillers mainly R-407C and R-134a<br />
  17. 17. R-404A/R-507 as alternative to R-22 <br />R-404A/R-507 are optimized for commercial refrigeration (i.e. high compression ratio without excessive discharge temp.)<br />Most suitable below –10°C evaporation <br />Used as single refrigerant in commercial application to avoid several refrigerants in one site<br />Insignificant ”glide” and low discharge temperature<br />Reduced COP compared to R-22 (and R-407C) at high evaporation.<br />Higher condensing pressure than R-22 can result in operation problems at high ambient.<br />Poor COP and high pressures result in high load on electrical motor at high evaporation can result in overload<br />
  18. 18. 3 Retrofit routes<br />Drop in – service blends<br /><ul><li>Fix oil transport with hydrocarbons that dissolves in oil</li></ul>“Standard HFC” alternatives – oil change<br /><ul><li>With repeated oil change = oil change method</li></ul>“Long term” alternatives - flushing<br /><ul><li>Flushing with the old refrigerant to remove oil in one go (special flushing equipment modified recycling unit)</li></ul>Method with flushing with solvent raise questions as it creates a waste problem with solvent contaminated with chlorine containing oil<br />
  19. 19. UNEP Case studyCommercial refrigeration Retrofit to R-404ASplit air-conditioning retrofit to R-407C <br />
  20. 20. UNEP report case study on drop in blend in chiller application<br />
  21. 21. Are there problem with service ”blends”?<br />First generation often contained R22 <br />Often a hydrocarbon component to improve oil-transport<br />No standard more than 50 different products available<br />Service organisations can not keep up if to may enter market<br />HFC<br />R417A<br />R422A/D<br />R424A<br />R427A<br />R428A<br />R434A<br />Arkema<br />Ausimont<br />DuPont<br />Honeywell<br />Ineos<br />+ China<br />+ India<br />R409A<br />R406A<br />R405A<br />R403A<br />R403B<br />R401A/B<br />R402A/B<br />R411B<br />HFO1234yf<br />+RXXXY<br />The trade needs a limited number of standards refrigerants<br />Large number of ServiceBlends is a problem<br />
  22. 22. Drop in replacements<br />R-417A<br />Blend with hydrocarbon (R600) component to allow use with mineral oil<br />Lower capacity in most application<br />Glide (but lower than R-407C)<br />R-422A optimised for air conditioning<br />Similar with R-417A above but use R-600a instead and has a capacity more like R-22<br />Glide (but lower than R-407C)<br />R-422D optimised for commercial R-22 applications<br />Similar with above but use R-600a instead and has a capacity more like R-22 (R-422D aimed for AC, R-422A aimed for Commercial)<br />Glide (but lower than R-407C)<br />R427A FX100 <br />No hydrocarbon - advice is replacing min 85% of mineral oil with ester oil (concern of cleaning of systems when ester oils are added)<br />Glide (but lower than R-407C)<br />
  23. 23. Drop in replacements cont.<br />R-424A (RS-44)<br />Formulated to replace R22 in air-conditioning<br />Blend with hydrocarbon (R600) component to allow use with mineral oil<br />Lower discharge temperature<br />Glide<br />R-428A (RS-52)<br />Formulated to replace R22 and R502 in commercial refrigeration <br />Similar with R-424A above <br />Glide (but lower than R-407C)<br />R-434D (RS-45)<br />Similar with above but lower glide to work better in flooded system<br />Not recommended for capillary tube systems<br />
  24. 24. What do we know about retrofit to standard HFC?<br /><ul><li>New oil required for unchanged lubrication oil transport
  25. 25. Drop in/Service blends often add component to avoid oil change
  26. 26. Mineral oil with HFC give poor heat transfer and
  27. 27. Contaminated mineral oil affects stability of systems
  28. 28. Moisture decrease stability
  29. 29. Driers must be compatible with HFC
  30. 30. Elastomers (plastics) should be checked for compatibility</li></li></ul><li>Retrofit do not fix old problem<br />Check status before if possible<br />Even if a compressor is replaced with a new HFC compressor this should be considered as a retrofit<br />Retrofit is low cost when compressor or condensing unit is replaced <br />But<br />Care should be taken so remaining oil of bad quality (acids/particles) destroy the new compressor<br />
  31. 31. R-22 Retrofit Procedure with flushing<br />Retrofit Procedure recommended by “3-oil systems” Spain<br />Pre-retrofit analyses<br />Do not invest in poor <br />systems that are failing<br />R22 <br />flush <br />and <br />recover<br />Flushing<br />Recovery<br />HFC<br />+<br />POE<br />in<br />recovered<br />R22 <br />Post-retrofit analyses<br />ClimaCheck <br />optimisation<br />”Degassed” <br />oil<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Refrigeration Oils(Miscible and designed for)<br />CFC/HCFC <br />Mineral oil (MO) (i.e. Suniso 3-5 GS)<br />Alkyl bensen (ABO) (i.e Zerol 150-300)<br />HFC (stationary) <br />Polyol Esteroil (POE) (i.e. ICI Emkarate, Mobile EAL, Castrol Icematic)<br />HFC Automotive <br />Poly Alkylene Glykol PAG (Automotive brands)<br />
  34. 34. RETROFIT STEP BY STEP<br />* IDENTIFY SUITABLE OBJECT, MAKE A LIST OF COMPONENTS<br />* VERIFY FUNCTION OF SYSTEM,<br />* CORRECT PROBLEMS AND LEAKS IF ANY<br />* VERIFY COMPONENTS COMPATIBILITY WITH HFC/ESTEROIL<br />* REMOVE MINERAL OIL WITH OIL CHANGES OR FLUSHING <br />* CHANGE DRIER AND OTHER COMPONENTS <br />* EVACUATE CAREFULLY<br />* START UP, ADJUST EXPANSION VALVE, VERIFY FUNCTION<br />* MARK INSTALLATION CLEARLY WITH OIL AND REFRIGERANT <br />* TAKE OIL SAMPLE AFTER APPROX.. 100 HOURS<br />
  35. 35. None ODS alternatives and conventional oils <br />Mineral and alkylbenzen oil used with traditional refrigerants <br />These had good miscibility with good oil return<br />Viscosity selected based on solubility with refrigerants<br />Without solubility with refrigerant oil get high viscosity<br />Poor oil transport – lubrication<br />ODS-free service blends often use HC (i.e. R600/R-600a) that thins the oil but it does not create miscibility<br />Works best in “simple” systems without complex tubing or “groves” on tubes<br /><ul><li>Caution need to be taken if
  36. 36. Risk for poor oil transport in suction line
  37. 37. Oil can collect on top of liquid in receiver (lower density than refrigerant and not miscible)
  38. 38. Tubes with expanded surfaces “groves” tend to be clogged by oil</li></ul>Bitzer Refrigerant Handbook about this type of service blends<br /> “On account of the good miscibility of R-600a, conventional lubricants can also be used under favourable conditions.”<br />
  39. 39. Internet powerful tool<br />Check Compressor manufacturers web<br />Bitzer Excellent Refrigerant report and software www.bitzer.de/eng/Home<br />Copeland a lot of data and software<br />Refrigerant suppliers<br />www.R744.com lobby group for CO2<br />UNEP web http://www.uneptie.org/ozonAction/topics/hcfc.asp<br />
  40. 40. Handling oils for alternative <br />New handling required<br />“ESTEROILS/POEs and PAGs absorb moisture from air<br />Humidity cause brake down of oil during operation <br />Oil must be handled carefully <br />Buy in smallest suitable container<br />Do not let open container be exposed to ambient air<br />Practical solution is to keep oil in pressure vessels (refrigerant cylinder) first evacuated then put under pressure with nitrogen that allows quick injection without pumping<br />Compressors with oils should be kept sealed until it is connected and evacuation should start immediately<br />
  41. 41. OIL CHANGE METHOD<br />1. DRAIN OIL, (TAKE OIL SAMPLE)<br />2. REPLACE OIL WITH SAME VOLUME ESTER OIL OF SAME VISCOSITY <br /> (SOMETIMES ONE GRADE HIGHER VISCOSITY)<br />3. ENSURE DRY INSTALLATION (EVACUATE/REPLACE DRIER ?)<br />4. CHANGE OIL<br />5. RUN INSTALLATION APPROX. 100 HOUR (POSSIBLY LESS FIRST CHANGE) <br />6. CHANGE OIL, (DRIER) UNTIL < 1-5 % MINERAL OIL, (TAKE OIL SAMPLE) <br />7. CHANGE DRIER, REFRIGERANT AND OTHER COMPONENTS<br />8. TAKE OIL SAMPLE AFTER APPROX.. 100 HOUR,<br />
  42. 42. NUMBER OF OIL CHANGES<br />THE NUMBER OF OIL CHANGES DEPENDS ON HOW MUCH OF<br />TOTAL OIL IN SYSTEM THAT CAN BE DRAINED<br />EXPERIENCE SHOW THAT THIS DEPENDS ON:<br />1. OIL PLUG POSITION<br />2. NUMBER OF EVAPORATORS, HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN<br />3. LENGTH OF PIPING<br />4. OIL SEPARATOR AND OTHER COMPONENTS<br />OIL CHANGES TO REACH < 1 % VARIES AS FOLLOWS <br />FUNCTION OF HOW MUCH OF OIL CHARGE THAT CAN BE REMOVED<br />REMOVED REQUIRED NO. TYPICAL INSTALLATION<br /> % OF OIL CHANGES<br />50 % 7 SUPERMARKETS WITH OIL SEPARATOR <br />60 % 5 LARGE CHILLERS, HEAT PUMPS<br />70 % 4 SMALL CHILLERS, CONDENSING UNITS<br />80 % 3 <br />90 % 2 FLUSHING LARGE SYSTEMS<br />99 % 1 FLUSHING SMALL SYSTEMS<br />
  43. 43. FORCED FLUSHING<br /><ul><li> CLEANS AWAY MINERAL OIL WITH THE "OLD" REFRIGERANT
  44. 44. NO COMPONENTS ARE REMOVED
  45. 45. IN SMALLER SYSTEMS 1 % CAN BE REACHED IN 1-4 HOURS
  46. 46. IN LARGER SYSTEMS TWO FLUSHES MAY BE REQUIRED </li></ul> OR ONE FLUSH AND ONE OIL CHANGE<br /><ul><li> METHOD USED WIDELY BY CONTRACTORS/SERVICE COMPANIES </li></ul> CARS, MILK TANKS AND COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS<br />Advantage to clean systems before introduction of esteroil/HFC and avoid need to operate with CFC/HCFC and ester oil that involves increased risk due to effect on viscosity and stability<br />
  47. 47. FORCED FLUSHING<br /><ul><li>RETROFIT CAN NORMALLY BE PERFORMED IN ONE VISIT
  48. 48. LESS MAN-HOURS
  49. 49. LESS CHLORINE CONTAINING OIL TO DISPOSE OF
  50. 50. LESS LEAKAGE DUE TO FEWER OPERATION
  51. 51. THE SYSTEM IS CLEANED FROM ACID AND OTHER CONTAMINATES PRIOR TO INTRODUCTION OF HFC AND ESTEROILS
  52. 52. LESS POLYOLESTER OIL IS USED
  53. 53. LONGER SHUT DOWN TIME AT ONE OCCASION</li></ul>- SPECIAL UNIT REQUIRED <br />
  54. 54. Refractometer to compare old and new<br />http://ftp.nucalgon.com/ftp/prodlit/3-59.pdf<br />http://www.omega.com/Green/pdf/RFH_Series.pdf<br />http://www.leica-microsystems.com/pdfs.nsf/(ALLIDs)/2A1E6AB1F7BDEC1785256A870066146A/$FILE/Brix_305090_Brochure.pdf<br />
  55. 55. Standard industrial oil test<br />
  56. 56. REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFE RETROFIT<br />* LESS THAN 100 PPM MOISTURE<br />TIGHTER ON CRITICAL APPLICATIONS<br />* LESS THAN 1-5 % MINERAL OIL<br />Old oil with acid/moisture/contaminants desabilise new system<br />* LESS THAN 200 PPM R-12 IN HFC-134a<br />
  57. 57. DRY SYSTEMS ESSENTIAL<br />* EVACUATE ACCORDING TO GOOD PRACTICE<br />* OLD CODE OF PRACTICE IN SWEDEN IS ACCEPTABLE<br /> ALL COMPONENTS SHOULD BE AT A TEMPERATURE ABOVE 15°C<br /> IN COLD WEATHER: COVER AND HEAT<br /> 1. EVACUATE TO MIN 4 mbar (MEASURED WITH VACUUM PUMP OFF)<br /> 2. CHECK FOR LEAKS- MOISTURE (NO INCREASE OF PRESSURE <br /> FOR FIVE MIN)<br /> 3. FILL TO ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE WITH NITROGEN)<br /> 4. EVACUATE TO MIN 2 mbar (500 micron/0,7 mbar RECOMMENDED)<br /> 5. CHECK FOR LEAKS- MOISTURE <br />* DO NOT EXPOSE ESTEROIL TO MOISTURE/AIR <br />* USE "LARGE" DRIERS <br />
  58. 58. EXPERIENCE OF RETROFITS TO HFC<br /> HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS RETROFITTED SYSTEMS <br /><ul><li> PERFORMANCE SIMILAR TO THAT OF CFC/HCFC
  59. 59. NO INCREASE OF PROBLEMS IN SYSTEM RETROFITTED AS RECOMMENDED</li></ul>- SYSTEM OPERATES WITH LESS TROUBLE TODAY DUE TO ”BETTER PRACTICE”<br /><ul><li> STATUS OF OLD SYSTEM IMPORTANT FOR EVALUATION
  60. 60. STATUS OF OLD OIL IMPORTANT FOR EVALUATION
  61. 61. ANALYSES OF OILS IMPORTANT FOR EVALUATION
  62. 62. MINERAL OIL CONTENT AND MOISTURE IMPORTANT FACTORS</li></li></ul><li>IDENTIFIED PROBLEMS<br />ESTER OILS ARE HYGROSCOPIC (ABSORB MOISTURE)<br />SPECIAL HANDLING OF OIL NECESSARY<br />A FEW COMPONENTS MIGHT BE UNSUITABLE<br />EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE CHECKED PRIOR TO RETROFIT<br />HFC WILL CHANGE OIL CHARACTERISTICS IN SYSTEM<br />CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN SPECIALLY IN <br />SCREW AND ROTARY COMPRESSORS NEED SPECIAL ATTENTION<br />
  63. 63. Thanks<br />Questions<br />

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