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Replacing HCFC in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Bogota

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Replacing HCFC in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Technology and introduction to UNEP case study report. (Klas Berglof, Consultant).

Replacing HCFC in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Technology and introduction to UNEP case study report. (Klas Berglof, Consultant).

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  • 1. REPLACING HCFC IN REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITININGTechnology and introduction to UNEP case study reportBogota, April 2010
    Klas Berglöf,
    Berglof Refrigeration Technology Ltd
    SWEDEN
    klas@berglof-kylteknologi.se
    Tel. int +46 70 594 95 52
  • 2. What is affected by HCFC phase out?
    HCFC refrigerants main product and applications
    R-22 used in
    Air-conditioning
    Split and unitary systems
    Chillers
    Industrial Refrigeration
    Commercial Refrigeration
    Super market, Specialty shops
    Cold rooms, Restaurants, bars
    Transport refrigeration
    Trucks
    Trains
    Boats
    R-123, R-124, “Service Blends” with R-22 and/or R-124
  • 3. Need for alternatives to HCFC in
    New installations
    Existing plants
    Retrofits
    Standard HFC
    Drop in blends
    Replacement of system
    Minimize leaks
  • 4. Evaluate situation first
    Application and system status should be evaluated before decision
    Replacement might be a more cost/energy efficient alternative
    Retrofits to standard HFC ensure availability of refrigerants at service
    Refrigerant from retrofitted systems important for re-use
    Retrofit to “standard” HFC ODS is often possible from R-22
    More focus on proper installation and service methods required
    Knowledge and experience is important to avoid problems
  • 5. Four main routes to replace HCFCs in the RAC sector.
    Ammonia NH3
    Hydrocarbons Isobutane, Propane and propylene
    Carbon dioxide CO2
    Hydrofluoro carbons HFCa. “Standard HFCs”, R-134a, R-404A, R-407C, R-410Ab. Drop-in blends to extend life in existing systems at lower cost
    The three first low global warming but more challenging to use cost effectively and safe.
    Future may include new alterantives?
    Low GWP options from chemical industry - HFO1234yf +
  • 6. UNEP Report onAlternatives to HCFC with case studies
    Report describe
    Markets using HCFC (in particular R-22)
    Available alternatives
    Technical options and challenges
    Cases from different technologies and applications
  • 7. Ammonia
    Good refrigerant properties except not compatible with copper
    Toxic
    Well known refrigerant in industrial applications
    Increased market chare in these applications
    Some introduction in larger air-conditioning chillers
  • 8. Case Study Ammonia
    State of the art low charge Ammonia replaces screw chiller converted from R-22 to R-404A as leakage was to high with ester oil and HFC.
    Low charge ammonia with miscible oil and expansion valve reduce charge and facilitates unmanned operation.
  • 9. Hydrocarbons
    Good refrigerants but flammable
    Extremely soluble in traditional refrigeration oils
    need attention/change of oil and/or design
    R-600a iso-butane
    Fully accepted in domestic appliances
    R-290 propane
    Introduced in domestic heat pumps but withdrawn due to high rate of compressor failures
    Introduction in compact systems and air to water chillers and water to water chillers placed outside or with special exhaust ventilation
    Tested in many other applications as similar to R-22 and low GWP
    R-1270 propylene (mainly same market as R-290)
    Less capacity loss relative R-22 than R-290
    Otherwise as R-290
    Mixtures of hydrocarbons to match existing CFCs/HCFCs
  • 10. Case Study on Hydrocarbons
    5 chillers in fruit storage with R-1270
    A secondary fluid used to transport the cooling to the storage to minimize flammability risk.
  • 11. Carbon dioxide
    Used in refrigeration before “safety refrigerants”
    High pressures require totally new design ( 100 Bar(g) +)
    Low critical temperature (32 deg. C) -
    COP is normally negatively affected in supercritical operation
    Supercritical operation at normal condensing temperatures at high ambient
    Introduced in larger low temperature cascade systems
    Field tests in supercritical supermarket systems especially in colder regions with average low ambient = condensing
    Large introduced in domestic hot water heat pumps in Japan (subsidised)
    Some introduction in Scandinavia in domestic heat pump for space heating
  • 12. Carbon Dioxide applications
    Sub critical (condensing <32 dgC)
    Low temperature stage industrial cascade systems
    Field tests low temperature cascade in super market
    Super critical (condensing >32dgC)
    Heat pumps air to water for domestic hot water
    commercialised in Japan with assistance of subsidies
    Automotive air-conditioning large scale field test
    Field test in supermarket good COP claimed in colder climate
    Evaluated in many projects issues are:
    - Pressure, COP and price
  • 13. Low temp
    Medium temp
    Case Studies on Carbon Dioxide
    Supermarket application and air to water heat pump
    Carbon dioxide systems are installed in significant number in Europe today
    Cost and energy efficiency are the challenges
    Carbon dioxide heat pump for heating and hot water
  • 14. HFC alternatives ”standard” range
    R-134a to replace R-12 and R22 in some sectors (i.e larger chillers)
    R-404A and R-507 to replace R-502 (very similar) (i.e. commercial refr.) R-22 in commercial refrigeration
    R-407C, R-410A, R-134a to replace R-22 in AC
    R-410A mainly in smaller AC-systems such as split air conditioning
    High pressure/capacity without glide
    R-407C most common in medium sized systems
    Similar to R-22 in pressure and capacity but have ”glide”
    R-134a mainly in larger chiller systems (in particular screw/centrifugal)
    Lower pressure/capacity but cost effective in larger system
  • 15. Alternatives to R-22 in air conditioning
    R-134a
    Lower capacity (60%)
    Often preferred in larger chillers
    R407C
    Closest match in pressure and capacity
    Have a “Glide” of 4-6 K which require relevant knowledge
    Often the preferred alternative in small and medium sized chillers
    R407A
    Marketed again after several years on the shelf due to low GWP
    R410A
    High pressure alternative (+ 40 Bar(g))
    High capacity > compact systems
    Often preferred alternative in reversible unitary and split systems
  • 16. UNEP Report describeHFC market situation - major trends
    Split and unitary system > R-410A
    Chillers mainly R-407C and R-134a
  • 17. R-404A/R-507 as alternative to R-22
    R-404A/R-507 are optimized for commercial refrigeration (i.e. high compression ratio without excessive discharge temp.)
    Most suitable below –10°C evaporation
    Used as single refrigerant in commercial application to avoid several refrigerants in one site
    Insignificant ”glide” and low discharge temperature
    Reduced COP compared to R-22 (and R-407C) at high evaporation.
    Higher condensing pressure than R-22 can result in operation problems at high ambient.
    Poor COP and high pressures result in high load on electrical motor at high evaporation can result in overload
  • 18. 3 Retrofit routes
    Drop in – service blends
    • Fix oil transport with hydrocarbons that dissolves in oil
    “Standard HFC” alternatives – oil change
    • With repeated oil change = oil change method
    “Long term” alternatives - flushing
    • Flushing with the old refrigerant to remove oil in one go (special flushing equipment modified recycling unit)
    Method with flushing with solvent raise questions as it creates a waste problem with solvent contaminated with chlorine containing oil
  • 19. UNEP Case studyCommercial refrigeration Retrofit to R-404ASplit air-conditioning retrofit to R-407C
  • 20. UNEP report case study on drop in blend in chiller application
  • 21. Are there problem with service ”blends”?
    First generation often contained R22
    Often a hydrocarbon component to improve oil-transport
    No standard more than 50 different products available
    Service organisations can not keep up if to may enter market
    HFC
    R417A
    R422A/D
    R424A
    R427A
    R428A
    R434A
    Arkema
    Ausimont
    DuPont
    Honeywell
    Ineos
    + China
    + India
    R409A
    R406A
    R405A
    R403A
    R403B
    R401A/B
    R402A/B
    R411B
    HFO1234yf
    +RXXXY
    The trade needs a limited number of standards refrigerants
    Large number of ServiceBlends is a problem
  • 22. Drop in replacements
    R-417A
    Blend with hydrocarbon (R600) component to allow use with mineral oil
    Lower capacity in most application
    Glide (but lower than R-407C)
    R-422A optimised for air conditioning
    Similar with R-417A above but use R-600a instead and has a capacity more like R-22
    Glide (but lower than R-407C)
    R-422D optimised for commercial R-22 applications
    Similar with above but use R-600a instead and has a capacity more like R-22 (R-422D aimed for AC, R-422A aimed for Commercial)
    Glide (but lower than R-407C)
    R427A FX100
    No hydrocarbon - advice is replacing min 85% of mineral oil with ester oil (concern of cleaning of systems when ester oils are added)
    Glide (but lower than R-407C)
  • 23. Drop in replacements cont.
    R-424A (RS-44)
    Formulated to replace R22 in air-conditioning
    Blend with hydrocarbon (R600) component to allow use with mineral oil
    Lower discharge temperature
    Glide
    R-428A (RS-52)
    Formulated to replace R22 and R502 in commercial refrigeration
    Similar with R-424A above
    Glide (but lower than R-407C)
    R-434D (RS-45)
    Similar with above but lower glide to work better in flooded system
    Not recommended for capillary tube systems
  • 24. What do we know about retrofit to standard HFC?
    • New oil required for unchanged lubrication oil transport
    • 25. Drop in/Service blends often add component to avoid oil change
    • 26. Mineral oil with HFC give poor heat transfer and
    • 27. Contaminated mineral oil affects stability of systems
    • 28. Moisture decrease stability
    • 29. Driers must be compatible with HFC
    • 30. Elastomers (plastics) should be checked for compatibility
  • Retrofit do not fix old problem
    Check status before if possible
    Even if a compressor is replaced with a new HFC compressor this should be considered as a retrofit
    Retrofit is low cost when compressor or condensing unit is replaced
    But
    Care should be taken so remaining oil of bad quality (acids/particles) destroy the new compressor
  • 31. R-22 Retrofit Procedure with flushing
    Retrofit Procedure recommended by “3-oil systems” Spain
    Pre-retrofit analyses
    Do not invest in poor
    systems that are failing
    R22
    flush
    and
    recover
    Flushing
    Recovery
    HFC
    +
    POE
    in
    recovered
    R22
    Post-retrofit analyses
    ClimaCheck
    optimisation
    ”Degassed”
    oil
  • 32.
  • 33. Refrigeration Oils(Miscible and designed for)
    CFC/HCFC
    Mineral oil (MO) (i.e. Suniso 3-5 GS)
    Alkyl bensen (ABO) (i.e Zerol 150-300)
    HFC (stationary)
    Polyol Esteroil (POE) (i.e. ICI Emkarate, Mobile EAL, Castrol Icematic)
    HFC Automotive
    Poly Alkylene Glykol PAG (Automotive brands)
  • 34. RETROFIT STEP BY STEP
    * IDENTIFY SUITABLE OBJECT, MAKE A LIST OF COMPONENTS
    * VERIFY FUNCTION OF SYSTEM,
    * CORRECT PROBLEMS AND LEAKS IF ANY
    * VERIFY COMPONENTS COMPATIBILITY WITH HFC/ESTEROIL
    * REMOVE MINERAL OIL WITH OIL CHANGES OR FLUSHING
    * CHANGE DRIER AND OTHER COMPONENTS
    * EVACUATE CAREFULLY
    * START UP, ADJUST EXPANSION VALVE, VERIFY FUNCTION
    * MARK INSTALLATION CLEARLY WITH OIL AND REFRIGERANT
    * TAKE OIL SAMPLE AFTER APPROX.. 100 HOURS
  • 35. None ODS alternatives and conventional oils
    Mineral and alkylbenzen oil used with traditional refrigerants
    These had good miscibility with good oil return
    Viscosity selected based on solubility with refrigerants
    Without solubility with refrigerant oil get high viscosity
    Poor oil transport – lubrication
    ODS-free service blends often use HC (i.e. R600/R-600a) that thins the oil but it does not create miscibility
    Works best in “simple” systems without complex tubing or “groves” on tubes
    • Caution need to be taken if
    • 36. Risk for poor oil transport in suction line
    • 37. Oil can collect on top of liquid in receiver (lower density than refrigerant and not miscible)
    • 38. Tubes with expanded surfaces “groves” tend to be clogged by oil
    Bitzer Refrigerant Handbook about this type of service blends
    “On account of the good miscibility of R-600a, conventional lubricants can also be used under favourable conditions.”
  • 39. Internet powerful tool
    Check Compressor manufacturers web
    Bitzer Excellent Refrigerant report and software www.bitzer.de/eng/Home
    Copeland a lot of data and software
    Refrigerant suppliers
    www.R744.com lobby group for CO2
    UNEP web http://www.uneptie.org/ozonAction/topics/hcfc.asp
  • 40. Handling oils for alternative
    New handling required
    “ESTEROILS/POEs and PAGs absorb moisture from air
    Humidity cause brake down of oil during operation
    Oil must be handled carefully
    Buy in smallest suitable container
    Do not let open container be exposed to ambient air
    Practical solution is to keep oil in pressure vessels (refrigerant cylinder) first evacuated then put under pressure with nitrogen that allows quick injection without pumping
    Compressors with oils should be kept sealed until it is connected and evacuation should start immediately
  • 41. OIL CHANGE METHOD
    1. DRAIN OIL, (TAKE OIL SAMPLE)
    2. REPLACE OIL WITH SAME VOLUME ESTER OIL OF SAME VISCOSITY
    (SOMETIMES ONE GRADE HIGHER VISCOSITY)
    3. ENSURE DRY INSTALLATION (EVACUATE/REPLACE DRIER ?)
    4. CHANGE OIL
    5. RUN INSTALLATION APPROX. 100 HOUR (POSSIBLY LESS FIRST CHANGE)
    6. CHANGE OIL, (DRIER) UNTIL < 1-5 % MINERAL OIL, (TAKE OIL SAMPLE)
    7. CHANGE DRIER, REFRIGERANT AND OTHER COMPONENTS
    8. TAKE OIL SAMPLE AFTER APPROX.. 100 HOUR,
  • 42. NUMBER OF OIL CHANGES
    THE NUMBER OF OIL CHANGES DEPENDS ON HOW MUCH OF
    TOTAL OIL IN SYSTEM THAT CAN BE DRAINED
    EXPERIENCE SHOW THAT THIS DEPENDS ON:
    1. OIL PLUG POSITION
    2. NUMBER OF EVAPORATORS, HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
    3. LENGTH OF PIPING
    4. OIL SEPARATOR AND OTHER COMPONENTS
    OIL CHANGES TO REACH < 1 % VARIES AS FOLLOWS
    FUNCTION OF HOW MUCH OF OIL CHARGE THAT CAN BE REMOVED
    REMOVED REQUIRED NO. TYPICAL INSTALLATION
    % OF OIL CHANGES
    50 % 7 SUPERMARKETS WITH OIL SEPARATOR
    60 % 5 LARGE CHILLERS, HEAT PUMPS
    70 % 4 SMALL CHILLERS, CONDENSING UNITS
    80 % 3
    90 % 2 FLUSHING LARGE SYSTEMS
    99 % 1 FLUSHING SMALL SYSTEMS
  • 43. FORCED FLUSHING
    • CLEANS AWAY MINERAL OIL WITH THE "OLD" REFRIGERANT
    • 44. NO COMPONENTS ARE REMOVED
    • 45. IN SMALLER SYSTEMS 1 % CAN BE REACHED IN 1-4 HOURS
    • 46. IN LARGER SYSTEMS TWO FLUSHES MAY BE REQUIRED
    OR ONE FLUSH AND ONE OIL CHANGE
    • METHOD USED WIDELY BY CONTRACTORS/SERVICE COMPANIES
    CARS, MILK TANKS AND COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS
    Advantage to clean systems before introduction of esteroil/HFC and avoid need to operate with CFC/HCFC and ester oil that involves increased risk due to effect on viscosity and stability
  • 47. FORCED FLUSHING
    • RETROFIT CAN NORMALLY BE PERFORMED IN ONE VISIT
    • 48. LESS MAN-HOURS
    • 49. LESS CHLORINE CONTAINING OIL TO DISPOSE OF
    • 50. LESS LEAKAGE DUE TO FEWER OPERATION
    • 51. THE SYSTEM IS CLEANED FROM ACID AND OTHER CONTAMINATES PRIOR TO INTRODUCTION OF HFC AND ESTEROILS
    • 52. LESS POLYOLESTER OIL IS USED
    • 53. LONGER SHUT DOWN TIME AT ONE OCCASION
    - SPECIAL UNIT REQUIRED
  • 54. Refractometer to compare old and new
    http://ftp.nucalgon.com/ftp/prodlit/3-59.pdf
    http://www.omega.com/Green/pdf/RFH_Series.pdf
    http://www.leica-microsystems.com/pdfs.nsf/(ALLIDs)/2A1E6AB1F7BDEC1785256A870066146A/$FILE/Brix_305090_Brochure.pdf
  • 55. Standard industrial oil test
  • 56. REQUIREMENTS FOR SAFE RETROFIT
    * LESS THAN 100 PPM MOISTURE
    TIGHTER ON CRITICAL APPLICATIONS
    * LESS THAN 1-5 % MINERAL OIL
    Old oil with acid/moisture/contaminants desabilise new system
    * LESS THAN 200 PPM R-12 IN HFC-134a
  • 57. DRY SYSTEMS ESSENTIAL
    * EVACUATE ACCORDING TO GOOD PRACTICE
    * OLD CODE OF PRACTICE IN SWEDEN IS ACCEPTABLE
    ALL COMPONENTS SHOULD BE AT A TEMPERATURE ABOVE 15°C
    IN COLD WEATHER: COVER AND HEAT
    1. EVACUATE TO MIN 4 mbar (MEASURED WITH VACUUM PUMP OFF)
    2. CHECK FOR LEAKS- MOISTURE (NO INCREASE OF PRESSURE
    FOR FIVE MIN)
    3. FILL TO ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE WITH NITROGEN)
    4. EVACUATE TO MIN 2 mbar (500 micron/0,7 mbar RECOMMENDED)
    5. CHECK FOR LEAKS- MOISTURE
    * DO NOT EXPOSE ESTEROIL TO MOISTURE/AIR
    * USE "LARGE" DRIERS
  • 58. EXPERIENCE OF RETROFITS TO HFC
    HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS RETROFITTED SYSTEMS
    • PERFORMANCE SIMILAR TO THAT OF CFC/HCFC
    • 59. NO INCREASE OF PROBLEMS IN SYSTEM RETROFITTED AS RECOMMENDED
    - SYSTEM OPERATES WITH LESS TROUBLE TODAY DUE TO ”BETTER PRACTICE”
    • STATUS OF OLD SYSTEM IMPORTANT FOR EVALUATION
    • 60. STATUS OF OLD OIL IMPORTANT FOR EVALUATION
    • 61. ANALYSES OF OILS IMPORTANT FOR EVALUATION
    • 62. MINERAL OIL CONTENT AND MOISTURE IMPORTANT FACTORS
  • IDENTIFIED PROBLEMS
    ESTER OILS ARE HYGROSCOPIC (ABSORB MOISTURE)
    SPECIAL HANDLING OF OIL NECESSARY
    A FEW COMPONENTS MIGHT BE UNSUITABLE
    EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE CHECKED PRIOR TO RETROFIT
    HFC WILL CHANGE OIL CHARACTERISTICS IN SYSTEM
    CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN SPECIALLY IN
    SCREW AND ROTARY COMPRESSORS NEED SPECIAL ATTENTION
  • 63. Thanks
    Questions