Methane emissions from biogas plants The Swedish voluntary agreement system and            sustainability criteria        ...
BACKGROUND   Nordic Biogas Conference 2012   2
The origins 2004/2005Media• Article in Svenska Dagbladet  2004 “Biogas as vehicle fuel has  no environmental advantage”• L...
4 reasons to act on methane emissions• Environment   – Methane is a strong GHG (CO2 x 23)   – Odour• Economy   – Reduced l...
The Swedish voluntary agreement systemlaunched in January 2007• Methane only• Waste Treatment plant focus• All work report...
Biogas production plants Biogas upgrading plants•   Boden               •   Boden                     •           Uppsala•...
DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM           Nordic Biogas Conference 2012   7
How the system is set up• System for leak detection at plant   – Recommended monthly• Systematic emission sources are iden...
System boundaries, Gas production plantSolid waste                                Bolier/Gas motor/              Digestate...
System boundaries, Gas upgrading plant              Upgrading plantBiogaspipeline                                         ...
Typical measurement points for quantification• Ventilation from process parts• Ventilation from buildings• Ventilation fro...
Measurement methods• International and European Standard Methods (ISO/CEN)   – Methane concentration   – Gas flow   – Leak...
Theory vs RealityMeasurement section:5 diameters upstream2 diameters downstream                         Nordic Biogas Conf...
RESULTS  Nordic Biogas Conference 2012   14
Biogas production plants                     Nordic Biogas Conference 2012   15
Biogas production plants• Round 1: 2007-2009      Category           Mean value                  Median      WWT          ...
Gas upgrading plants                       Nordic Biogas Conference 2012   17
Gas upgrading plants• Round 1: 2007-2009      Technique           Mean value               Median      Chemical scrubber  ...
IMPACT Nordic Biogas Conference 2012   19
Improvements in industry• Gas production plant, example  – 2007: Loss 7,5 %  – 2010: Loss <0,1 %• Gas upgrading plant, exa...
Poor impact on researchers and policy makers• Scientific article: Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting  of GH...
Waste Water Treatment plants• Aprox. 130 plants with biogas production in Sweden• A few plants take part in the voluntary ...
SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA          Nordic Biogas Conference 2012   23
Sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids• A given set of sustainability criteria that cover the entire producti...
Sustainability Criteria for biogas as vehicle fuel• GHG emission savings (LCA)  – XX % better than the fossil reference ca...
Voluntary Agreement and sustainability criteria• Excel spreadsheet developed for the Swedish gas industries  – In co-opera...
Voluntary Agreement and sustainability criteria• Using the default methane loss values:  – 2,5 % loss in production, 2,1 %...
Sustainability criteria for biogas used in heat&power• Legislation/recommendations that would cover gaseuous fuels for  he...
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Methane emissions from biogas plants - The Swedish voluntary agreement system and sustainability criteria

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Methane emissions from biogas plants - The Swedish voluntary agreement system and sustainability criteria

  1. 1. Methane emissions from biogas plants The Swedish voluntary agreement system and sustainability criteria Magnus Andreas Holmgren SP Energy Technology magnus.andreas.holmgren@sp.se Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 1
  2. 2. BACKGROUND Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 2
  3. 3. The origins 2004/2005Media• Article in Svenska Dagbladet 2004 “Biogas as vehicle fuel has no environmental advantage”• Losses in production and distribution of biogas• Losses during fillingResearch & Development• Program for evaluation of biological treatment (BUS) in Sweden and Norway 2004-2005 covered methane emissions Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 3
  4. 4. 4 reasons to act on methane emissions• Environment – Methane is a strong GHG (CO2 x 23) – Odour• Economy – Reduced leaks and emissions = higher yield• Safety• Goodwill – To show that the biogas sector acts responsibly – To be pro-active on this issue (in relation to authorities) Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 4
  5. 5. The Swedish voluntary agreement systemlaunched in January 2007• Methane only• Waste Treatment plant focus• All work reported to Avfall Sverige• First round of measurements 2007-2009• Second round of measurements is on-going 2010-2012 Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 5
  6. 6. Biogas production plants Biogas upgrading plants• Boden • Boden • Uppsala• Borås • Borås • Västerås• Eskilstuna • Eskilstuna • Wrams Gunnarstorp• Falköping • Falköping • Östersund (WWT)• Helsingborg • Göteborg (WWT)• Jönköping • Helsingborg (x2)• Kalmar • Jönköping (x2)• Kristianstad • Kalmar• Laholm • Kristianstad• Linköping • Laholm• Linköping (WWT) • Linköping• Norrköping • Malmö (WWT)• Skellefteå • Norrköping• Skövde • Norrköping (WWT)• Uppsala • Skellefteå• Vänersborg • Skövde• Västerås • Stockholm, Bromma (WWT)• Wrams Gunnarstorp • Stockholm, Henriksdal (WWT) Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 6
  7. 7. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 7
  8. 8. How the system is set up• System for leak detection at plant – Recommended monthly• Systematic emission sources are identified – Classification plans• Quantification every 3 years by external resource – Measurements of methane concentration and flow – Calculations of mass emission and percentage loss• Plant sets targets and measures to reach targets• Plant reports to Avfall Sverige Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 8
  9. 9. System boundaries, Gas production plantSolid waste Bolier/Gas motor/ Digestate Upgrading plant Biogas plant Pretreatment Torch Digestate unit storage Mixing tank DewateringRecieving Hygienisation Digester Digestatetank tank Liquid waste Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 9
  10. 10. System boundaries, Gas upgrading plant Upgrading plantBiogaspipeline Compression Odorising Hydrogen sulphide Drying Gas grid removal Off gas Propane addition Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 10
  11. 11. Typical measurement points for quantification• Ventilation from process parts• Ventilation from buildings• Ventilation from rooms with gas equipment• Digestion residue (digestate) storage• Digestion residue (digestate) treatment (centrifuge etc.)• Gas analysis instruments• CO2 emission from gas upgrading plants (off-gas, e.g. stripper air) Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 11
  12. 12. Measurement methods• International and European Standard Methods (ISO/CEN) – Methane concentration – Gas flow – Leak detection  mass flow estimations• Methane measurements handbook – SGC report no 227, February 2011 – Aimed at measurement personnel – Section on strategies for leak detection – Calculation spreadsheets (Excel) – Default values Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 12
  13. 13. Theory vs RealityMeasurement section:5 diameters upstream2 diameters downstream Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 13
  14. 14. RESULTS Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 14
  15. 15. Biogas production plants Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 15
  16. 16. Biogas production plants• Round 1: 2007-2009 Category Mean value Median WWT 1,4 % 1,5 % Household waste 2,0 % 1,1 % Industrial waste 1,2 % 0,2 % 1,6 % 0,7 %• Rolling average: 2007-2012 Category Mean value Median WWT 1,5 % 1,8 % Household waste 2,1 % 1,0 % Industrial waste 0,8 % 0,3 % 1,5 % 0,3 % Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 16
  17. 17. Gas upgrading plants Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 17
  18. 18. Gas upgrading plants• Round 1: 2007-2009 Technique Mean value Median Chemical scrubber 0,4 % 0,4 % End-of-pipe 1,7 % 1,7 % PSA 2,5 % 1,8 % Water scrubber 3,2 % 2,1 % 2,7 % 2,1 %• Rolling average: 2007-2012 Technique Mean value Median Chemical scrubber 0,2 % 0,2 % End-of-pipe 1,0 % 0,7 % PSA 2,5 % 1,8 % Water scrubber 2,1 % 2,0 % 1,6 % 1,1 % Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 18
  19. 19. IMPACT Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 19
  20. 20. Improvements in industry• Gas production plant, example – 2007: Loss 7,5 % – 2010: Loss <0,1 %• Gas upgrading plant, example – 2008: Loss 12 % – 2010: Loss 7 % – 2011: Loss 2 %• Focus on methane losses during design and in permits Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 20
  21. 21. Poor impact on researchers and policy makers• Scientific article: Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of GHG and global warming contribution – Losses from gas upgrading are estimated at 0,2 % (without reference to anything)• University study on GHG emissions from biogas, on assignment from Swedish Government – No reference to Voluntary Agreement Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 21
  22. 22. Waste Water Treatment plants• Aprox. 130 plants with biogas production in Sweden• A few plants take part in the voluntary agreement• Measurements (outside the system) have been performed at a few large plants• In general there is poor knowledge of the size of methane emissions from WWT biogas plants Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 22
  23. 23. SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 23
  24. 24. Sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids• A given set of sustainability criteria that cover the entire production chain of a biofuel or bioliquid, from feedstock production to end use, shall be fulfilled for it to be considered sustainable• The Swedish legislative framework concerning biofuels and bioliquids is based on the European Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RED), and is aimed at suppliers and users of biofuels and bioliquids• Covers biogas for vehicle use – Not heat and power! Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 24
  25. 25. Sustainability Criteria for biogas as vehicle fuel• GHG emission savings (LCA) – XX % better than the fossil reference case – Same reference case for all vehicle fuels! ”average emissions from the fossil part of petrol and diesel” – All plants from April 2013: 35 % – All plants from January 2017: 50 % – New plants from 2018: 60 %• RED default value for biogas from municipal organic waste: 73 % – 1 % loss in production, 1 % loss in gas upgrading – Included: Household waste, WWT sludge – Not included: Industrial waste Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 25
  26. 26. Voluntary Agreement and sustainability criteria• Excel spreadsheet developed for the Swedish gas industries – In co-operation with Swedish Energy Agency• Need for default methane loss values when measurements have not been performed• Upper quartile of rolling average – 2,5 % production – 2,1 % upgrading Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 26
  27. 27. Voluntary Agreement and sustainability criteria• Using the default methane loss values: – 2,5 % loss in production, 2,1 % loss in gas upgrading – GHG emission savings: 56 % (prel.)• Add to this the actual values for: – Transportations of substrate (zero in RED default value!) – Transportations of produced biogas – Process energy use Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 27
  28. 28. Sustainability criteria for biogas used in heat&power• Legislation/recommendations that would cover gaseuous fuels for heat and power (+ solid fuels)• According to yesterday’s presentation by Mr Kuepker, DG Energy: – Not yet decided if they will present directive or recommendations• The reference case for GHG emission savings calculations might be different to the present directive!! – Natural gas for heat and power would be the natural reference!• Tough times ahead…? Nordic Biogas Conference 2012 28
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