New Anticoagulants:Beyond Warfarin and Heparin       Rachel LaCount     Resident in Pathology       August 4, 2005
Overview• Older anticoagulants: Warfarin & Heparin,  LMWH• Why we need new drugs• Newer drugs  – Direct Thrombin Inhibitor...
Brief Review: Warfarin MOA• Blocks vitamin K-  dependent glutamate  carboxylation of precursor  factors II, VII, IX, X• Vi...
Review: Heparin MOA•   Indirect thrombin inhibitor: IV only•   Called UFH (unfractionated heparin)•   Complexes with AT (h...
• Heparin made of polysaccharide chains of varying lengths• Unique pentasaccharide sequence binds to AT   – Sequence is ra...
Limitations of Warfarin and                 Heparin:• Both have narrow therapeutic windows• Highly variable dose responses...
LMWHs• Molecular wt:       Heparin: 15,000 vs LMWH: 4000-5000• LMWHs inactivate Xa but have less effect on  thrombin (some...
Names of LMWHs• Enoxaparin (Lovenox)• Dalteparin (Fragmin)• Tinzaparin (Innohep)  – Differ chemically and pharmacokenetica...
LMWH Rx monitoring• Uncomplicated patients do not require  monitoring• Who may need to be?  – Newborns, children, pregnant...
LMWH Rx monitoring• Levels measured by chromogenic-based  anti-factor Xa assays• Clot based APTT only sensitive to very  h...
Anti Xa Assay• Pt plasma + known amount of excess      Factor Xa and antithrombin• UFH/LMWH binds antithrombin & inhibits ...
Why new drugs?• UFH and LMWHs are inconvenient for the  outpatient setting (IV or sq only)• UFH and LMWHs can cause HIT:  ...
Why new drugs?• Warfarin is underused in pts who need it  most:  – Only 47% of patients with afib are taking    warfarin  ...
The ideal anticoagulant•   Effective•   Minimal complications/side effects•   Convenient administration (ie: oral for outp...
Categories of new drugs– Direct Thrombin Inhibitors:   • hirudin, lepirudin, desirudin, bivalirudin,     argatroban, ximel...
Objectives for each drug         •   Mechanism of Action         •   Current uses         •   Limitations         •   Moni...
Direct Thrombin Inhibitors
Direct Thrombin Inhibitors• 3D structure of thrombin:  100s of thrombin inhibitors  in last 15 yrs• Most are peptidomimeti...
Thrombin    3 important areas:• Active site: fibrinogen  binding• Exosite I: major  docking site--interaction  with fibrin...
Hirudin• Medicinal leeches:  – Used since ancient    times to relieve body    of “bad humors”      • Egyptians, Greeks  – ...
• 1884: John Haycraft in Birmingham  demonstrated that medicinal leeches, Hirudo  medicinalis, secrete a substance that pr...
• Estimated to require 50,000 leeches  annually for diagnostics and treatment• 1986: DNA isolated and cloned• Today recomb...
R-Hirudins•   All bind in active site and exosite I•   Irreversible: Lepirudin, Desirudin•   Reversible: Bivalirudin•   Mi...
• Lepirudin (Refludan)  – Approved for use in HIT     • No binding to platelet factor IV     • 89% of patients with rapid ...
• Desirudin (Iprivask)  – Studied in DVT prophylaxis for total hip     • Lower rate of DVT than LMWH and no increase in   ...
• Bivalirudin (Angiomax)  – Previously called hirulog  – Binds reversibly to thrombin    • Thrombin slowly cleaves the dru...
• Bivalirudin, cont…  – REPLACE-2 (2004)     • Randomized Evaluation in PCI Linking Angiomax       to Reduced Clinical Eve...
Direct Thrombin Inhibitors, cont…• Argatroban (Novastan)  – Binds at active site reversibly  – Does not bind at exosites  ...
• Argatroban, cont…  – FDA approved in 2000: Anticoagulant for pts    with HIT needing prophylaxis or treatment for    thr...
• Ximelagatran (Exanta)  – ORAL !!!!! BID dosing  – Only binds to active site; reversible  – Prodrug for melagatran  – Num...
Ximelagatran, cont…                 The bad news:• Studies have shown increase in bilirubin, ALT• FDA: Estimates rate of l...
DTIs…a bit more on lab testing• Interference with APTT:  – Other drugs: warfarin, abx  – Pts with LA  – High factor VIII l...
DTIs…• Why not use PT/INR?  – Little to no sensitivity to some Rx and less    than optimal to others  – INR can be markedl...
DTIs & Lab tests, cont…• TCT (thrombin clotting time)  – Seems logical, but is overly sensitive to these drugs    and does...
Factor Xa inhibitors
Factor Xa inhibitors• Fondaparinux (Arixtra)  – Synthetic polysaccharide:  – The drug is the unique pentasaccharide sequen...
Fondaparinux: Too short to inactivate thrombin (much likeLMWH); need >18 saccharide units to inactivate thrombin
• Fondaparinux, cont…  – Does not interact with plasma proteins,    platelets, or platelet factor IV = useful in HIT    (a...
• Fondaparinux, cont…  – Drug monitoring:    • APTT and PT are insensitive    • PT/INR may or may not be proportional to t...
Danaparoid (Orgaran)• A LWM heparinoid• Derived from porcine gut mucosa  – (can’t use if have a pork allergy)• A mixture o...
Danaparoid: MOA• Binds to AT and heparin cofactor II• More selective at inhibiting Xa than LMWH, not as  selective as fond...
Danaparoid• FDA approved in 1996  – Proven effective in DVT prophylaxis in pts    undergoing hip surgery• Used off label i...
Future possible drugs• Ticks Isolated from the saliva or  blood of various species:  – Thrombin inhibitors  – Factor Xa in...
Future possible drugs• Razaxaban  – Oral drug  – Inhibitor of factor Xa without requiring AT  – In phase II trials• DX-906...
Future possible drugs• Aptamers:  – From root word aptus (“fit”)  – Single stranded nucleic acids that fold into    specif...
References•   Angelli, G. Current issues in anticoagulation. Pathophysiology and    Haemostasis and Thrombosis. 2005;34(su...
References, cont…•   Markwardt, F. Past, present and future of hirudin. Haemostasis.    1991;21 Suppl 1:11-26.•   Martel, ...
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New anticoagulants

  1. 1. New Anticoagulants:Beyond Warfarin and Heparin Rachel LaCount Resident in Pathology August 4, 2005
  2. 2. Overview• Older anticoagulants: Warfarin & Heparin, LMWH• Why we need new drugs• Newer drugs – Direct Thrombin Inhibitors – Xa inhibitors – Heparinoids – The future
  3. 3. Brief Review: Warfarin MOA• Blocks vitamin K- dependent glutamate carboxylation of precursor factors II, VII, IX, X• Vit K = cofactor• Warfarin blocks the reduction of Vit K• Oral administration
  4. 4. Review: Heparin MOA• Indirect thrombin inhibitor: IV only• Called UFH (unfractionated heparin)• Complexes with AT (heparin co-factor I)• AT by itself inactivates SLOWLY! – Thrombin – Factor Xa – XIIa, XIa, IXa (lesser extent)• AT + Heparin: conformational change in AT = 1000-4000 fold acceleration in inactivation• At high concentrations: Also binds to platelets and heparin co-factor II—which inhibits thrombin
  5. 5. • Heparin made of polysaccharide chains of varying lengths• Unique pentasaccharide sequence binds to AT – Sequence is randomly distributed along heparin chains• Inactivation of Xa—Heparin doesn’t have to bind to it• Inactivation of Thrombin--Requires heparin to bind to both AT and itself – Heparin must be >18 monosaccharides long to do this – Virtually all heparin molecules are > 18
  6. 6. Limitations of Warfarin and Heparin:• Both have narrow therapeutic windows• Highly variable dose responses: requires laboratory monitoring (PT, APTT) – Heparin can bind to other plasma proteins making bioavailability variable – Warfarin has numerous food, drug interactions• Limited ability to stop a clot from propagating: – Heparin does not inactivate thrombin bound to fibrin or Xa bound to platelets very well
  7. 7. LMWHs• Molecular wt: Heparin: 15,000 vs LMWH: 4000-5000• LMWHs inactivate Xa but have less effect on thrombin (some molecules not long enough) – ratio of anti-Xa to anti-thrombin activity of 3:1 – Do not prolong PTT unless dose high• Advantages over heparin: – Easier to administer: sq, BID dosing – Dosage and anticoagulant effect easier to predict; dose based on body weight – Lab monitoring not necessary in all patients – Less chance of inducing immune-mediated thrombocytopenia
  8. 8. Names of LMWHs• Enoxaparin (Lovenox)• Dalteparin (Fragmin)• Tinzaparin (Innohep) – Differ chemically and pharmacokenetically but unsure if these differences are clinically significant• Other products not yet approved here: – Fraxiparin, reviparin, nadroparin, bemiparin, certoparin
  9. 9. LMWH Rx monitoring• Uncomplicated patients do not require monitoring• Who may need to be? – Newborns, children, pregnant women – Conditions: obesity, renal insufficiency, malignancy, myeloproliferative disorders – People with hemorrhagic complications or with initial therapy to confirm appropriate levels
  10. 10. LMWH Rx monitoring• Levels measured by chromogenic-based anti-factor Xa assays• Clot based APTT only sensitive to very high levels of LMWHs• Calibration is done with the same brand of LMWH that the patient is using—and not with Heparin!
  11. 11. Anti Xa Assay• Pt plasma + known amount of excess Factor Xa and antithrombin• UFH/LMWH binds antithrombin & inhibits Factor Xa• Residual Factor Xa is measured – Factor Xa cleaves a chromogenic substrate similar to its natural substrate, releasing color detected by a spectrophotometer• Residual Xa is inversely proportional to the amount of LMWH (or UFH)
  12. 12. Why new drugs?• UFH and LMWHs are inconvenient for the outpatient setting (IV or sq only)• UFH and LMWHs can cause HIT: – Risk 0.2% with LMWH vs. 2.6 % with UFH – Pts with HIT still need to be anticoagulated
  13. 13. Why new drugs?• Warfarin is underused in pts who need it most: – Only 47% of patients with afib are taking warfarin – This is often due to hemorrhagic contraindications – Convenience issues due to the need for frequent monitoring – Difficulty in maintaining optimal anticoagulation
  14. 14. The ideal anticoagulant• Effective• Minimal complications/side effects• Convenient administration (ie: oral for outpatients)• Rapid absorption• Fast on and offset action• Predictable pharmacokinetics• No interactions with food or drugs• No HIT• No coagulation monitoring
  15. 15. Categories of new drugs– Direct Thrombin Inhibitors: • hirudin, lepirudin, desirudin, bivalirudin, argatroban, ximelagatran– Xa inhibitors: • fondaparinux, idraparinux– Heparinoids: • Danaparoid (discontinued)
  16. 16. Objectives for each drug • Mechanism of Action • Current uses • Limitations • Monitoring in the lab
  17. 17. Direct Thrombin Inhibitors
  18. 18. Direct Thrombin Inhibitors• 3D structure of thrombin: 100s of thrombin inhibitors in last 15 yrs• Most are peptidomimetic compounds – Mimic the fibrinogen sequence which interacts with the thrombin active site – Peptidomimetic: A compound that mimics binding and biological activity of the natural peptide
  19. 19. Thrombin 3 important areas:• Active site: fibrinogen binding• Exosite I: major docking site--interaction with fibrinogen and other receptors; fibrinogen recognition site3. Exosite II: interacts with heparin
  20. 20. Hirudin• Medicinal leeches: – Used since ancient times to relieve body of “bad humors” • Egyptians, Greeks – Reached peak Hirudo medicinalis popularity in mid-19th century
  21. 21. • 1884: John Haycraft in Birmingham demonstrated that medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, secrete a substance that prevents blood from clotting• 1904: Substance named hirudin• 1957: Markwardt isolated the active anticoagulant substance, determined it to be a polypeptide 65 AAs long which inhibited thrombin
  22. 22. • Estimated to require 50,000 leeches annually for diagnostics and treatment• 1986: DNA isolated and cloned• Today recombinant hirudin is made in yeast cells – Lepirudin, desirudin, bivalirudin
  23. 23. R-Hirudins• All bind in active site and exosite I• Irreversible: Lepirudin, Desirudin• Reversible: Bivalirudin• Minor differences in structure between them – ie: Lepirudin has one extra oxygen molecule than desirudin and one AA difference
  24. 24. • Lepirudin (Refludan) – Approved for use in HIT • No binding to platelet factor IV • 89% of patients with rapid increase in plt count – Monitored with APTT daily • Measure 4 hr after dose • Target: Pt’s APTT to be 1.5-2.5 x the lab’s median APTT • Caution in pts with renal insufficiency • Dose dependent relationship – Antihirudin antibodies develop in 40-70% • Drug is made of non-human proteins • Can cause irritation to skin • Not neutralizing; may enhance drug potency by delaying clearance • These patients need to be monitored with APTT
  25. 25. • Desirudin (Iprivask) – Studied in DVT prophylaxis for total hip • Lower rate of DVT than LMWH and no increase in bleeding complications – Also used in HIT – Also monitored with APTT • Monitor especially in pts with renal insufficiency • APTT twice upper limit of normal = stop and restart at reduced dose • Dose dependent relationship – Antihirudin antibodies can also develop
  26. 26. • Bivalirudin (Angiomax) – Previously called hirulog – Binds reversibly to thrombin • Thrombin slowly cleaves the drug from its active site • Short half-life 20-30 min – Less immunogenic (is only 20 AAs long) – FDA approved in 2002 for use in angioplasty for patients with unstable angina
  27. 27. • Bivalirudin, cont… – REPLACE-2 (2004) • Randomized Evaluation in PCI Linking Angiomax to Reduced Clinical Events • Pts randomized to receive either bivalirudin or heparin + GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor during PCI • Significant reduction in in-hospital bleeding • Endpoints about equal: MI, urgent repeat revascularization • Trend towards decreased mortality – Undergoing study for use in cardiac surgery for use both “on pump” and “off pump” – Monitored with APTT or ACT
  28. 28. Direct Thrombin Inhibitors, cont…• Argatroban (Novastan) – Binds at active site reversibly – Does not bind at exosites – First introduced in Japan in 1990 for treatment of peripheral vascular disorders
  29. 29. • Argatroban, cont… – FDA approved in 2000: Anticoagulant for pts with HIT needing prophylaxis or treatment for thrombosis – 2002 approved for pts with or at risk for HIT undergoing PCI – Small, without immunogenicity – Monitoring with APTT or ACT recommended • Desired APTT: 1.5 to 3 times the initial baseline value (not to exceed 100 seconds)
  30. 30. • Ximelagatran (Exanta) – ORAL !!!!! BID dosing – Only binds to active site; reversible – Prodrug for melagatran – Numerous Phase III trials (10): • 6 for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism [VTE] due to orthopedic surgery • 1 for initial treatment of VTE • 1 for long-term prevention of VTE recurrence • 2 for stroke prophylaxis due to atrial fibrillation – The good news: Some studies have shown benefit over warfarin or LMWH
  31. 31. Ximelagatran, cont… The bad news:• Studies have shown increase in bilirubin, ALT• FDA: Estimates rate of liver injury 1 in 200• 10% could progress to liver failure, need liver transplantation, or death – 1 in 2000 patients tx’d long-term could have overt liver failure• 3 of 6948 patients did die under circumstances that FDA felt could reasonably be related to ximelagatran – Consistent with the 1-in-2000 rate
  32. 32. DTIs…a bit more on lab testing• Interference with APTT: – Other drugs: warfarin, abx – Pts with LA – High factor VIII levels leading to falsely low APTT• Why not do a Factor IIa assay to measure drug activity? – For example, chromogenic anti-factor IIa assay – Limited reproducibility, linearity, and sensitivity
  33. 33. DTIs…• Why not use PT/INR? – Little to no sensitivity to some Rx and less than optimal to others – INR can be markedly different depending on reagent used – One recent study of lepirudin, argatroban, & bivalirudin observed a dose dependent effect on the INR • PT/INR most affected by argatroban at therapeutic concentrations • Lepirudin had the least overall effect on PT/INR
  34. 34. DTIs & Lab tests, cont…• TCT (thrombin clotting time) – Seems logical, but is overly sensitive to these drugs and doesn’t provide useful clinical info• ACT (activated clotting time) – Has been used successfully in the OR• ECT (ecarin clotting time) – Not standardized for clinical use, but shows promise – Venom from snake Echis carinatus: • Converts prothrombin to a meizothrombin that is sensitive to thrombin inhibitors
  35. 35. Factor Xa inhibitors
  36. 36. Factor Xa inhibitors• Fondaparinux (Arixtra) – Synthetic polysaccharide: – The drug is the unique pentasaccharide sequence that UFH and LMWH use to bind to AT – Reacts with strong affinity to AT (reversible) → Induces conformational change in AT → Increased ability to inactivate Xa
  37. 37. Fondaparinux: Too short to inactivate thrombin (much likeLMWH); need >18 saccharide units to inactivate thrombin
  38. 38. • Fondaparinux, cont… – Does not interact with plasma proteins, platelets, or platelet factor IV = useful in HIT (although not yet formally approved) – FDA approved in 2001 • Prevention of post op VTE (DVT and PE) in orthopedic surgery – Hip fracture, hip replacement, knee replacement – Fondaparinux vs. enoxaparin in one study decreased VTE in knee replacement from 12.5 to 27.8% • 2004/5 approval: – VTE treatment if administered with warfarin – Anticoagulation in abdominal surgery • Potential uses being studied: MI, PCI, UA
  39. 39. • Fondaparinux, cont… – Drug monitoring: • APTT and PT are insensitive • PT/INR may or may not be proportional to the clinical safety or efficacy—more studies needed • Anti-factor Xa assay –must be calibrated with fondaparinux – Long half-life (17 hours) = qd dosing (LMWH = BID)• Idraparinux – Longer acting analogue (q week dosing) currently being developed
  40. 40. Danaparoid (Orgaran)• A LWM heparinoid• Derived from porcine gut mucosa – (can’t use if have a pork allergy)• A mixture of heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate• Does not have heparin or heparin fragments (heparan differs from heparin by sulfur groups on the sugar molecules)
  41. 41. Danaparoid: MOA• Binds to AT and heparin cofactor II• More selective at inhibiting Xa than LMWH, not as selective as fondaparinux: Drug Anti-Xa/anti-IIa ratio UFH 1:1 LMWH 2-4:1 Danaparoid 22:1 Fondaparinux ∞• Ability to prevent extension of thrombi• Minimal effect on platelet function and aggregability
  42. 42. Danaparoid• FDA approved in 1996 – Proven effective in DVT prophylaxis in pts undergoing hip surgery• Used off label in patients with HIT• Discontinued manufacturing in USA 4/2002 due to problems obtaining raw material – Available in Germany
  43. 43. Future possible drugs• Ticks Isolated from the saliva or blood of various species: – Thrombin inhibitors – Factor Xa inhibitors, – Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI)
  44. 44. Future possible drugs• Razaxaban – Oral drug – Inhibitor of factor Xa without requiring AT – In phase II trials• DX-9065a – Xa inhibitor; also in phase II trials; IV• Potential targets being developed – TF/fVIIa • Recombinant tissue factor inhibitor (FTPI) • Other specific TF/fVIIa or fVIIa inhibitors being developed – Recombinant APC • In phase III trials—inactivates Va and VIIIa
  45. 45. Future possible drugs• Aptamers: – From root word aptus (“fit”) – Single stranded nucleic acids that fold into specific 3D structures which bind and inhibit a protein target – Anti factor VIIa, IXa, and thrombin aptamers have been developed – Should be nonimmunogenic—small and similar to endogenous molecules – Possible use in HIT
  46. 46. References• Angelli, G. Current issues in anticoagulation. Pathophysiology and Haemostasis and Thrombosis. 2005;34(suppl 1):2-9.• Bauer, K. Clinical uses of fondaparinux. Uptodate.• Davidson, B. Preparing for the new anticoagulants. J of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. 2003;16 (1/2): 49-54.• DiNardo, J. Fondaparinux. Newsletter. Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. 2003 Dec. (http://www.scahq.org/sca3/newsletters/2003dec/drug4.shtml)• Gosselin, RC, et al. Effect of direct thrombin inhibitors, bivalirudin, lepirudin, and argatroban, on prothrombin time and INR values. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121:593-99.• Hirsh, J. et al. Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin. Chest. 2004;126:188S-203S.• Kikelj, D. Peptiomimetic thrombin inhibitors. Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis. 2003/2004;33:487-491.• Lai, R. et al. A thrombin inhibitor from the ixodid tick, Amblyomma hebraeum. Gene. 2004 Nov 24; 342(2):243-9.• Lawrence, LK. New anticoagulants. Uptodate.
  47. 47. References, cont…• Markwardt, F. Past, present and future of hirudin. Haemostasis. 1991;21 Suppl 1:11-26.• Martel, N. et al. Risk of heparin induced thrombocytopenia with unfractionated and low molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis: a meta-analysis. Blood. 2005 Jun 28 (Epub ahead of print).• Nimjee, S. et al. The potential of aptamers as anticoagulants. TCM. 2005; 15(1):41-45.• Starke, K. The beginnings of hirudin. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1989 Mar; 10(3):99.• Walenga, J. et al. Monitoring the new antithrombotic drugs. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 2004; 30(6): 683-695.• Weitz, J. et al. Treatment of venous thromboembolism: New anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2004;110:I-19 – I-26.• White, CM. Thrombin-directed inhibitors: Pharmacology and clinical use. American Heart Journal. 2005 Jan;149(15):S54-60.• Valentine, K. et al. Clinical use of heparin and low molecular weight heparin. Uptodate
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