Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2

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Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2

  1. 1. GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  2. 2. Deferred Rendering in Killzone 2 Michal Valient Senior Programmer, Guerrilla GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  3. 3. Talk Outline ‣ Forward & Deferred Rendering Overview ‣ G-Buffer Layout ‣ Shader Creation ‣ Deferred Rendering in Detail ‣ Rendering Passes ‣ Light and Shadows ‣ Post-Processing ‣ SPU Usage / Architecture GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  4. 4. Forward & Deferred Rendering Overview GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  5. 5. Forward Rendering – Single Pass ‣ For each object ‣ Find all lights affecting object ‣ Render all lighting and material in a single shader ‣ Shader combinations explosion ‣ Shader for each material vs. light setup combination ‣ All shadow maps have to be in memory ‣ Wasted shader cycles ‣ Invisible surfaces / overdraw ‣ Triangles outside light influence GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  6. 6. Forward Rendering – Multi-Pass ‣ For each light ‣ For each object ‣ Add lighting from single light to frame buffer ‣ Shader for each material and light type ‣ Wasted shader cycles ‣ Invisible surfaces / overdraw ‣ Triangles outside light influence ‣ Lots of repeated work ‣ Full vertex shaders, texture filtering GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  7. 7. Deferred Rendering ‣ For each object ‣ Render surface properties into the G-Buffer ‣ For each light and lit pixel ‣ Use G-Buffer to compute lighting ‣ Add result to frame buffer ‣ Simpler shaders ‣ Scales well with number of lit pixels ‣ Does not handle transparent objects GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  8. 8. G-Buffer Layout GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  9. 9. Target Image
  10. 10. Depth
  11. 11. View-space normal
  12. 12. Specular intensity
  13. 13. Specular roughness / Power
  14. 14. Screen-space 2D motion vector
  15. 15. Albedo (texture colour)
  16. 16. Deferred composition
  17. 17. Image with post-processing (depth of field, bloom, motion blur, colorize, ILR)
  18. 18. G-Buffer : Our approach R8 G8 B8 A8 Depth 24bpp Stencil DS Lighting Accumulation RGB Intensity RT0 Normal X (FP16) Normal Y (FP16) RT1 Motion Vectors XY Spec-Power Spec-Intensity RT2 Diffuse Albedo RGB Sun-Occlusion RT3 ‣ MRT - 4xRGBA8 + 24D8S (approx 36 MB) ‣ 720p with Quincunx MSAA ‣ Position computed from depth buffer and pixel coordinates GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  19. 19. G-Buffer : Our approach R8 G8 B8 A8 Depth 24bpp Stencil DS Lighting Accumulation RGB Intensity RT0 Normal X (FP16) Normal Y (FP16) RT1 Motion Vectors XY Spec-Power Spec-Intensity RT2 Diffuse Albedo RGB Sun-Occlusion RT3 ‣ Lighting accumulation – output buffer ‣ Intensity – luminance of Lighting accumulation ‣ Scaled to range [0…2] ‣ Normal.z = sqrt(1.0f - Normal.x2 - Normal.y2) GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  20. 20. G-Buffer : Our approach R8 G8 B8 A8 Depth 24bpp Stencil DS Lighting Accumulation RGB Intensity RT0 Normal X (FP16) Normal Y (FP16) RT1 Motion Vectors XY Spec-Power Spec-Intensity RT2 Diffuse Albedo RGB Sun-Occlusion RT3 ‣ Motion vectors – screen space ‣ Specular power - stored as log2(original)/10.5 ‣ High range and still high precision for low shininess ‣ Sun Occlusion - pre-rendered static sun shadows ‣ Mixed with real-time sun shadow for higher quality GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  21. 21. G-Buffer Analysis ‣ Pros: ‣ Highly packed data structure ‣ Many extra attributes ‣ Allows MSAA with hardware support ‣ Cons: ‣ Limited output precision and dynamic range ‣ Lighting accumulation in gamma space ‣ Can use different color space (LogLuv) ‣ Attribute packing and unpacking overhead GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  22. 22. Deferred Rendering Passes GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  23. 23. Geometry Pass ‣ Fill the G-Buffer with all geometry (static, skinned, etc.) ‣ Write depth, motion, specular, etc. properties ‣ Initialize light accumulation buffer with pre-baked light ‣ Ambient, Incandescence, Constant specular ‣ Lightmaps on static geometry ‣ YUV color space, S3TC5 with Y in Alpha ‣ Sun occlusion in B channel ‣ Dynamic range [0..2] ‣ Image based lighting on dynamic geometry GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  24. 24. Image Based Lighting ‣ Artist placed light probes ‣ Arbitrary location and density ‣ Sampled and stored as 2nd order spherical harmonics ‣ Updated per frame for each object ‣ Blend four closest SHs based on distance ‣ Rotate into view space ‣ Encode into 8x8 envmap IBL texture ‣ Dynamic range [0..2] ‣ Generated on SPUs in parallel to other rendering tasks GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  25. 25. Scene lighting
  26. 26. Decals and Weapon Passes ‣ Primitives updating subset of the G-Buffer ‣ Bullet holes, posters, cracks, stains ‣ Reuse lighting of underlying surface ‣ Blend with albedo buffer ‣ Use G-Buffer Intensity channel to fix accumulation ‣ Same principle as particles with motion blur ‣ Separate weapon pass with different projection ‣ Different near plane ‣ Rendered into first 5% of depth buffer range ‣ Still reacts to lights and post-processing GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  27. 27. Light Accumulation Pass ‣ Light is rendered as convex geometry ‣ Point light – sphere ‣ Spot light – cone ‣ Sun – full-screen quad ‣ For each light… ‣ Find and mark visible lit pixels ‣ If light contributes to screen ‣ Render shadow map ‣ Shade lit pixels and add to framebuffer GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  28. 28. Determine Lit Pixels ‣ Marks pixels in front of the far light boundary ‣ Render back-faces of light volume ‣ Depth test GREATER-EQUAL ‣ Write to stencil on depth pass ‣ Skipped for very small distant lights GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  29. 29. Determine Lit Pixels ‣ Find amount of lit pixels inside the volume ‣ Start pixel query ‣ Render front faces of light volume ‣ Depth test LESS-EQUAL ‣ Don’t write anything – only EQUAL stencil test GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  30. 30. Render Shadow Map ‣ Enable conditional rendering ‣ Based on query results from previous stage ‣ GPU skips rendering for invisible lights ‣ Max 1024x1024xD16 shadow map ‣ Fast and with hardware filtering support ‣ Single map reused for all lights ‣ Skip small objects ‣ Small in shadow map and on screen ‣ Artist defined thresholds for lights and objects GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  31. 31. Shade Lit Pixels ‣ Render front-faces of light volume ‣ Depth test - LESS-EQUAL ‣ Stencil test - EQUAL ‣ Runs only on marked pixels inside light ‣ Compute light equation ‣ Read and unpack G-Buffer attributes ‣ Calculate Light vector, Color, Distance Attenuation ‣ Perform shadow map filtering ‣ Add Phong lighting to frame buffer GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  32. 32. Light Optimization ‣ Determine light size on the screen ‣ Approximation - angular size of light volume ‣ If light is “very small” ‣ Don’t do any stencil marking ‣ Switch to non-shadow casting type ‣ Shadows fade-out range ‣ Artist defined light sizes at which: ‣ Shadows start to fade out ‣ Switch to non-shadow casting light GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  33. 33. Sun Rendering ‣ Full screen quad ‣ Stencil mark potentially lit pixels ‣ Use only sun occlusion from G-Buffer ‣ Run final shader on marked pixels ‣ Approx. 50% of pixels skipped thanks 1st pass ‣ Also skybox/background ‣ Simple directional light model ‣ Shadow = min(RealTimeShadow, Occlusion) GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  34. 34. Sun – Real-Time Shadows ‣ Cascade shadow maps ‣ Provide more shadow detail where required ‣ Divide view frustum into several areas ‣ Split along view distance ‣ Split distances defined by artist ‣ Render shadow map for each area ‣ Max 4 cascades ‣ Max 512x512 pixels each in single texture ‣ Easy to address cascade in final render GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  35. 35. Sun – Real-Time Shadows ‣ Issue: Shadow shimmering ‣ Light cascade frustums follow camera ‣ Sub pixel changes in shadow map ‣ Solution! ‣ Don’t rotate shadow map cascade ‣ Make bounding sphere of cascade frustum ‣ Use it to generate cascade light matrix ‣ Remove sub-pixel movements ‣ Project world origin onto shadow map ‣ Use it to round light matrix to nearest shadow pixel corner GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  36. 36. Sun - Colored shadow Cascades - Unstable shadow artifacts
  37. 37. MSAA Lighting Details ‣ Run light shader at pixel resolution ‣ Read G-Buffer for both pixel samples ‣ Compute lighting for both samples ‣ Average results and add to frame buffer ‣ Optimization in shadow map filtering ‣ Max 12 shadow taps per pixel ‣ Alternate taps between both samples ‣ Half quality on edges, full quality elsewhere ‣ Performance equal to non-MSAA case GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  38. 38. Forward Rendering Pass ‣ Used for transparent geometry ‣ Single pass solution ‣ Shader has four uberlights ‣ No shadows ‣ Per-vertex lighting version for particles ‣ Lower resolution rendering available ‣ Fill-rate intensive effects ‣ Half and quarter screen size rendering ‣ Half resolution rendering using MSAA HW GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  39. 39. Post-Processing Pass ‣ Highly customizable color correction ‣ Separate curves for shadows, mid-tones, highlight colors, contrast and brightness ‣ Everything Depth dependent ‣ Per-frame LUT textures generated on SPU ‣ Image based motion blur and depth of field ‣ Internal lens reflection ‣ Film grain filter GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  40. 40. SPU Usage and Architecture Putting it all together GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  41. 41. SPU Usage ‣ We use SPU a lot during rendering ‣ Display list generation ‣ Main display list ‣ Lights and Shadow Maps ‣ Forward rendering ‣ Scene graph traversal / visibility culling ‣ Skinning ‣ Triangle trimming ‣ IBL generation ‣ Particles GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  42. 42. SPU Usage (cont.) ‣ Everything is data driven ‣ No “virtual void Draw()” calls on objects ‣ Objects store a decision-tree with DrawParts ‣ DrawParts link shader, geometry and flags ‣ Decision tree used for LODs, etc. ‣ SPUs pull rendering data directly from objects ‣ Traverse scenegraph to find objects ‣ Process object's decision-tree to find DrawParts ‣ Create displaylist from DrawParts GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  43. 43. SPU Architecture PPU SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  44. 44. SPU Architecture GAME, AI PHYSICS PPU SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  45. 45. SPU Architecture GAME, AI PREPARE PHYSICS DRAW PPU SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  46. 46. SPU Architecture GAME, AI PREPARE PHYSICS DRAW PPU SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  47. 47. SPU Architecture GAME, AI PREPARE PHYSICS DRAW PPU SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  48. 48. SPU Architecture GAME, AI PREPARE PHYSICS DRAW PPU SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  49. 49. SPU Architecture GAME, AI PREPARE PHYSICS DRAW PPU SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  50. 50. SPU Architecture DRAW GAME, AI PREPARE GAME, AI PREPARE PHYSICS DRAW DATA PHYSICS DRAW PPU LOCK SPU 0 SPU 1 SPU 2 SPU 3 Particles, Skinning Main scenegraph + displaylist IBL generation edgeGeom Shadow scenegraph + displaylist GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON
  51. 51. Conclusion ‣ Deferred rendering works well and gives us artistic freedom to create distinctive Killzone look ‣ MSAA did not prove to be an issue ‣ Complex geometry with no resubmit ‣ Highly dynamic lighting in environments ‣ Extensive post-process ‣ Still a lot of features planned ‣ Ambient occlusion / contact shadows ‣ Shadows on transparent geometry ‣ More efficient anti-aliasing ‣ Dynamic radiosity GUERRILLA | DEVELOP CONFERENCE | JULY ‘07 | BRIGHTON

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