Making 3D Games on the PlayStation 3           ®      by Ian Bickerstaff & Simon Benson,      Sony Computer Entertainment ...
Making 3D Games on the PlayStation 3                  ® •     What is stereoscopic 3D and why have 3D games? •     Stereos...
What is stereoscopic 3D? Images from slightly different viewpoints are presented to each eye The difference between the tw...
No th ing ne w …                   Le petit journal pour rire 1859
No th ing ne w …•    1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e                                              Sir Charles Whea...
No th ing ne w …                                              Brewster•    1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e   stere...
No th ing ne w …                                                      Jules Duboscq                                       ...
No th ing ne w …•    1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e•    1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r•    1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s...
No th ing ne w …•    1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e•    1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r•    1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s...
No th ing ne w …                                                                          Paul Mortier•    1 8 3 2 firs t ...
No th ing ne w …                                                                          Lumiere brothers’•    1 8 3 2 fi...
No th ing ne w …•    1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e•    1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r•    1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s...
No th ing ne w …                                                      Ivan Sutherland’s                                   ...
Why has 3D returned? New LCD TVs make high quality 3D affordable H I s ta nda rd no w inc lude s 3 D  DM The PlayStation 3...
Why have 3D games? Increases the immersion and realism
Why have 3D games? Improves the clarity of visual information
Why have 3D games? Improves the clarity of visual information
Why have 3D games? Improves depth perception
How stereoscopic 3D worksThe difference in the position of our eyesgenerates parallaxThe closer the object, the more paral...
How stereoscopic 3D works – imagine a 3D TV in the room
How stereoscopic 3D works – the perfect 3D TV…
How stereoscopic 3D works – the parallax matches perfectly
How stereoscopic 3D works- render the images from our cameras       Will this recreate the effect?
How stereoscopic 3D works – the parallax doesn’t match….        …compensate for the sideways shift
How stereoscopic 3D works –our current image again
How stereoscopic 3D works –what is required       “convergence”: controls the depth placement of the image
How stereoscopic 3D works – back in the room it now looks correct        “ortho-stereoscopic” viewing
How to implement interaxial and convergence shifts                                                                     y  ...
How to implement interaxial and convergence shifts                                                                     y  ...
Interaxial and convergence in real cameras Stereoscopic camera with built in convergence                                  ...
The problem with toeing in…         Keystone distortion!         Always avoid toeing in your cameras!
Story so far…Adjusted the interaxialAdjusted the convergenceWe have replicated reality!
The limitations of parallax –positive and negative parallax
The limitations of parallax – viewing difficulty                                                   always focus here
The limitations of parallax – the acceptable limits                                                      C O MF O R T     ...
The limitations of parallax -divergence
The limitations of parallax: cinemas –the screen is far awayClose objects require too much negative parallax
The limitations of parallax: televisions –the screen is close to the viewerDistant objects require too much positive paral...
Exactly how much positive parallax?We need to know...The size of the screen              – maybe but not guaranteedThe vie...
Parallax Management – use an arbitrary value•    A de fa ult m a xim um +v e pa ra lla x o f    1 / 3 0 th s c re e n w id...
Parallax Management – use an arbitrary value•    A de fa ult m a xim um +v e pa ra lla x o f    1 / 3 0 th s c re e n w id...
Limiting the positive parallax: solution 1                                                  as it originally was...       ...
Limiting the positive parallax: solution 1                                                  with a wall added...          ...
Limiting the positive parallax: solution 1 – how the depth is perceived                                                   ...
Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2                                           as it originally was...Reduce the amo...
Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2                                           convergence reduced                  ...
An aside: placement and scaling in stereoscopic 3D   Decrease the convergence    Everything moves closer              y   ...
An aside: placement and scaling in stereoscopic 3D   Decrease the convergence    Everything moves closer                y ...
An aside: placement and scaling in stereoscopic 3D                               First adjust your convergence to position...
Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2 with reduced interaxial       ...foreground objects now the correct side of the...
Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2                                                                        max para...
What happens if you alter your viewing distance?            real world                      viewed world    The amount of ...
Choice of lenses               real world                        viewed worldWhat happens if the viewer is stationary but ...
Choice of lenses – wide angle lenses          real world                             viewed world           A wide angle l...
Choice of lenses – telephoto style lenses           real world                             viewed world           A teleph...
Lens choice to improve the solution 2 distortion: before                                                                  ...
Lens choice to improve the solution 2 distortion: after                                                                   ...
Summary – a compromiseTelevisions limit the amount of positive parallax we can useEither limit the depth of our world – ga...
Negative parallax limitations? – objects coming out of the screen       What we would like to see...
Negative parallax limitations? – objects coming out of the screen       What we actually see – “window violations”
Other parallax limitations: 2D overlays on the screen      What we would like to see
Other parallax limitations: depth conflicts      What we actually see
Summary about negative parallax• Keep most objects behind the screen• Best for fast moving objects and special FX• Occasio...
Other issues: Fusion – regions of similar parallaxThe brain can fuse together regions ofsimilar parallax to form a single ...
Scaling the world to maximise the parallax Our stereoscopic vision works best for objects close to us What if our game wor...
Scaling the world to maximise the parallax Here the cameras are metres apart It is as if we are a giant looking down on th...
Summary of other issues • Avoid the requirement to switch from fusion zone to zone • The world can be scaled to bring it i...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – SDK facilities available                                          ®      • supports ...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process                                              ®                     ...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process           ®                                                        ...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process                                                      ®     Step 2: ...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process                                           ®    Step 2: Apply conver...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process                                                         ®     Step ...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process                                                     ®     Step 3: A...
Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process                                            ® Step 3: Apply the inte...
PlayStation 3 – Case studies          ®
WipEoutHD  • Max resolution : 1080P  • Max refresh rate : 60Hz
WipEoutHD• Advantages • Immersion • Understanding of track flow
WipEoutHD• Performance
WipEoutHD• 3D User interface
WipEoutHD• Missile marker
MotorStorm: Pacific Rift• Max resolution : 720P• Max refresh rate : 30Hz
MotorStorm: Pacific Rift   • Advantages    • Immersion    • Accessibility    • Scale
MotorStorm: Pacific Rift   • Performance    • Frame tearing
MotorStorm: Pacific Rift   • Field of view
MotorStorm: Pacific Rift   • User interface   opacity
MotorStorm: Pacific Rift  • Split screen
SuperStardustHD   •Max resolution : 1080P   •Max refresh rate : 60Hz
SuperStardustHD    Advantages     •Clarity     •Entertainment
SuperStardustHD• Performance – 60Hz
SuperStardustHD• Negative parallax         (out of screen)
Future work- a rendering technique used by Sony Pictures Entertainment •     Pa ra lla x fro m de pth m a p •     R nde r ...
Future work- a rendering technique used by Sony Pictures Entertainment •     Pa ra lla x fro m de pth m a p •     La rge p...
AcknowledgementsF u rt h e r re a din g :Introduction to stereoscopic 3D:Mendiburu, 3D Movie Making; Stereoscopic Digital ...
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Bickerstaff benson making3d games on the playstation3

  1. 1. Making 3D Games on the PlayStation 3 ® by Ian Bickerstaff & Simon Benson, Sony Computer Entertainment Stereoscopic 3D Team
  2. 2. Making 3D Games on the PlayStation 3 ® • What is stereoscopic 3D and why have 3D games? • Stereoscopic theory and how to make high quality 3D images • Rendering 3D images on the PlayStation 3 ® • Case studies • Future work
  3. 3. What is stereoscopic 3D? Images from slightly different viewpoints are presented to each eye The difference between the two images is called parallax The brain combines the images to reconstruct the 3D world
  4. 4. No th ing ne w … Le petit journal pour rire 1859
  5. 5. No th ing ne w …• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e Sir Charles Wheatstone reflecting stereoscope
  6. 6. No th ing ne w … Brewster• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e stereoscope & stereocards• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r Col Ian Bickerstaff Robert Howlett’s 3D image of “Great Eastern” Captain William Harrison, 1857
  7. 7. No th ing ne w … Jules Duboscq Bioscope disc• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r• 1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s s upplie d o n inte rc h a nge a b le dis ks Col Joseph Palteau, University of Ghent For Cross-eyed viewing
  8. 8. No th ing ne w …• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r• 1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s s upplie d o n inte rc h a nge a b le dis ks• 1 8 5 8 3 D s h utte r gla s s e s (m e c h a nic a l) Look through here! D’Almeida Eclipse stereoscope
  9. 9. No th ing ne w …• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r• 1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s s upplie d o n inte rc h a nge a b le dis ks• 1 8 5 8 3 D s h utte r gla s s e s (m e c h a nic a l)• 1 8 9 3 3 D po la ris e d gla s s e s John Anderson’s “Stereoscope for polarised light” 1930s polarised 3D glasses
  10. 10. No th ing ne w … Paul Mortier• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e electrically• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r synchronised shutter glasses• 1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s s upplie d o n inte rc h a nge a b le dis ks• 1 8 5 8 3 D s h utte r gla s s e s (m e c h a nic a l)• 1 8 9 3 3 D po la ris e d gla s s e s• 1 8 9 6 e le c tric a lly s ync h ro nis e d s h utte r gla s s e s 1930s 3D shutter glasses
  11. 11. No th ing ne w … Lumiere brothers’• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e Autochrome process• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r• 1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s s upplie d o n inte rc h a nge a b le dis ks• 1 8 5 8 3 D s h utte r gla s s e s (m e c h a nic a l)• 1 8 9 3 3 D po la ris e d gla s s e s• 1 8 9 6 e le c tric a lly s ync h ro nis e d s h utte r gla s s e s• 1 9 0 3 c o lo ur 3 D ph o to gra ph s Col Ian Bickerstaff
  12. 12. No th ing ne w …• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r• 1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s s upplie d o n inte rc h a nge a b le dis ks• 1 8 5 8 3 D s h utte r gla s s e s (m e c h a nic a l)• 1 8 9 3 3 D po la ris e d gla s s e s• 1 8 9 6 e le c tric a lly s ync h ro nis e d s h utte r gla s s e s Radio News, November 1928• 1 9 0 3 c o lo ur 3 D ph o to gra ph s Baird Stereoscopic television• 1 9 2 8 3 D TV de m o ns tra te d Modification by Erik Kurland
  13. 13. No th ing ne w … Ivan Sutherland’s Head Mounted• 1 8 3 2 firs t 3 D v ie w ing de v ic e Display• 1 8 4 4 3 D ph o to v ie w e r• 1 8 5 2 3 D m o v ie s s upplie d o n inte rc h a nge a b le dis ks• 1 8 5 8 3 D s h utte r gla s s e s (m e c h a nic a l)• 1 8 9 3 3 D po la ris e d gla s s e s• 1 8 9 6 e le c tric a lly s ync h ro nis e d s h utte r gla s s e s• 1 9 0 3 c o lo ur 3 D ph o to gra ph s• 1 9 2 8 3 D TV de m o ns tra te d• 1 9 6 5 inte ra c tiv e 3 D CGI
  14. 14. Why has 3D returned? New LCD TVs make high quality 3D affordable H I s ta nda rd no w inc lude s 3 D DM The PlayStation 3 is an ideal 3D image ® generator 3D gaming will be widely available soon
  15. 15. Why have 3D games? Increases the immersion and realism
  16. 16. Why have 3D games? Improves the clarity of visual information
  17. 17. Why have 3D games? Improves the clarity of visual information
  18. 18. Why have 3D games? Improves depth perception
  19. 19. How stereoscopic 3D worksThe difference in the position of our eyesgenerates parallaxThe closer the object, the more parallax isobservedDistant objects produce virtually noparallaxReplace our eyes with cameras to capturethe 3D effectThe distance between the cameras iscalled the “Interaxial”Increasing the interaxial increases theparallax
  20. 20. How stereoscopic 3D works – imagine a 3D TV in the room
  21. 21. How stereoscopic 3D works – the perfect 3D TV…
  22. 22. How stereoscopic 3D works – the parallax matches perfectly
  23. 23. How stereoscopic 3D works- render the images from our cameras Will this recreate the effect?
  24. 24. How stereoscopic 3D works – the parallax doesn’t match…. …compensate for the sideways shift
  25. 25. How stereoscopic 3D works –our current image again
  26. 26. How stereoscopic 3D works –what is required “convergence”: controls the depth placement of the image
  27. 27. How stereoscopic 3D works – back in the room it now looks correct “ortho-stereoscopic” viewing
  28. 28. How to implement interaxial and convergence shifts y z Interaxial: a local world space translation in the x axis x y Convergence: a screen space translation in the x axis x
  29. 29. How to implement interaxial and convergence shifts y z Interaxial: a local world space translation in the x axis x y Convergence: a screen space translation in the x axis x asymmetrical viewing frusta “point of convergence” ...determines on which side of the screen objects lie
  30. 30. Interaxial and convergence in real cameras Stereoscopic camera with built in convergence Stereo Realist 35mm camera 1947 Non-stereoscopic cameras toed in to achieve convergence
  31. 31. The problem with toeing in… Keystone distortion! Always avoid toeing in your cameras!
  32. 32. Story so far…Adjusted the interaxialAdjusted the convergenceWe have replicated reality!
  33. 33. The limitations of parallax –positive and negative parallax
  34. 34. The limitations of parallax – viewing difficulty always focus here
  35. 35. The limitations of parallax – the acceptable limits C O MF O R T ZON E
  36. 36. The limitations of parallax -divergence
  37. 37. The limitations of parallax: cinemas –the screen is far awayClose objects require too much negative parallax
  38. 38. The limitations of parallax: televisions –the screen is close to the viewerDistant objects require too much positive parallax
  39. 39. Exactly how much positive parallax?We need to know...The size of the screen – maybe but not guaranteedThe viewing distance – need head trackingThe amount of light entering theviewer’s eyes – not practical to measureThe viewer’s stereoscopic ability – not practical to measure
  40. 40. Parallax Management – use an arbitrary value• A de fa ult m a xim um +v e pa ra lla x o f 1 / 3 0 th s c re e n w idth• A o ids div e rge nc e fo r s c re e ns up to 9 0 v inc h e s 1/30th screen width
  41. 41. Parallax Management – use an arbitrary value• A de fa ult m a xim um +v e pa ra lla x o f 1 / 3 0 th s c re e n w idth• A o ids div e rge nc e fo r s c re e ns up to 9 0 v inc h e s 1/30th screen width On a typic a l s c re e n th e m a xim um de pth is a ppro xim a te ly th e s a m e a s th e v ie w ing dis ta nc e A o inc lude a 3 D s tre ngth s lide r ls
  42. 42. Limiting the positive parallax: solution 1 as it originally was... Restrict the depth in your world to be within the required parallax range
  43. 43. Limiting the positive parallax: solution 1 with a wall added... Restrict the depth in your world to be within the required parallax range
  44. 44. Limiting the positive parallax: solution 1 – how the depth is perceived max parallax real world viewed worldAccurate depth but large restrictions on the game design
  45. 45. Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2 as it originally was...Reduce the amount of convergence
  46. 46. Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2 convergence reduced ...but the objects are now in front of the screenReduce the amount of convergence
  47. 47. An aside: placement and scaling in stereoscopic 3D Decrease the convergence Everything moves closer y x Everything decreases in size
  48. 48. An aside: placement and scaling in stereoscopic 3D Decrease the convergence Everything moves closer y x Everything decreases in size Decrease the interaxial Objects in the foreground move further y away z Objects in the foreground increase in x size Objects in the distance are unchanged
  49. 49. An aside: placement and scaling in stereoscopic 3D First adjust your convergence to position y your distant objects x y z Then adjust the interaxial until your foreground objects are correct x ...see how this affects the room scene
  50. 50. Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2 with reduced interaxial ...foreground objects now the correct side of the screen
  51. 51. Limiting the positive parallax: solution 2 max parallax display infinity compressed expanded real world viewed world ...acceptable parallax, but the world appears distorted
  52. 52. What happens if you alter your viewing distance? real world viewed world The amount of perceived depth increases with viewing distance
  53. 53. Choice of lenses real world viewed worldWhat happens if the viewer is stationary but the camera and field of view are altered?
  54. 54. Choice of lenses – wide angle lenses real world viewed world A wide angle lens exaggerates depth
  55. 55. Choice of lenses – telephoto style lenses real world viewed world A telephoto-style lens will compress depth – not good for 3D
  56. 56. Lens choice to improve the solution 2 distortion: before max parallax display infinity real world viewed world Can the distortion from before be improved?....
  57. 57. Lens choice to improve the solution 2 distortion: after max parallax display infinity real world viewed world The foreground objects are now closer to their correct positions
  58. 58. Summary – a compromiseTelevisions limit the amount of positive parallax we can useEither limit the depth of our world – game design issuesOrAlter the 3D settings - distortionAdjusting the 3D settings can control the distortionThis is the challenge of stereography!
  59. 59. Negative parallax limitations? – objects coming out of the screen What we would like to see...
  60. 60. Negative parallax limitations? – objects coming out of the screen What we actually see – “window violations”
  61. 61. Other parallax limitations: 2D overlays on the screen What we would like to see
  62. 62. Other parallax limitations: depth conflicts What we actually see
  63. 63. Summary about negative parallax• Keep most objects behind the screen• Best for fast moving objects and special FX• Occasional negative parallax is entertaining!
  64. 64. Other issues: Fusion – regions of similar parallaxThe brain can fuse together regions ofsimilar parallax to form a single imageLarge variations in parallax can’t befusedHandy for extracting objects frombackgroundsRepeatedly switching between fusionzones is tiring
  65. 65. Scaling the world to maximise the parallax Our stereoscopic vision works best for objects close to us What if our game world operates outside of that range?
  66. 66. Scaling the world to maximise the parallax Here the cameras are metres apart It is as if we are a giant looking down on the world The apparent size of our 3D world is a creative decision
  67. 67. Summary of other issues • Avoid the requirement to switch from fusion zone to zone • The world can be scaled to bring it into our 3D perception range
  68. 68. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – SDK facilities available ® • supports 3D output • tells you if the TV supports 3D • gives you the screen size • The choice to switch to 3D is up to the user from within your game
  69. 69. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process ® 1280 pixelsStep 1: Generate two images Left 720 pixels Render into a 1280x1470 buffer Images automatically converted into HDMI 3D output at 59.94Hz 1470 pixels 30 pixel gap filled with any uniform colour 30 pixels Any frame rate up to 59.94 can be used Avoid frame tearing Right 720 pixels
  70. 70. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process ® 1280 pixelsStep 1: Generate two images• H rdw a re ups c a ling is a v a ila b le a Left 720 pixels• U c a le d 3 D im a ge s te nd to lo o k m uc h ps b e tte r th a n 2 D im a ge s• U e go o d a nti- a lia s ing s 1470 pixels 30 pixel gap filled with any uniform colour 30 pixels• Lo w - re s a nti- a lia s e d im a ge s lo o k m uc h b e tte r th a n h igh re s im a ge s w ith no a nti- a lia s ing Right 720 pixels
  71. 71. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process ® Step 2: Apply convergence to define the maximum positive parallax• A 2D x axis translation in screen space• Shift the left image to the left and the right image to the right• Normally use 1/30th screen width as the default alternating left/right frames
  72. 72. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process ® Step 2: Apply convergence to define the maximum positive parallax• Take care the convergence is applied to all your rendering pipeline alternating left/right frames
  73. 73. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process ® Step 3: Apply the interaxial by horizontally offsetting the cameras• Keep the cameras parallel• Maximise the depth by increasing the interaxial until the closest objects are just behind the screen alternating left/right frames• Surprisingly, dynamically altering the interaxial is not that noticeable to the viewer interaxial = 2 X tan (horizontal field of view/2) x closest distance 30
  74. 74. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process ® Step 3: Apply the interaxial by horizontally offsetting the cameras• Be careful with large interaxials – miniaturisation?• The field of view and camera distance can be adjusted too alternating left/right frames• Try to avoid window violations and depth conflicts interaxial = 2 X tan (horizontal field of view/2) x closest distance 30
  75. 75. Implementation on the PlayStation 3 – a 3 step process ® Step 3: Apply the interaxial by horizontally offsetting the cameras Take care with any 2D rendering tricks- are they OK in 3D? alternating left/right frames Reflections will need to be calculated for each eye
  76. 76. PlayStation 3 – Case studies ®
  77. 77. WipEoutHD • Max resolution : 1080P • Max refresh rate : 60Hz
  78. 78. WipEoutHD• Advantages • Immersion • Understanding of track flow
  79. 79. WipEoutHD• Performance
  80. 80. WipEoutHD• 3D User interface
  81. 81. WipEoutHD• Missile marker
  82. 82. MotorStorm: Pacific Rift• Max resolution : 720P• Max refresh rate : 30Hz
  83. 83. MotorStorm: Pacific Rift • Advantages • Immersion • Accessibility • Scale
  84. 84. MotorStorm: Pacific Rift • Performance • Frame tearing
  85. 85. MotorStorm: Pacific Rift • Field of view
  86. 86. MotorStorm: Pacific Rift • User interface opacity
  87. 87. MotorStorm: Pacific Rift • Split screen
  88. 88. SuperStardustHD •Max resolution : 1080P •Max refresh rate : 60Hz
  89. 89. SuperStardustHD Advantages •Clarity •Entertainment
  90. 90. SuperStardustHD• Performance – 60Hz
  91. 91. SuperStardustHD• Negative parallax (out of screen)
  92. 92. Future work- a rendering technique used by Sony Pictures Entertainment • Pa ra lla x fro m de pth m a p • R nde r a e s ingle im a ge a nd c re a te th e s e c o nd im a ge us ing th e de pth m ap
  93. 93. Future work- a rendering technique used by Sony Pictures Entertainment • Pa ra lla x fro m de pth m a p • La rge pa ra lla x c re a te s ga ps w h ic h ne e d to b e b a c kfille d • Tra ns pa re nc y a nd re fle c tio ns w o n’ t w o rk w ith th is a ppro a c h • Ne e d to c o m b ine it w ith full re nde ring fo r diffic ult o b je c ts • Ta ke s a b o ut 3 % o f th e to ta l SPUtim e pe r 6 0 H fra m e z
  94. 94. AcknowledgementsF u rt h e r re a din g :Introduction to stereoscopic 3D:Mendiburu, 3D Movie Making; Stereoscopic Digital Cinema from Script to Screen,2009History References:Reynaud, Tambrun & Timby Paris in 3D; from Stereoscope to Virtual Reality 1850-2000, 2000F Drouin, The Stereoscope and Stereoscopic Photography 1894
  95. 95. Questions?
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