Monument Design

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Elements of headstone and cemetery monument design (according to Australian Standards AS 4204 Headstones and cemetery monuments & AS 4425 Above-ground burial structures)

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  • Maya Ying Lin was a young architecture student at Yale when her design was chosen over 1,421 others submitted in a public competition. Lin's design is a V-shaped memorial made of polished black granite. The 250-foot long walls are ten feet tall at their apex and gradually slope down to ground level. Viewers see their own reflections in the stone as they read the 58,000 names inscribed there. Critics of Lin's memorial wanted a more traditional approach. To reach a compromise and move the project forward, a statue of three servicemen and a flag was placed nearby. In the Words of Maya Ying Lin, Architect "Walking through this park-like area, the memorial appears as a rift in the earth—a long, polished black stone wall, emerging from and receding into the earth. Approaching the memorial, the ground slopes gently downward, and the low walls emerging on either side, growing out of the earth, extend and converge at a point below and ahead. Walking into the grassy site contained by the walls of this memorial, we can barely make out the carved names upon the memorial's walls. These names, seemingly infinite in number, convey the sense of overwhelming numbers, while unifying these individuals into a whole..." —From Lin's competition entry, 1981
  • Architect and planner Helm Roberts envisioned a giant sundial to honour Kentucky soldiers killed or missing. As the sun revolves, the tall stainless steel pointer casts a shadow on a round granite plaza engraved with 1,103 names. Helm Roberts planned the placement of the names and the pointer so that each veteran would receive a personal memorial day: The shadow points to the name on the anniversary of that soldier's death
  • Rising from an elliptical reflecting pool in the Martin Luther King Memorial Park, Robert Kelly's sculpture is a symbolic memorial to the slain civil rights leader. Carved from black granite, the 30-foot sculpture was inspired by Martin Luther King's "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech, made the day before he was assassinated in 1968. The monument is composed of three segments representing the Christian Trinity and also the union of mother, father, and child. Twelve bronze plaques around the edge of the pool relate key events from Martin Luther King's life: his birth, his winning of the Nobel Peace Prize, his assassination and the creation of the national holiday in his honour. The sculpture and fountain are surrounded by a hillside with six curving terraces offering views of Rainier Valley. Robert Kelly was a Seattle native and an instructor at Edmonds Community College. The concept for the memorial originated with Seattle resident Charlie James.
  • Floating on the waters of Pearl Harbour, the USS Arizona Memorial pays tribute to 1,177 crewmen who were killed when their ship, the USS Arizona, was sunk by Japanese bombers on December 7, 1941. The memorial structure straddles the hull of the sunken ship. In the Words of Alfred Preis, Architect "Wherein the structure sags in the centre but stands strong and vigorous at the ends, expresses initial defeat and ultimate victory....The overall effect is one of serenity. Overtones of sadness have been omitted to permit the individual to contemplate his own personal responses...his innermost feelings."
  • Monument Design

    1. 1. BCF3040A Planning Monumental Construction AS 4204-1994 Headstones and cemetery monuments AS 4425-1996 Above-ground burial structures BCF30600 Certificate 3 in Stonemasonry AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    2. 2. Fig 1.1 Monumental components pier footing ashlar kerb ledger pier pillar dowel cramp headstone base Plot ID AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    3. 3. Plot identification 1.6: Each monument shall be indelibly & legibly identified in accordance with the requirement of the cemetery authority AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    4. 4. 1.4.13a Granite Commercial definition <ul><li>Texture: </li></ul><ul><li>Visibly granular </li></ul><ul><li>Typically homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>May be gneissic (small-grains) or porphyritic (larger crystals set in a fine-grained groundmass) </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><li>Quartz </li></ul><ul><li>Feldspars </li></ul><ul><li>One or more mafic (dark) minerals) </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    5. 5. 1.4.13b Granite Scientific definition <ul><li>Visibly granular </li></ul><ul><li>Crystalline </li></ul><ul><li>Igneous rock </li></ul><ul><li>Equiangular or inequiangular texture </li></ul><ul><li>Usually two feldspars and quartz </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes only one feldspar and one quartz </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    6. 6. 1.4.13c Granite Black granite Dark-coloured igneous rocks: <ul><li>Anorthosite </li></ul><ul><li>Basalt </li></ul><ul><li>Diabase </li></ul><ul><li>Diorite </li></ul><ul><li>Gabbro </li></ul><ul><li>Norite </li></ul>While mineralogical and chemical compositions of these rocks are very different from those of true granites, black granites may be satisfactorily used as commercial granite AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    7. 7. 1.4.27 Sandstone Sedimentary rocks composed of mineral & rock fragments <ul><li>Sand particle size 0.6mm – 2mm </li></ul><ul><li>Displaying distinct bedding features </li></ul><ul><li>Fractures around (not through) the constituent grains </li></ul><ul><li>Grains are bonded by various minerals: </li></ul><ul><li>Silica </li></ul><ul><li>Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonates </li></ul><ul><li>Iron oxides </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    8. 8. Appendix C Marble AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments One of a variety of compositional & textural types <ul><li>Pure carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>White marble </li></ul><ul><li>No carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Serpentine ‘marble’ </li></ul><ul><li>Verdite </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorite </li></ul>
    9. 9. AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Appendix C Marble Interlocking texture & a range of grain size from cryptocrystalline – 5mm <ul><li>Marble </li></ul><ul><li>Calcite </li></ul><ul><li>Dolomite </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive crystalline texture caused by metamorphic process </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone marble </li></ul><ul><li>Compact, dense limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a polish </li></ul><ul><li>Marketed as marble </li></ul>
    10. 10. AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Appendix C Slate Microcrystalline metamorphic rock <ul><li>Derived from shale </li></ul><ul><li>Composed mainly of: </li></ul><ul><li>Micas </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorite </li></ul><ul><li>Quartz </li></ul><ul><li>Micaceous minerals have a subparallel orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Impart strong cleavage to the rock </li></ul><ul><li>Can be split into thin, tough sheets </li></ul>
    11. 11. Table 2.2 Minimum stone thickness AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    12. 12. 3.3.3 Soil descriptions 3.3.3.1 Sands & gravels 3.3.3.2 Clays <ul><li>Medium sand or gravel </li></ul><ul><li>Dense sand or gravel </li></ul><ul><li>Firm clay </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff clay </li></ul><ul><li>Very stiff clay </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    13. 13. 3.3.3 Soil descriptions (3.3.3.1a) Medium sand or gravel <ul><li>Can be removed by vigorous shovelling </li></ul><ul><li>50mm wooden square post can be driven into it (with some difficulty) using a hammer not exceeding 5kg </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    14. 14. 3.3.3 Soil descriptions (3.3.3.1b) Dense sand or gravel <ul><li>Sand or gravel requiring picking for removal </li></ul><ul><li>Offers high resistance to penetration by excavating tools </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    15. 15. 3.3.3 Soil descriptions (3.3.3.2a) Firm clay <ul><li>May be penetrated by the thumb up to 50mm </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    16. 16. 3.3.3 Soil descriptions (3.3.3.2b) Stiff clay <ul><li>Readily indented by the thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrated by the thumb only with great effort </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    17. 17. 3.3.3 Soil descriptions (3.3.3.2c) Very stiff clay <ul><li>Readily indented by the thumbnail </li></ul>AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    18. 18. AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments   Minimum footing requirements
    19. 19. AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Minimum footing requirements This footing design is suitable for: Headstone & part canopy (max 3 tonnes) Canopy type (max 4 tonnes) Other types (not greater than 4 tonnes)
    20. 20. AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Minimum footing requirements Bored piers of ‘D’ diameter must extend ‘F’ distance below the grave depth Figure 3.1: Depending on soil type and weight of monument, Note: Centrally placed Y12 bar
    21. 21. AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Commission headstone Commission headstones are made from white marble Smooth rubbed to a fine finish Personal inscription not more than 70 letters
    22. 22. Concrete lawn pedestal AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments ‘ Dutchstool’
    23. 23. Commission headstone AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Front view of Dutchstool
    24. 24. Bronze plaque AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    25. 25. Bronze plaque concrete pedestal AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Surface must be cast free from voids
    26. 26. Stone or concrete pedestal AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Location holes for rag bolts in bronze plaque
    27. 27. Stone or concrete pedestal AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Top view of pedestal Front view
    28. 28. Stone or concrete pedestal AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Sectional view of pedestal
    29. 29. Standard full grave cover AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments
    30. 30. Standard full grave cover AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Longitudinal section
    31. 31. Standard full grave cover AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Top view
    32. 32. Standard full grave cover AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Pedestal
    33. 33. Standard full grave cover AS 4204-1994 Headstones & cemetery monuments Sectional view of pedestal and grave cover
    34. 34. Standard full grave cover AS 4425-1996 Above-ground burial structures Front view of grave
    35. 35. Types of crypts AS 4425-1996 Above-ground burial structures
    36. 36. Types of crypts AS 4425-1996 Above-ground burial structures
    37. 37. Crypt space dimensions AS 4425-1996 Above-ground burial structures Top view: single Top view: single couch
    38. 38. Crypt space dimensions AS 4425-1996 Above-ground burial structures Section A - A Section B - B
    39. 39. Cemetery symbolism
    40. 40. Some famous monuments
    41. 41. The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Washington DC Maya Ying Lin, Designer
    42. 42. The Kentucky Vietnam Veterans Memorial Frankfort, Kentucky Helm Roberts, Architect/Planner
    43. 43. The Martin Luther King Memorial Seattle, Washington Sculpture and fountain by Robert Kelly Dedicated November 16, 1991
    44. 44. The USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbour Hawaii, USA Alfred Preis, Architect Dedicated in 1962
    45. 45. Slot-and-tab tombs in rural Georgia bottom-up view headstone & footstone with shoulders to support top slab top-down view http://www.darkfiber.com/tomb/
    46. 51. The End

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