Teaching Critical Thinking http://www.liberator.net/humor/dilbertCRI.html
Developing Gulf Arab Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Through Asking Questions by Ozgur Pala English Foundation Program ...
Overview <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Why  “ teach ”  CT </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual standards of CT </li></ul...
What does “Critical” Mean? <ul><li>Tendency to find errors or mistakes in an idea or argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Ba...
What does “Critical” Mean? <ul><li>Something that includes careful evaluation and judgment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Ahmad...
What does “Critical” Mean? <ul><li>Finding strengths and weaknesses of an argument or idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you ...
Definitions <ul><li>Dewey (1909): evaluation, reasons & implications </li></ul><ul><li>Norris and Ennis (1989): decision-m...
John Dewey: evaluation, reasons and implications <ul><li>Socrates - John Dewey = father of the modern CT tradition.  </li>...
Norris and Ennis’s definition:  decision-making <ul><li>CT is reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding ...
McPeck’s definition: reflective skepticism <ul><li>CT refers to &quot; a certain combination of … a willingness or disposi...
Richard Paul’s definition:  thinking about one’s thinking <ul><li>CT is that mode of thinking in which the thinker improve...
Browne and Keeley’s definition: ability to ask informed questions and answer them <ul><li>Critical thinking refers to an a...
Why “teach” CT? <ul><li>“ As long as people have purposes, wish to accomplish them, and wonder what is true and what is no...
Why CT? <ul><li>“ Poor thinking wastes time and energy, engenders frustration and pain. ”   (Paul, 2002, p.7) </li></ul><u...
Why CT? <ul><li>To live successfully in a democracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Beyer, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CT provide...
Honing your critical thinking <ul><li>Being familiar with fundamental intellectual standards is a key prerequisite for mas...
Honing your critical thinking <ul><li>More specifically, asking quality questions that are informed by those intellectual ...
Intellectual standards of thinking <ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy and Precision </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </...
Questions on clarity <ul><li>Q:  What can be done about the Islamic banking system in Qatar? </li></ul><ul><li>A: What can...
Questions on accuracy and precision  <ul><li>“ Our orange juice is 100% organic. It contains 75.2 % Vitamin C, 10.5 potass...
Questions on relevance <ul><li>S: I worked so hard for this class. Why did I get a very low grade?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Questions on Depth
Questions on depth <ul><li>It is almost impossible for Turkey to help the democratic movements in the Arab world. </li></u...
Questions on breadth <ul><li>Q: Why do you think that atheism is the biggest source of moral problems of our times? </li><...
Questions on logicality
Questions on logicality <ul><ul><li>How does that follow from the evidence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does that follow fr...
Questions on significance <ul><li>A: I think the government shouldn’t have expanded the Istanbul International Airport bec...
Questions on significance <ul><ul><li>What is the most significant information we need to reach such a conclusion about th...
Questions on Fairness
Questions on fairness <ul><ul><li>Is my thinking and my assumptions justified given the situation/evidence? </li></ul></ul...
Sample Text and Question Formation <ul><li>Please read the text on Heathrow Airport Expansion on your own. </li></ul><ul><...
Questions on Clarity <ul><li>What do you mean by “badly sited” and “oversized”? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key drawbac...
Questions on Accuracy <ul><li>Why are the “economic benefits” of an international hub in London exaggerated?  </li></ul><u...
Questions on Relevance <ul><li>Is having “green policies” against building or expanding airports? How?  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Questions on Precision <ul><li>What exactly are the limits for pollution and noise for an airport? </li></ul><ul><li>What ...
Questions on Precision <ul><li>How are you taking into account the political or business case of the government for the ex...
Questions on Depth <ul><li>How do you know that the noise impact will not be reduced by new quieter aircraft?  </li></ul><...
Questions on Breadth <ul><li>Who are the experts whom you claim to have “genuine concerns”?  </li></ul><ul><li>What are so...
Questions on Breadth <ul><li>Are the MPs with constituencies around the airport, who fear the loss of their seats, include...
Questions on Logicalness <ul><li>How are arguments on being “green” and “taking the long-term pro-business line” related? ...
Questions on Significance <ul><li>How significantly would an addition to an already existing airport affect “the environme...
Questions on Fairness <ul><li>What makes you say that Gordon Brown is ignoring or deliberately sweeping the drawbacks unde...
Questions on Fairness <ul><li>Are there any potential vested interests keeping you from considering the problem from alter...
How can you help Gulf Arab Ss to improve their CT skills? <ul><li>1. Take time to explain what CT means </li></ul><ul><ul>...
 
<ul><li>2. Encourage them to ask questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinkers know when & how to ask effectively for...
<ul><li>“ I expect you all to be independent,  innovative, critical thinkers who will  </li></ul><ul><li>do exactly as I s...
<ul><li>3. Cultivate CT skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model, rehearse and coach  (Brown, 1984; Hayes and Alvermann, 1986, c...
 
<ul><li>4. Analyze & improve CT statements  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use warm-up, pre- or post-reading and  post-listening ac...
 
<ul><li>5. Raise issues of controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissonance of conflicting ideas motivates better CT (Frager, ...
<ul><li>6. Verbalize your thinking process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Thinking aloud’ is an effective method for collecting i...
<ul><li>7. Use silence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait time has considerable impact on the quality and complexity of students' ...
<ul><li>8. Take advantage of ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear-cut Qs/As may discourage Ss from thinking. Ambiguous ma...
Questions? <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul><ul><li>You can reach this presentation @  http:// www.slideshar...
References <ul><li>Beyer, B. K. (1995).  Critical thinking.  Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.  </l...
References <ul><li>Fisher, A. (2001).  Critical thinking. An introduction . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  </li><...
References <ul><li>Paul. P. and Elder L. (2002).  Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Pers...
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Qatar TESOL April 9, 2011

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Critical Thinking, Gulf Arab Students, Asking Questions

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  • NOT intermittent, occasional, temporary skepticism Not an arduous process
  • Fairness Depth Breadth Logicalness etc.
  • Effort is not related to what you get as a grade.
  • I expect you all to be independent, innovative, critical thinkers who will do exactly as I say!
  • Why intimidating? Giving wrong answer can shame them in front of others.
  • Transcript of "Qatar TESOL April 9, 2011"

    1. 1. Teaching Critical Thinking http://www.liberator.net/humor/dilbertCRI.html
    2. 2. Developing Gulf Arab Students’ Critical Thinking Skills Through Asking Questions by Ozgur Pala English Foundation Program Qatar University Doha, Qatar April 9, 2011
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Why “ teach ” CT </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual standards of CT </li></ul><ul><li>Sample situations with CT Qs </li></ul><ul><li>Sample text and Q formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for developing CT skills </li></ul>
    4. 4. What does “Critical” Mean? <ul><li>Tendency to find errors or mistakes in an idea or argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mr. Baker is always critical of his students. He thinks that they are very lazy and noisy, and that they are always late to class. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What does “Critical” Mean? <ul><li>Something that includes careful evaluation and judgment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Ahmad wrote several critical books on Ibn Khaldoon. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. What does “Critical” Mean? <ul><li>Finding strengths and weaknesses of an argument or idea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you read newspaper articles critical ly, you will understand that they are mostly opinions of their writers. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Definitions <ul><li>Dewey (1909): evaluation, reasons & implications </li></ul><ul><li>Norris and Ennis (1989): decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>McPeck (1990): reflective skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Paul (1993): meta-cognition, intellectual standards </li></ul><ul><li>Browne and Keeley (2007): asking informed Qs </li></ul>
    8. 8. John Dewey: evaluation, reasons and implications <ul><li>Socrates - John Dewey = father of the modern CT tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey: “ Active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge in light of the grounds which support it and the further conclusions to which it tends . (Dewey, 1909, p. 9) </li></ul><ul><li>active, persistent and careful process </li></ul><ul><li>r easons and implications emphasized </li></ul>
    9. 9. Norris and Ennis’s definition: decision-making <ul><li>CT is reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. (Norris and Ennis, 1989) </li></ul>
    10. 10. McPeck’s definition: reflective skepticism <ul><li>CT refers to &quot; a certain combination of … a willingness or disposition … to engage in an activity or problem with reflective skepticism .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(McPeck, 1990) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Richard Paul’s definition: thinking about one’s thinking <ul><li>CT is that mode of thinking in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully imposing intellectual standards on their thinking </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul, Fisher and Nosich, 1993, p. 4) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking about one ’ s thinking or ‘ meta-cognition ’ </li></ul>
    12. 12. Browne and Keeley’s definition: ability to ask informed questions and answer them <ul><li>Critical thinking refers to an awareness of a set of interrelated critical questions; an ability to ask and answer critical questions at appropriate times; and the desire to actively use the critical questions. </li></ul><ul><li> (Browne & Keeley, 2007) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Why “teach” CT? <ul><li>“ As long as people have purposes, wish to accomplish them, and wonder what is true and what is not, what to believe and what to reject, good CT is necessary. ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Facione, 2007, p. 9) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Why CT? <ul><li>“ Poor thinking wastes time and energy, engenders frustration and pain. ” (Paul, 2002, p.7) </li></ul><ul><li>In an age of technology, competition & information explosion, Ss need CT in their schools, prospective businesses, daily and academic lives. </li></ul><ul><li>(Oliver & Utermohlen, 1995) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Why CT? <ul><li>To live successfully in a democracy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Beyer, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CT provides enhanced engagement and therefore increased knowledge retention </li></ul><ul><li>(Meitner et al, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>To make decisions that are informed and sound. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Honing your critical thinking <ul><li>Being familiar with fundamental intellectual standards is a key prerequisite for mastering critical thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul and Elder, 2002) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Honing your critical thinking <ul><li>More specifically, asking quality questions that are informed by those intellectual standards is one of the most important methods to reach at better reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>(Paul and Elder, 2002) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Intellectual standards of thinking <ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy and Precision </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Depth and Breadth </li></ul><ul><li>Logicality </li></ul><ul><li>Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Fairness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paul and Elder (2002) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Questions on clarity <ul><li>Q: What can be done about the Islamic banking system in Qatar? </li></ul><ul><li>A: What can be done about what? Is there a problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you elaborate on that point? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you give me an example? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let me state in my own words what I think you just said. Tell me if I am clear about your meaning. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Questions on accuracy and precision <ul><li>“ Our orange juice is 100% organic. It contains 75.2 % Vitamin C, 10.5 potassium and 14.3 pulp ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is that really true? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could we check to see if that is accurate/precise? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you give me more details? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you be more specific/precise? </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Questions on relevance <ul><li>S: I worked so hard for this class. Why did I get a very low grade? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is working hard connected to the question? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this idea relate to this other idea? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does working hard always bring high grades? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can there be other factors why the grade is low? </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Questions on Depth
    23. 23. Questions on depth <ul><li>It is almost impossible for Turkey to help the democratic movements in the Arab world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the analysis provided take into account the historical facts, social realities, economical issues, political considerations of the problem/ situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are the significant factors in the situation/problem dealt with? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is anything left out? Does the information given provide enough depth on the issue? </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Questions on breadth <ul><li>Q: Why do you think that atheism is the biggest source of moral problems of our times? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Because lack of belief in God brings about extreme licentious behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there another way to look at this question? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would this look like from a conservative/ liberal standpoint? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would this look like from the viewpoint of an atheist? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Questions on logicality
    26. 26. Questions on logicality <ul><ul><li>How does that follow from the evidence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does that follow from what you said? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do all of these ideas/arguments fit together logically? </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Questions on significance <ul><li>A: I think the government shouldn’t have expanded the Istanbul International Airport because the world economy is shrinking. </li></ul><ul><li>B: I don’t agree. I think Istanbul needs a bigger airport given its growing importance in the region. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Questions on significance <ul><ul><li>What is the most significant information we need to reach such a conclusion about the expansion of the airport? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the situation of the world economy the central idea to focus on? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which of these ideas or concepts are the most important? </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Questions on Fairness
    30. 30. Questions on fairness <ul><ul><li>Is my thinking and my assumptions justified given the situation/evidence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are my vested interests preventing me from being fair? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I using concepts justifiably, or am I using them unfairly in order to manipulate someone? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would I feel if I was in the other side’s position? </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Sample Text and Question Formation <ul><li>Please read the text on Heathrow Airport Expansion on your own. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a partner and write as many critical thinking questions as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Which intellectual standard/s do your questions exemplify? </li></ul>
    32. 32. Questions on Clarity <ul><li>What do you mean by “badly sited” and “oversized”? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key drawbacks of the Heathrow Airport expansion? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you mean by saying, “They have been arguing privately”? Who is “they”? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways is this newspaper’s alternative (a new airport in the Thames estuary) any better than the expansion? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Questions on Accuracy <ul><li>Why are the “economic benefits” of an international hub in London exaggerated? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the proofs? </li></ul><ul><li>Which company did the polling? </li></ul><ul><li>Which areas did they poll exactly? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they known to be a trustable polling company? </li></ul>
    34. 34. Questions on Relevance <ul><li>Is having “green policies” against building or expanding airports? How? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the better ways of transportation if airways and railways are out of the picture? </li></ul><ul><li>Are these other alternatives any more environmentally friendly? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you be so sure that when the Tories come to power they will “certainly” challenge the expansion legally? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Questions on Precision <ul><li>What exactly are the limits for pollution and noise for an airport? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the exact number of cabinet ministers who think that Gordon Brown is ignoring the drawbacks of expanding the Heathrow Airport? </li></ul><ul><li>How large is this “minority”? </li></ul>
    36. 36. Questions on Precision <ul><li>How are you taking into account the political or business case of the government for the expansion of the airport? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you think that the political or business case of the government for the expansion of the airport is not clear? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes the doubts and alternatives of the opponents of the expansion “legitimate”? </li></ul>
    37. 37. Questions on Depth <ul><li>How do you know that the noise impact will not be reduced by new quieter aircraft? </li></ul><ul><li>Any evidence? </li></ul>
    38. 38. Questions on Breadth <ul><li>Who are the experts whom you claim to have “genuine concerns”? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the advantages of turning Gatwick into an international hub as opposed to Heathrow? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do these advantages outweigh the advantages of having Heathrow as the international hub? </li></ul>
    39. 39. Questions on Breadth <ul><li>Are the MPs with constituencies around the airport, who fear the loss of their seats, included in the minority of ministers who are against this expansion? </li></ul><ul><li>Are their arguments based on being “green” or “saving their seats”? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Questions on Logicalness <ul><li>How are arguments on being “green” and “taking the long-term pro-business line” related? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes you assume that the air travel will not increase as much as it did in the last couple of decades? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Questions on Significance <ul><li>How significantly would an addition to an already existing airport affect “the environment and the quality of life”? </li></ul>
    42. 42. Questions on Fairness <ul><li>What makes you say that Gordon Brown is ignoring or deliberately sweeping the drawbacks under the carpet? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the cabinet ministers who are against the expansion have any vested interest in delaying or stopping the Third Runway? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you call Heathrow an “unwieldy monster ”? </li></ul>
    43. 43. Questions on Fairness <ul><li>Are there any potential vested interests keeping you from considering the problem from alternative viewpoints? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you respond to the people around the airport and in the larger Metropolitan area who think the expansion will boost their businesses? </li></ul>
    44. 44. How can you help Gulf Arab Ss to improve their CT skills? <ul><li>1. Take time to explain what CT means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T gives examples from local culture & Ss discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming a critical thinker is a process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell Ss when you are giving them CT methodology: consciousness raising </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. <ul><li>2. Encourage them to ask questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinkers know when & how to ask effectively formulated Qs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Browne & Keeley, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crafting effective Qs to break the habit of rote learning & memorization </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><li>“ I expect you all to be independent, innovative, critical thinkers who will </li></ul><ul><li>do exactly as I say!” </li></ul>
    47. 48. <ul><li>3. Cultivate CT skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model, rehearse and coach (Brown, 1984; Hayes and Alvermann, 1986, cited in Tama, 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach explicit identification, explanation and evaluation of good reasoning habits </li></ul></ul>
    48. 50. <ul><li>4. Analyze & improve CT statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use warm-up, pre- or post-reading and post-listening activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartoons are great tools for stimulating critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do these activities in groups for cultural reasons </li></ul></ul>
    49. 52. <ul><li>5. Raise issues of controversy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissonance of conflicting ideas motivates better CT (Frager, 1985) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ss tend to speak their emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish strong rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize authentic material loaded with subjective, judgmental and evaluative L </li></ul></ul>
    50. 53. <ul><li>6. Verbalize your thinking process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Thinking aloud’ is an effective method for collecting information on Ss’ thinking patterns, their strengths and weaknesses. (Davey, 1983) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Thinking aloud’ is effective because: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Ss are better at S/L vs. R/W </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme need for step-by-step modeling </li></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 54. <ul><li>7. Use silence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait time has considerable impact on the quality and complexity of students' thinking (Tobin, 1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shouting out As is common and might intimidate/ discourage low-achievers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restating what they/you said provides thinking time </li></ul></ul>
    52. 55. <ul><li>8. Take advantage of ambiguity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear-cut Qs/As may discourage Ss from thinking. Ambiguous materials stimulate more complex patterns of thought. (Strohm & Baukus, 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Arab Ss may find such materials boring & intimidating </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    53. 56. Questions? <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul><ul><li>You can reach this presentation @ http:// www.slideshare.net/ozgurpala </li></ul><ul><li>Please feel free to ask questions  </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    54. 57. References <ul><li>Beyer, B. K. (1995). Critical thinking. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Browne, M. N. and Keeley, S. M. (2007). Asking the Right Questions: A guide to Critical Thinking . Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Critical Thinking (1996). The role of questions in thinking, teaching, and learning. Retrieved on December 26, 2007 from http://www.criticalthinking.org/articles/thinking-some-purpose.cfm . </li></ul><ul><li>Davey, B. (1983). Think aloud: Modeling the cognitive processes of reading comprehension. Journal of Reading, 27 (1), 44-47. </li></ul><ul><li>Facione, P. (2007). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2006.pdf . </li></ul>
    55. 58. References <ul><li>Fisher, A. (2001). Critical thinking. An introduction . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Frager, A. (1985). Conflict: The key to critical reading instruction. Paper presented at annual meeting of The Ohio Council of the International Reading Association Conference, Columbus, Ohio, October 1984. 18pp. [ED 251 806]. </li></ul><ul><li>McPeck, J. E. (1990). McPeck, J. (1990) Teaching Critical Thinking: Dialogue and Dialectic , New York and London: Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Meitner M., Gonzales J., Gandy R. and Maedel J. (2005). Critical Thinking, Knowledge Retention and Strife: Reflections on Active-learning Techniques. Retrieved on April 1, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver, H. & Utermohlen, R. (1995). An innovative teaching strategy: Using critical thinking to give students a guide to the future. (Eric Document Reproduction Services No: 389 702) </li></ul>
    56. 59. References <ul><li>Paul. P. and Elder L. (2002). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life . Financial Times Press. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul, R., Fisher, A., and Nosich, G. (1993). Workshop on Critical Thinking Strategies. Foundation for Critical Thinking, Sonoma State University, CA. </li></ul><ul><li>Strohm, S. M., & Baukus, R. A. (1995). Strategies for fostering critical thinking skills. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 50 (1), 55-62. </li></ul><ul><li>Tama, M. C. (1989). Critical thinking: Promoting it in the classroom. ERIC Identifier: ED306554, Available at http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9211/critical.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>Tobin, K. (1987). The role of wait time in higher cognitive level learning . Review of Educational Research, 57 (1), pp. 69-95. </li></ul>

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