Creating Dynamic Critical Thinkers You Tube


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Creating Dynamic Critical Thinkers You Tube

  1. 1. Creating Dynamic Critical Thinkers: Using YouTube Videos Ozgur Pala David Bartsch TESOL International Boston, MA March, 2010
  2. 2. Overview • Theoretical background – What is critical thinking? – Why “teach” critical thinking? – Why use videos? • Videos – What to consider when choosing videos? – Two sample videos: Low-level and Higher-level – What kind of activities? • Practical and technical considerations 2
  3. 3. Purpose • Purpose – How to integrate YouTube video clips into your instruction in order to develop critical thinking • Improving CT is an important educational goal – Will not provide you with the fish, rather we’ll learn how to fish together. • Different levels, student interests, teaching styles, etc. 3
  4. 4. What is Critical Thinking: Main aspects – Active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed from of knowledge. (Dewey, 1909 cited in Paul, 2002) • Active process: examining, finding plausible answers and information yourself. • Persistent and careful: avoiding unreflective thinking and jumping to conclusions. 4
  5. 5. What is Critical Thinking: Main aspects – Reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. (Norris and Ennis, 1989) • Decision making is an essential component of CT. 5
  6. 6. What is Critical Thinking: Main aspects – Refers to "a certain combination of … a willingness or disposition … to engage in an activity or problem with reflective skepticism. (McPeck, 1990) 6
  7. 7. What is Critical Thinking: Main aspects – The mode of thinking in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. (Paul, Fisher and Nosich, 1993, p. 4) • Intellectual Standard: reliability, validity, precision, etc. • Thinking about one’s thinking or meta-cognition. 7
  8. 8. What is Critical Thinking: Main aspects – Refers to an awareness of a set of interrelated critical questions; an ability to ask and answer critical questions. (Browne & Keeley, 2007) 8
  9. 9. Why Teach Critical Thinking – Poor thinking wastes time and energy, engenders frustration and pain. (Paul, 2002, p.7) – For the advancement of the fields (Center for Critical thinking, 1996) – In an age of technology, competition and information explosion, Ss need CT in their schools, prospective businesses, daily and academic lives. (Oliver & Utermohlen, 1995) 9
  10. 10. Why Teach Critical Thinking – As long as people have purposes, wish to accomplish them, and wonder what is true and what is not, what to believe and what to reject, good CT is necessary. (Facione, 2007, p. 9) 10
  11. 11. Observations • Most students need to improve their critical thinking skills regardless of their level, field, age, etc. • Most language programs mandate helping students improve their higher order thinking skills such as analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating 11
  12. 12. Can technology help? 12
  13. 13. Observations: Zeitgeist 13
  14. 14. Willingness to Use Technology 14
  15. 15. YouTube Videos Provide… • Better prediction, speculation, inferring, analysis, and evaluation outcomes thanks to visual content • Wider range of interpretations and therefore create more meaningful discussions (Canning-Wilson 2000) • Improved student motivation thanks to contextualized cultural and cross-cultural clues • More efficient schemata activation and discovery (Duffy 2008) 15
  16. 16. Choosing videos: considerations • Cultural appropriateness • Student interests • Level • Length of the movie clip/ feature film • Length of your course • Integration of the skills • Activities to be used • Technical issues such as connection, programs used • Administrative issues 16
  17. 17. Observations.. Teachers Role • We can’t “teach” critical thinking but help students to develop an attitude of critical thinking through employing lots of modeling in our instruction. Controversial Issues • Conflicting ideas motivate better CT. (Frager, 1985) • Subjective, judgmental and evaluative language can motivate CT. 17
  18. 18. What kind of topics/videos? • Anything: a simple snapshot from a movie, a very short clip, 10-minute video clips, feature films, etc. • We’ll show you a lower-level video (DIE) and a higher-level (analyze, synthesize, evaluate) video 18
  19. 19. Sample Videos • David: Video number 1 (Please click on the following address for the video clip as it is difficult to attach them here: • Ozgur: The US Immigration Problem • Some Useful Videos: • Population growth: Egypt moves to curb population explosion • Capital Punishment: Russia's only capital punishment survivor backs death penalty • Global Warming Scam: Glenn Beck: Global Warming greatest scam in history 19
  20. 20. CT… • …for beginners?!! • Must start somewhere • Ways to make it accessible • Already doing CT initial processes 20
  21. 21. DIE method – (based on Sorg and Longo, TESOL Denver 2009) • D: Describe • I: Interpret • E: Evaluate 21
  22. 22. DIE: Describe • Accurate description is foundational • Inaccurate description  inaccurate…everything else • Some of the Wh- questions • Who, what, where, when 22
  23. 23. DIE: Interpret • Wh- questions • Why, how=interpretation 23
  24. 24. DIE: Evaluate • “This is CT.” • Analyzing, synthesizing, inferring, etc. 24
  25. 25. DIE • You must start at the beginning: describe. • Possible for lower-level students. 25
  26. 26. Video #1 • Following slide: predict what will happen in the video • (And if you happen to remember this…please play along!) 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Video #1: watch • NViI 28
  29. 29. Pepsi commercial: discuss 29
  30. 30. Pepsi commercial 30
  31. 31. Pepsi commercial 31
  32. 32. Pepsi commercial 32
  33. 33. Pepsi commercial: more activities • Compare two competing products • Create a similar commercial for different products – Written – Performed 33
  34. 34. Pepsi commercial: more activities • Competition, capitalism • Crime (security camera) • Advertising 34
  35. 35. Pepsi commercial: reality check • Not all these activities are suitable for lower levels. • Some of them are! 35
  36. 36. Pepsi commercial: DIE • What happens when the description and interpretation are inaccurate? • “Spell ‘steal’, ‘thief’.” • Description: “steal” • Interpretation: “thief” • If “thief”, then all subsequent premises… 36
  37. 37. Evaluation ??? Interpretation Thief Description Steal 37
  38. 38. Pepsi commercial: so… • Describing and interpreting are foundational for the higher-level activities. • Make sure to help your students—even the ones in lower levels—D.I.E.! 38
  39. 39. The US Immigration Problem • Watch the Video: SaQ • As you watch, please consider the following: – Content: What are some key issues to raise about this subject? – Delivery: How would you use this video in your class? 39
  40. 40. • Time…to brainstorm 40
  41. 41. Types of activities • Pre-activities – Contextualizing/scene-setting/schemata activation – Vocabulary – Discussion via cartoon, headlines, statements • While-activities – Table Filling – Teacher Questions as required • Post-activities – Comprehension – Discussion and Evaluation Questions – Statement Improvement/Correction/Evaluation – Personalization and Extension 41
  42. 42. Types of activities • Pre-activities – Contextualizing/scene-setting/schemata activation • Which country is this video made in? • Which city? • What is the topic? • Is this made for a TV program? • Who are the speakers? • Do they agree with each other? 42
  43. 43. Types of activities • Pre-activities: Vocabulary work Vocabulary Immigration (n) National Security (n) Fence (n) Employ (v) Equal (adj) Cost-saving (adj) Deserve (v) Regulation (n) Apple picker (n) Starve (v) Responsibility (n) Unskilled (adj) Border (n) Serve (v) 43
  44. 44. Types of activities • Pre-activities – Discussion via cartoons – Let’s have a look at the cartoons. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. Types of activities • While-activities IDEAS FOR IMMIGRATION IDEAS AGAINST CONTROL IMMIGRATION CONTROL National security is more Immigrants built the important country Take care of your people first Everybody is born equal Control only illegal They all the hard work Not our responsibility Walls will not serve any purpose Only trouble-makers should be stopped from entering the US 50
  51. 51. Types of activities • While-activities – Teacher asks the following questions: • Which two ideas, for or against, are the strongest? Support your answers. • Which two ideas are the weakest? Why? Support your answers. • Write down 2 questions you would ask to the people in the street about the immigration problem? • Did you notice anything about the city this clip is filmed in? What is it? 51
  52. 52. Types of activities • Post-activities – Comprehension Questions • Comprehension Qs that tests whether students understood the main ideas and some of the details in the passage. 52
  53. 53. Types of activities • Post-activities – Discussion and Evaluation Questions • Teacher prepares some questions. Work in groups… – Immigration laws should be made more flexible. Do you agree? Why? Why not? – Some people think that countries with a capitalist system exploit the immigrants. How so? – How much of the problem of immigration is about national security? What other concerns/issues make immigration a problem? 53
  54. 54. Types of activities • Post-activities – Discussion and Evaluation Questions • Example: Hotel Rwanda (see questions on the next slide) – Questions on genocide, indifference of the free world to the problems of the third world countries. – Wars as a social problem – Ethics of war – Prevention of wars – War crimes and criminals – Responsibilities of wealthy countries toward poorer countries 54
  55. 55. Hotel Rwanda Discussion Questions • When there is a war in a country, which international organization do you think helps stop the war or the people who are in danger of being killed in a war? • Whose responsibility is it do you think to prevent or stop wars between countries: the developed countries or neighboring countries where the war breaks out? Can the rich Gulf countries play a role in preventing wars? • There are more wars in Africa compared to other parts of the world? What do you think are some of the reasons? • Why do you think people want to kill other people, even their neighbors and relatives, in a war?
  56. 56. Hotel Rwanda Discussion Questions • Can wars be stopped? How? • Imagine that you are in the middle of a war. How different do you think it would be to be from a Western country such as German, England, the USA, etc. or from an African country such as Rwanda, Ghana, or Somalia? • Do you think Western countries have double standards when it comes to protecting or helping people from poor countries? Can you support your idea with examples? • Some people say that religions cause wars whereas some people argue that religions teach peace and help prevent wars. Which idea do you agree with? How can religion help prevent wars? Can religion tame the behaviors of people in a war situation? Can you support your opinion?
  57. 57. Types of activities • Post-activities – Statement Improvement/Correction/Evaluation • Capitalism is the most brutal system on earth because it is based on exploiting people. • Countries with better economies need neighboring countries with a bad economy to keep on growing. • Immigration problem affects only richer countries. • It is not the responsibility of developed and wealthy countries to worry about poorer countries. 57
  58. 58. Types of activities • Post-activities – Personalization and extension • Do you have any friends who are from another country but they are living in your country? • What are some of the problems of immigrants in your country? • Are there any organizations who help these people when they have a problem? • How would you feel if you were an immigrant in another country? 58
  59. 59. Types of activities • Depending on your level and the skills area you are focusing on students could: – Listen to a similar passage or watch a video on the same topic – Discuss the issue of immigration and report to class – Read more on the issue of immigration – Write a letter to a politician or a company or an op-ed about the problems of immigration in a newspaper or school magazine 59
  60. 60. Practical and technical considerations
  61. 61. How do I find a “good” video? • Some videos are better at teaching some genres/concepts than others. • Many videos can be used for a variety of purposes. 61
  62. 62. How do I find a “good” video? • WHERE DO I LOOK???!!! • Wander YouTube. • Wander Facebook. Use videos your friends post. • Try to find commercials or programs you see on TV. 62
  63. 63. Technical considerations
  64. 64. Technical considerations 64
  65. 65. Technical considerations 65
  66. 66. Technical considerations • How show the clips? • Wireless in your classroom? • Slower • Solution: – Preload the video – Use wired internet access 66
  67. 67. Technical considerations • Download the file • Why? • Constant access • Biggest problem: removal from the website 67
  68. 68. Technical considerations • Different file formats – .flv, .avi, .wmv, MPEG4 • Getting much easier • Realplayer SP • 68
  69. 69. Using RealPlayer SP 69
  70. 70. Using RealPlayer SP 70
  71. 71. Potential problem: • Blank screen/disappearing text in Firefox • Solution: disable the RealPlayer plug-in 71
  72. 72. Potential problem: • Doesn’t seem to be a problem in Internet Explorer 72
  73. 73. Using RealPlayer’s converter 73
  74. 74. Another option: copy the URL 74
  75. 75. 75
  76. 76. Pick a download format 76
  77. 77. Choose: highest quality 77
  78. 78. You may need… • Players • Converters • …etc. 78
  79. 79. A great place to look: 79
  80. 80. Technical considerations review • Download clips when you find them. • Realplayer SP • • 80
  81. 81. Conclusion
  82. 82. Conclusion: realities • Department-wide implementation--?!! • Our hope: gained a new perspective that you’re now willing to consider. 82
  83. 83. Conclusion: realities • Fixed curriculum – Implement the ideas as best you can within your level. • Personal preferences – Find something that works for you. • Student preferences – Find techniques that they enjoy and can learn from. 83
  84. 84. Conclusion: review • Basics of CT • Rationale for using videos • Use of videos for CT • Examples of videos and how to use them • Technical aspects 84
  85. 85. Thanks for coming to our presentation! 85
  86. 86. Contact David Bartsch Ozgur Pala 86
  87. 87. References Beyer, B. K. (1995). Critical thinking. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Browne, M. N. and Keeley, S. M. (2007). Asking the Right Questions: A guide to Critical Thinking. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Çakir, İsmail. “The Use of Video as an Audio-visual Material in Foreign Language Teaching Classroom.” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, TOJET v5 n4 Oct 2006. Center for Critical Thinking (1996). The role of questions in thinking, teaching, and learning. Retrieved on December 26, 2007 from Davey, B. (1983). Think aloud: Modeling the cognitive processes of reading comprehension. Journal of Reading, 27(1), 44-47. Duffy, P. “Engaging the YouTube Google-Eyed Generation: Strategies for Using Web 2.0 in Teaching and Learning.” 2008. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning Volume 6 Issue 2, pp 119 - 130, available online at Facione, P. (2007). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Retrieved January 10, 2008 from Ferret, S. (1997). Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Retrieved on January 5, 2008 from
  88. 88. References Fisher, A. (2001). Critical thinking. An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Frager, A. (1985). Conflict: The key to critical reading instruction. Paper presented at annual meeting of The Ohio Council of the International Reading Association Conference, Columbus, Ohio, October 1984. 18pp. [ED 251 806]. Gokhale, A. (1995). Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking. Journal of Techonlogy Education 7 (1), Available at Griffith, C. W. (1982.) Teaching Writing in All Disciplines. New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 12. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. King, Jane. “Using DVD feature films in the EFL classroom.” ELT Newsletter, February (2002). Liao, Christine L. “Collaboration and Dialogue: Video as an Agent in Extending and Enriching Learning and Writing.” International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, ACM SIGGRAPH 2007. Kurfiss, G., (No Date). Critical Thinking by Design. Retrieved on February 5, 2008 from McPeck, J. E. (1990). McPeck, J. (1990) Teaching Critical Thinking: Dialogue and Dialectic, New York and London: Routledge.
  89. 89. References Oliver, H. & Utermohlen, R. (1995). An innovative teaching strategy: Using critical thinking to give students a guide to the future. (Eric Document Reproduction Services No: 389 702) Paul. P. and Elder L. (2002). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. Financial Times Press. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Paul, R., Fisher, A., and Nosich, G. (1993). Workshop on Critical Thinking Srategies. Foundation for Critical Thinking, Sonoma Sate University, CA. Potts, B. (1994). Srategies for Critical Thinking. Eric Document number: ED385606. Available at Srohm, S. M., & Baukus, R. A. (1995). Srategies for fostering critical thinking skills. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 50 (1), 55-62.
  90. 90. References Tama, M. C. (1989). Critical thinking: Promoting it in the classroom. ERIC Identifier: ED306554, Available at 9211/critical.htm. Tobin, K. (1987). The role of wait time in higher cognitive level learning. Review of Educational Research, 57 (1), pp. 69-95. Vie, Stephanie. “Digital Divide 2.0: ‘Generation M’ and Online Social Networking Sites in the Composition Classroom.” Computers and Composition 25 (2008) 9-23.