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  • 1. Istanbul :
  • 2. Where is Istanbul ? Istanbul, historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople; it is the largest city in Turkey and 5 th largest city in the world with a population of 12.8 million, also making it the second largest metropolitan area in Europe by population, and the largest metropolitan city proper. Istanbul is also a megacity, as well as the cultural, economic, and financial centre of Turkey. The city covers 39 districts of the Istanbul provinced. It is located on the Bosphrous Strait and encompasses the natural harbour known as the Golden Horn, in the northwest of the country. It extends both on the European and on the Asian sides of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only metropolis in the world that is situated on two continents. Istanbul is a designated alpha world city.And this provides by the backround bridge...
  • 3. Problems Faced in CBDs ?
    • One of the most faced problem is traffic jam .
    http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRTkIYNG050tJypNwVtl5eaT8eXLE3QbFC21Flg2of3RWaDQek&t=1&usg=__UsTC1850_BPyKPQZMqFI0Qu9x_M=
  • 4. Problems Faced in CBDs ?
    • Second thing is crowded and big cities with overpopulation.
    overpopulation.jpg
  • 5. Problems Faced in CBDs ?
    • The CBD cities get lots of immigrants. So from different nations and cultures people live together .
    http://knowledge.allianz.com/nopi_downloads/images/african_immigrants_z.jpg Amadou Diallo: African Immigrant Shot At 41 Times By NY Police, Buried In West Africa. - Jet 8mar1999 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wdu49ef/PerZpER2W9tsA3JK5Yt/IM9qA0m0VnYPkluFGOSSew71pXhPwZOZYLzUkWGBIZUaJwd7Bsj6DBoKpodlfa1IYtPiMp5ywwFQe56Volh4NsNK05rnUX+9XQQnO7CKcdgOuKsSWtnpdgttptvHbxnB2oMA/P1+tCeLLz7r4euJhzthLD3oKBLet5ohL4Q8Mw449alhPpFxBEiTRqyrhSUII+Rqk2lw1xEN3VSFLdjnmrbo+q3NnabWhhntlPwgsAy0Blnp1i1yJTftIy8rtmH/hrq71T7lMYFbgnK+vvQd5fm6j2W+ixqpGPMcA4FQUEipcTDZ0Jxk5wKCeuZra7aOG8kkEc+Y2MZw3I6j5VV9Z8DajbrJPo+dRtUAJVFCygc9Vzz25H6Vzq11MNUhBJQRdAP4c4P96uXhPVEugu2Vt6tGkqsefnQZJplxHG0styCAh4IHcetT3hC9AV5ZMKpkz+hrSvEH2f6LrrST2xeyupGEjmPlJDn+IdvpVH1nw14g0VPLg0p5IAcGaHDpg+g6igktGvw0s0aQpcMrny45BkEd6cvmtyyreaRBbqerRMc/0qnWklxayM1m7iaMbpnxnBJx9MU8NVmZyj3YZX4555+tBaIL6GKMQQqeG2gk5OKOs9QDyrFG2TycDrkVW7TT7y4cFInRSOXkGC3vjtVu0fS47IMzESTOMF8dvagA1Dwla69eLNIxglkPMrDdu4PUZqzeD/AAtZeHopPIb7xOTgyuv5QOyio/V9atNLG3Bkudvwxpzg9ifSvNA8U/fLC5S7miS6jGQqkLvB/wAUFjn1qWOZkj+JVOAfWlWb3OpXLTuROevZaVAOsjW9yk6FSQcjjr86m9Ou2uozHCMBjvnweST2H6VXYdo3RswJ/h96L026ewmSaFiB+VlHcUGgWFht/wB5fAsAMqp4x6VI2kA1Sbc8RQqPiY8lR7e9Qp1RpreLzJh5edy4XjPvUhb+IDbWuNkIUck5OSaCzwxxQqsCAKijgDinri3NzYyRFThhlc1nmoeOiFK29rG0nTcxJX9KtfhDxdba9H91lVbe9Qf9MNkOB3X/ABQRMN05kaJm2uvDAn0otL42gAh/Fjbn4OTTPirTTBLJcwL8EoO4jsaibVVSBIvvskGB8DE5X3HtQTkk819DtuFVIx8QHc46Zpn70FjIDbl/cUKI4UQL95MzkdY8gf1oc2pgB8lWw/TcSeaC8eHTu00S8/iOWGfTOP7U9rV09jpF5dIjyPBA7qqLuJbBxgV3plt93sIIehRACPfHNGYIPfrmg+R9UgS5P3hNxDnEgTn4s9T70/4c8Oahr14bTTYDJtP4kjjakY9Wb+1bT428OaI/iCxQxxWQmWSS6KjaswyABgcbjzz7VNaXaWOn2a22lRQx2qflWI8fMkdfrQQXhTwnYeHYMgR3F9083bgJn+UHOPnU+8rE/GMDPUHOajdeuPukH3mJQ8oPTd+YelP21zHPEjoTtYZBPv2oHrpgysQahfGSmfw7JGM5aIjj5VKynGc4570zPCtxFtfOANtBjGjbfva282dkw2k9gf4TRlwLqxm2ynCD8rjoai7iJ7PU5IkkO6CYqCehwTWlafosuq6Lb6hZotyjgh1A+JGHUEUFOi1Gdfi8089siprRtNadlurkZiU7gCMbjUlF4blWYlbBgR2EJ4qxx6I8Fk13qeLa0gQvKSMHaOeBQZl4qjxqKzYwZE3gHrtyQP71H2V3LpOsWtzExKSFQ65xn4sf3rvWNQbWNWuL5VEaSkCOMHhIxwo/Sm/u4kubUtyVmXr/AMhQbXp1yHiLoRyR39RUpHIJAQwBHzzUHaw+WWZRhWIBA7GpJNyMgHQg496Cn/aQum2sEEjQpHLNLskmVACE98e5B+lD6boljZqj28SuSARK2DnPpV8vrC01C2eC9t45YJFwySDI59Pesu8Q+G/EXhm2d9E1G5n0xMsFUgvEPcHOR7igspRIUaWRo4wg+JnIAA+dVTXPFCuGh0ptx6NcgYx7KP71Ubm7v9RXbqF9NMu4YUtgcdfnTG9FG1V2+vSgkgxyJGclu5zkn5mvI5URy/OByAOtBwtkE5wBxz0NEIEVNwxgjrQG/f5V4MTHHfI5pUD5wHG7PzpUBcczCQtnk/8AdmpGGLf8QOFUgk0Db2rPMWjGyM87nHJz6CjvKQEBpGkAHGen6UEhBfrFbG2+CRicKwP5f0pi6u5JwBLjC5GFXr86Fc7XAQKDjjimHMhJOW3dSaB6Zd4yCMA4x613bXMllLFdW0nlSwurKwPK8/4oJi+zgdeRXseXLbiAx7YoPoVLi3u08p8OsicgDrkVW9U0GW13mGL7xbNztVcstTugXcdzoOnz4AaS3jJOO+0VJQuR8J6evtQUG0WODOyDHOMZ6VL6TpU13dxXE6lIkbcdx/MR0xVsEak7iq49xmnBGOooPFXnPT2xXZ4Fe8KBmhbmdY0eR2CRoCzMxwAB1NBm/wBpEnn67FEGI8iEDr3JJqrxtJEQ6Ssj9AUJGMfKjvEGpDUtbuLuMt5UrHapHVQMA/tn61G7y5wTn1yelAXLq13cRpHcz+YFYYEi9f8A5Dmi9I1i7l1WS1mhitnlX/bjJZZcdgf5qgrlGxuUnjrjiuBK5YISA6kMj4OY27EUGkW1rPt/3EgZj2VQB/miSpCbfbGKWl3IvdOt7kAfixgkDse/7g07Kikgk4HSgxXxbstvFV/G42s0u/JHAz3q2/ZRqzWusHT5JiLa7B2qTkeYOh+oqE+1G0WLX4Zgq5uLfBPqVOP7iqxo+qXOm3sEqnPlSh1YDoQQRQfUyMMDn61mf2va8xiTQraX4iBLc4bnH8K/3qyat4phg8HvrUDjLwBoeM/iNwB9Dn9Kwu5mmnnmuLmVnZyWZ3Ykk+vP/nFA1bqQpxkgHOTRke03KAMpKypx6cg1FJdSqyxxAEg/nPQ05cRO0u4N8TD8wOCDQb2mPLI6ZXOa4Z/hRmbO08HNcWjn7nFyTmMZz8qFvkLxoi5wzAAg4oJJGl6pLtOB0G79QarXj/xBqdjpo/0lMROTHNcoMlG6bcdBn1qZgleNVXjk4BPPevLPTYriwvtOu0DwSscAnqD3+h70GEsNmd/6UK25TlvynpRt9aS2moz20oP4UjJycE4JHSg4zI1wyNyo7+lA7EuQDngU4qvInw5IPGPSukjUKST3r3LH/pqo7Ak8UCEUeBknNKn43CoFKNkein/FKglpbk8hjyD2FDmcnJVq4y2WOeAelNciQfBhT1NATHIclic44r19zDeSOeMGmrcEDkDBNdqfhwc5ByaD3Oz8uQo4xTqqwIOQc8fKmBvU/EN2D1pwqzb2VSR2NBdPCfjG4FxpehNbJFAp8prgOWY8HGB0Hatct0CRKvXA65r5zsEmW8g2fBL5iFSD/EGGK+j0yeuAe9B1GzE4YZBp4HH+KbSnSc9OtBXPH+qXui+HZtR05olmidM+bHvBUnB4yPWsR1Dxdr+uedBf6i7QFgDHGoRG78gdR7ZrbvH9o194Q1SBF3P5BdB6lSG/tXztpuWtmlbu2celBZLOUtGpJbpjdwa6HwSMxXAJ78ZqJYTPEskUhQYzjANcSRtKVLSuxJ5yaCYku4MKpnQY4xu60NvGTtOVyME1FSWysp8sbXAyre9P2UxuoQGGJEOG9aDTPAV35+lSwsDuhk4P/Ln/ADVlb8pqkfZ3O4lv4WH8KP8APGRV2DZTOM5oM9+1mH/Z6fOFHwyshPsRn+1ZxJGhIIYgH+taz9qC7vDccjAAJcp9eDWUrGGAUcFj19KAiXVrwaNBpxm8y2gkeSGIdELdcn09KEiaaaEvP3PY8VzdRFn2jkdevQ+lOWalEaMJn5mgcjiKyhgooi4fMygoMZyabjA/Njp7045wfNKmg22xO6xiVsflXp8qYnAaaNEBOxS5FdaNJ5ulxNjIKLz+lK0xLLcHBOwhPfAoFFGHn2yKdoHaj4ECqcsThTknrQ0QHmsRkcdK9inK3bKD8Kr8QoMn+0S1+5eI55cj/dRpMuexIwf6VVYCACRwc4PuauH2uox1WxLLxJbZB/4sf8iqVHNtHUBevTk0BXcgZUdea6ilbkKhYcdemaGLTPxsOztu6/Onl+8BfK2u3rgcUBgckZ/D/alQTpd7vw7V2XsQBSoJQvt4z+bmuN3mJwef6mm3YFHPoR0plZwjhT+XsfegM2hsSOmMDB+Kgo8PKzLvK5PAGeKdaUhdgb4T1FNknblT9On0oCfJUAMGYE843U8kewDLueexpuFsxgkcnjIp7eAo7mglNEUzatYoOhuY/wD9hX0Io3E8c18/+EfxfEumJjj70mQe/P8A/K+hMjt0oEOD/anF6Z7U2SM/LvTitnrQcSqkiMki5RgVI9c8V84a3YHR7u60/ZzDKVIHJxk4/avpFjklT3rIPti0k2+owalGAFuV8t/+Sjg/vQU2wYNEEYDcBxmvJ1bP5BwetM2RIU4GSe1EuPfJFAMgGNpGfXFBQy+RqZVuEkGG9PnRbN+KVXqBzQ80fmllzjuCKC5/Z7Kf9Wn3HBaDofYj/NX+KQ7mVsY7ZrLfB90LXVrSWTgSsyOf+XGf1xWmMQWOFOM9aCt/adz4Wdv4UuIySPqP71k1sx3IM5JyT7VsfjCIT+FtTQcssXmAf8ef7VjcbBJVJOEwTmgdutqqCoBx1+XrTdpKDOABk88etOTeXLEBwT0x2z70MiCMgoAeegHSgMJRYwyDuRXE8wS35JGR8XtRVjdWkdtepdWYmklQJC5OPLOc7h6mgblcwHcdvNBtPhZn/wDTNiz8EwKT+lG2Hw2olzkszEn501aQtBoscUaMxWJVUAZ7YFSdnY3ItgsdtIfhxyMUAaSgO8g4UHJzTFlmSOWVv4z1HuaK1HTL2CylkeEKvA/NkgZqK1jU7XQ9KV7gkCQ7UUDJJ+XWgo32sXAkfTGw27Eo4/lytUS3QFQ6jOP4Qf71Ydfv/wDXLxrqfAjACJGGyEUdunX1NQ7WoQn7vIcKMlD3oPBEEYrG53fyntT0V1LEFS6jIx1INcxTI5wylZEOGzTqtFK5RgTyM4oDIsmNSnxLjgjvSpgSug2pIdo6ZOD/AEpUHMg8uVg3CngY6UK4BXZ1YHqR3o65RnTLDBz8IobaT8TcA0DkT+bEHBCsOG968DcZHIBzzXEAAyq9M06qHBCjPH70DtvIoUg9+RThfLBduc/tQ0EeVUt1Bwop9WIfcww3vQWPwUV/9UaYBg/7lOn1rfUBzg18/wDgpmbxTphc/wD3KY7etfQKg59TQes2B0r1T0z+lcSglhXWCuKB7OR0xVT+0uwF74TvDtDPbATocZxjr+2atKA45Jri4hWaJ4pE3RupVlxnII5FB802rYPOc9eDT0r7JCeoY4x6e9E69pT6NrNzYupIic7GHdT0P6UBKcyjr8Ix9aD2HADkDuf1plCRKcdueadLFI3zjmmASe3NAZFMUf4AQUYMpHrnI/pWqQSpNbpKrHDoHH1FZErbZCFbORn9K0Xwrcm48OwDvEzxkn0B4/rQTNyguLO5hUDEkLrg+6msKjQfeU8wKyKAxUk4OD0rdrVtzjjOeDWIXcax31yhyCkjLx7E0DT7DM7HG0nICrtA+Q7V2NrIS3HGRihpTjIxgY605aypKoVScehoPI8+YM5bB49BR2nWhvdStLbkiadI+R1yaf8ADWgtrl95SApErBpX9F9vnzWqWvh3R9LuoJraxAuEIaKUk5Vhznr1oNHijEaJGvAUYAA9KdA9zk+tViOW9mZcm6ZQc5zgGp+2MpRfNKhupAOcegoIX7QtSj0rwle3b7sKUGF4ySwFYRcXUup7ZprhpccIWOQM+lbt490s634dlsXlMKvKjblGT8JzWOav4PvNAQ3cMy3NkBhyBtaM+pFBWLxHRvNV/iHDLgYalb3dnHITPA7+ZjKjO5RT8ygDY4zj/wA70MbUqTsJCnnbuBoOvLgM5kXIBPwk+nvTUi7LnzEJEZA4zXjEvkYwM96cTY4Ib+EZC+tAxcuROwSQAemM0qamki8xsuoOeh60qCVkO5GBBwR1AqOX4ZCr5xxye5xTkOpQGeNMt+NnbheOuBnJruaPCckHJPXtQc2u0K5Zjuz0p5mySNxx6U3Zn4mXBHHfvT5AQ7jQNQFs7T2opS8jBdy/WmFGJTsbhuxp11IBz6UEr4bn+56vZTuxYR3KEH6819HRHljnvxXzJZOyOsgAIRgwPvX0vbNvRD/MoP60Hbt8XQ804wyB7U1IxBXPenSx2ggZoPFbBxXZ+IYps5zkr9acRuBmgy37X9JkCWurWwwwbyJiB0HVT/as2dwSdo5HVu5NfQ/iLTV1TSLuzfH40RAPow5H71887fLJVvzgkMPegYn3/BuH1psNIQ/IIHTNPSbmPXAH9aSsWRkVh7cUDEeWnJxtBQY+ferb4a1i10+K4tby5WMySeZGrdOnIzVDlvjHcPGke5kwDg45HWkt8t0IpGjUcleDzQaovizSIW+K6GOOVBP9qzfVovvGq3lxayo0UkzupDY4JzyK8jkXO1u/w49K9Zh5oHwkLwT0/tQC/cZ2IEhhRj1BYnFOw2TLIsYnUnp8K8c08rbjwwJ9+a4B/E+FcN0B96DX/C2jxaLZLDGA+Blm9TU/Yt941iKIJlY4jI2e2TtH9DUVoV2LrTLS4LACSFSfnirJoltHvmuEGWkwmT6Dt+5oJlE2gcg8dhSOPMGcdvanB8sCuEwSCeeM0EZ4kmENipJ/j6fSqlBeWOow6nbXsmy18rY/A6nPT3pn7YtWvbSGys9PTMkqu7MTgKAQB9etZlYeLX0qxubWe2e4nYgxNMQAp56+oyaCInaSKR4irfhMyEMMnj1NCCWR2YqwB6Yoe3upmEglPLEs3Pdskmn1KZZgOMkA+vSg6DSYAkO4+td5xz+9NeaoHxfCe3vTBmLqXRWK9jkY560HMkzbzsRSKVeYB/if9BSoCYbO3SaN/jzH+XLdOc4x9aKuDuCgcgVzK6yk5HTk7RzQ4kbCxuzMBwWI5+VA9bsgfOCWztxReNy4x71G28mZAqn4s4xUnEWGCQOfWgaQ/EMGiSRjkAn0PehSVRzjBPb2p0nAXdnOMUBELhc4GBjp2r6O0KYXGlWUy/xW8bf/AIivnCAhkIHQdq+gfAxkPhTSmfqYB9R2oJmc/jKvoafPQfOg3JNwc/KiQw2Fe4oOz614h7GuVOVIPakORmg6mG4A1gvjawGm+KdQiVQiO/mr6YYZ4/et4ZwUGDkjmsp+1+zKXljfoMiSMxtx3XkfsTQZ1IXznGRjOa8iOJAOx716WySBk5HIrgKWUiPAIHFBGFEV7ltpyXJyaHRljVSdrY5HtRd1I0pmfaFDSFigPAqPnkVEDbRlPTvQHiVWJIbPGc9K4YSHChh9aAhOSSeKL8wnGOBigKidAVB6966HxMpXOOpx2561FvKGdnjDHHavRO6ELngDkA8jPNBc5fEeo6Z4Q0yewEQEkjW7OcsVZOuR8jWx/ZsLp/B+mz38hkublDM7H/uJx+xFfPdtqT3GkHQxCp828WdZCxBViNmAB65FfUGl262Wn21ogwIIUjH/AMQBQHscKflXKqRz64rncWjO4Hoa7VsopHpxQZl9pwaXVoyOBFEq/qSayTxNayJci4Cbo5F2ZxwCPWtm8URrqGoXwyPhk2j6ACq14tsraLwlqBljUqkJZf8AnkYNBklu6q+5RtUgjn9q8lnxlUySF6+tNkoFWMEk7QTx3psk9CMMOo7UDhclMudxxxntTsTN5RhEbbcZXbzg0ywRkDKDhT0PSu4cEM4fc20rtI6EUHCngbl3N3PrSpxfMYZCjHypUBzlkGY8bj3NM+bIEd325PHFKlQNLuVw2eeoIqUWVgBnn60qVBygDHOAD7V6C7EZbrSpUBEQKnAPUf4r6N8IxrH4c0tcni1T+maVKgMQ5k6k896IYfDx1pUqD2Pvn0roKSBz1pUqDxhtbGB8XSqX9qVqJfDJkZuYJkKn58GlSoMXZviIXgZx70kOFbH60qVBXldlRtoUkgHJ+tMbizR5A60qVAZpunS39zJFbui7F3neT/autRtJdOv3tJZFZo8MSnQ5HSlSoI6ef40OGyT0zwaLbdgsu3nqCKVKglvB3kyeLdIN0G8s3SAqig5wc9/pX09bXccyBgH+LuQM/wBaVKgJeQxjkD6VyrhyOTj0xSpUGa6XcvdXWovKBk3Uyn6MahftDk8vwjccfmkiU49CwpUqDIQzD4Vxzjk/KuGUqSc980qVBwjHlcnBFOx8Dj9aVKgJhkZYlAwR70qVKg//2Q==
  • 6. Problems Faced in CBDs ?
    • In CBD cities crime usually seen pretty much.
    http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcShPX4r9ofdPC7t0Majbu6W890FgTiCRs1xoI4MlAZKEzoSNvQ&t=1&usg=__11y2MypUAtGcBvfzsJChOToT-eQ= http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTdc48Bu2lyKuRJxyqBDROjXEQRDnLUIuNnGtSQTaA0sgGNKgo&t=1&usg=__bThNBijWXE0a_yX2g_QdGi6LvBI=
  • 7. Problems Faced in CBDs ?
    • And in this cities usually people faces with parking problem.
    http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQK41sMkQNMiJqdzjtoSWLL009l6k27kEaTDSr_5UML1WHhw0w&t=1&usg=__fujksMsDhxvwqTqeqGycHBJrhLk= Self Parking Garage
  • 8. Solving of problems in CBD ?
    • In this cities we can see lots of skyscrapers due to no enough place to construction of separate buildings .
    http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS8xIeFkmzLa3-9QM1rtFa75SxG1X-fWQKAyzM6gckyk_kM-Kk&t=1&usg=__o66ypHUZhMINPCIuumMMUy4Xlkg= http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSpsrkGC3TqHcfnAg1VGHMPQANGh0-xv8sS3ih-DEIGpv5Wk7I&t=1&usg=__FFRpK5YrfyruvuVNJ2bozZDy3Nw=
  • 9. Solving of problems in CBD ?
    • For the solving of traffic jam people should encourage to use republic transport like subway, busses.
    http://i.thisislondon.co.uk/i/pix/2008/03/012_10_Bendy-Buse_415x275.jpg http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQtEXPg4LfGT_IMS3Eo4r0RE3yOv4i9X4mRVh_T6dfPDoXKJpw&t=1&usg=__oCqqUlFHLzysW1bJGMsxgite1Y4=
  • 10. Solving of problems in CBD ? http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTtSBWSPZTCVRLJPcbA0DtF0qisnnqXo8D3Arn_vn3PrHNooAY&t=1&usg=__TeJWk_YrSKzm53l98M3cerxt7aY= http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRvN6ZTz1uH78Le2EuC9l_2pTxs8asT8_AZqpsOHfD6uJv87yY&t=1&usg=__I0gTxVSY6Lpy3aGCbPDFB6yPmdo=
    • For the obstruct crime police should work more scary and hard act also statutes should be more complicated.
  • 11. Solving of problems in CBD ?
    • And in this cities to solve parking problem people should use public transport or smaller cars.
    http://www.euro-style.pl/auta/smart.jpg http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRSmutSFtvJbSzOZ1aRM0b3fLG0zQN9FIjfvexl8QwgYjj2DaM&t=1&usg=__hF6BD0wNz8GcLgF1G3niQUyMYY8=
  • 12. http://www.pictureninja.com/pages/united-states/florida/tampa-skyscraper.jpg http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRTkIYNG050tJypNwVtl5eaT8eXLE3QbFC21Flg2of3RWaDQek&t=1&usg=__UsTC1850_BPyKPQZMqFI0Qu9x_M= http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTFSaxa9_7dvWqzPYu309mIBQCbhKLeW4QAExP4cq0AqOPhv2s&t=1&usg=__07u-pslqyrO0yFZRP2Mb6sTdS5Y= http://atlas.geo.cornell.edu/people/seber/jpgs/istanbul02.jpg http://www.masterdamus.com/MASTERNEWS/I-love-istanbul-3.jpg