Another way to look at this is that the number of deaths in Australia caused by tobacco smoking every week is the equivalent of 1 jumbo jet crashing every week!
Sometimes, the benefits of quitting are often not promoted enough and a lot of the time, people are unaware of not only how many benefits there are to quitting, but also how immediate these benefits take place. As you can see the benefits of quitting begin almost immediately after you take the last puff. 20 minutes after you have quit smoking, your blood pressure and pulse rate returns to normal as does the temperature of your hands and feet. After 2 weeks, your circulation improves and your lung function increases up to 30%. After 10 years of quitting, the death rate of lung cancer becomes the same as a non-smoker.
So how much does it actually cost to smoke???
So why do people start smoking? The image you see is of a 2 year old boy in Indonesia who is a chain smoker and smoked 40 cigarettes a day. Before we look into the reasons as to why people take up smoking click on the screen to watch the clip of this Indonesian toddler smoking.
We now know why people start smoking....but why do they KEEP smoking with most knowing how bad it is for them? The 3 aspects of smoking help explain this. Addiction, behaviour and habit are the 3 aspects as to why people keep smoking.-nicotine is the drug that causes the dependence -It reaches the brain in 7 seconds-produces chemical reactions in the body-smoking becomes associated with feeling goodWhen we look at the 2nd aspect of behaviour, Enjoyment, relaxation, stress management, concentration, weight control, time out etc Some of the most common reasons why people smoke are: Emotions: feeling stressed, upset, angry or frustrated Pleasure: to enjoy something even more or to reward yourself Social pressure: feeling part of the crowd Habits are hard to break as we know and there are many habits linked to smoking. Social factors and Daily activities,Feeling used to doing things while smoking. Changing habitual activity requires that the person wants to change, feels able to change at that time and has methods/support enabling that change to occur.
This graph represents the percentage of Australians who smoke as at 2007, which is the latest data we have. As you can see, back in 1945, close to 75% of Australian males smoked! This can be attributed to the period of the war. The rates declined significantly to just over 20%-a huge drop!
The Australian School Students Alcohol and Drug (ASSAD) Survey which was last conducted in 2008, shows the rate of smoking among 12-15 year olds as well as 16-17 year olds. You can see in 1984 20% of all 12-15 year olds and 30% of 16-17 year olds in Australia smoked. This figure declined over the years to reflect a significant drop whereby in 2008, only 5% of 12-15 year olds and 13% of 16-17 year olds smoked.
This graph explains the smoking trends by age groups. As you can see, the 20-29 and 40-49 age group have the highest smoking rates with the 30-39 year olds just below them but still equally as high.AIHW. 2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey: First results. Canberra: AIHW; 2008. (Drug Statistics Series no 20
The following clip will give you an insight into the marketing techniques the tobacco industry use to target young people. Please click on the screen to watch the clip.
History of tobacco 1880‟s cigarette rolling machine invented which cut cigarette manufacturing costs in half The easy availability of cheap, packaged cigarettes and safety matches made it easier and more attractive to smoke. WWI & WWII cigarettes distributed to troops for comfort with most men coming home from the war regular smokers 2
Tobacco use & health: the facts Largest single cause of preventable death and disease in Australia Responsible for almost 90% drug related deaths per year 50% of smokers who smoke for a long time will die prematurely from tobacco related diseases 4
Benefits of Quitting... Benefit of Quitting on the body 20 minutes Blood pressure drops to normal Pulse rate drops to normal Temperature of hands and feet increase to normal 8 hours Carbon monoxide level in blood returns to normal Oxygen level in blood returns to normal 24 hours The immediate risk of heart attack starts to fall 48 hours Nerve endings start to regrow Ability to taste and smell enhanced 14 days Circulation improves Lung function increases up to 30% 3 months Lung function improves Cough disappears 5 years Risk of lung cancer decreases by half Stroke risk same as non smoker Risk of mouth, throat and oesophagus cancer half that of a smoker 10 years Lung cancer death rate same as non smoker Pre-cancerous cells replaced 9
Uptake of smoking Family members who smoke Peer pressure, Rebellion and media Role models Availability/Legal drug Benefits 13
Why young people smoke? Physical influence-Smoking Physical dependence to nicotine Behavioural links - habitPsychological & emotional dependence - Feelings and emotionsIndividual influences Environmental influencesbeliefs about smoking parents & siblings self-esteem peers rebellion media curiosity availability smoke-free or smoking areas 14
Females & Males – Motivations and concerns Females – -difficulty, negative emotion and weight control concerns -concerns about negative effects on their external appearance Males – -smoke for stimulation and in pleasure situations -fitness and sporting ability concerns 15
Why people keep smoking –The 3 aspects Addiction/Dependence Nicotine is the drug that causes the dependence Behaviour Emotions, Pleasure, and Social pressure Habit Social factors and Daily activities 16
Nicotine Levels in a Smoker 50 40 Plasma nicotine 30 ng/ml 20 10 0 Time (hours) 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 Cigarette smokedource: MAH Russell et al, BMJ, 1, pp. 1043-46, 1976. 17
How many people smoke in Australia? Less than 20%of people in Australia over the age of 14 smoke every day 18
The tobacco industry needs young people! “The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development.” -Philip Morris, Five-Year Trends 1988-1992 “It is important to know as much as possible about teenage smoking patterns and attitudes. Today‟s teenager is tomorrow‟s potential regular customer…” -Philip Morris, Market Research Report 24
Some things have changed! Clipsal 500 „2009‟ Legislation changes have made temporary cigarette stalls less inviting to young people. 30
Legislation updateThe Government amended existing regulations to ban smoking: -under covered public transport and taxi waiting areas -within 10 metres of playgrounds and -Allow councils and other bodies to apply to have their outdoor area or event declared smoke-freeCigarettes are no longer displayed in shops and service stationsAmbition is for 100 percent smoke-free outdoor eating and drinking in SA to be achieved by 2016Tobacco Control in SA site: www.tobaccolaws.sa.gov.au 31
How can we reduce the number of people who smoke? Helping people quit and Media Smoke-free places and Laws Selling to young people Taxation and pricing Research and evaluation Prevention 32
Strategies required Mass media campaigns Quitting programs Smoke-free places Legislation Increase price of cigarettes Prevention programs 33
Encourages primary and secondary students to watch, critique and discuss 12 anti-tobacco commercials Students vote on which commercial would prevent them from taking up smoking or encourage them to quit Runs during Term 2 and 3 of every year 35
Tobacco the Truth is Out TherePrevention activities for middle school students: Who smokes? Why people choose to smoke, How to say no! Long and short term effects of smoking Passive smoking Global perspective, Laws, policies and rules about smoking, The politics of tobacco, Quitting(Download from www.OxyGen.org.au) 36
‘Smoke-free education and child care’ guidelines For use in schools and early childhood centers: Using a health promoting school approach Endorsed by the three education sectors 37
DECD Whole School Drug Strategywww.decd.sa.gov.au/drugstrategy Intervention Matters Keeping in touchTeacher support packages for drug education R-12 Teacher support packages for students with disabilities*Download from the website* 38
Harm Reduction Issue of young people smoking as primarily a health and safety issue Particular focus on the prevention of smoking behaviour in young people Harm reduction approach 39
The Harm Reduction ApproachThe Harm Reduction approach For young people who smoke experimentally or occasionally: - quit, reduce or prevent progression to smoking more For young people who smoke regularly: - quit, cut down or not smoke at school Support others to quit or cut down Actions that have the lowest levels of harm are to not smoke, to quit and to avoid environmental tobacco smoke 40
The Harm reduction approach.....Recognises: Cigarette smoking has a number of perceived benefits for young people There is a continuum of consequences from smokingAchieved by: Promoting quitting, cutting down or managing smoking at school or work Promoting parent/carer – child communication 41
Addressing youth smoking Requires you to not make judgments about their smoking Important to focus on what young people do rather than who they are („young people who smoke‟ not „smokers‟) Use professional judgment to choose most appropriate intervention strategy for each situation 42
WHAT IF… A young person asks you about your tobacco use? If a young person asks you whether you use tobacco or have used tobacco in the past, be honest If you have never been a tobacco user… If you have been a tobacco user… 43
Suggested comments “I wish I had the opportunity to talk about smoking like this when I was young” “I wish I had stopped smoking when I was young” “Quitting is easier the sooner the person who smokes tries to do it (i.e., the earlier the better)” 44
QUITLINE Telephone service – Ph 137 848 or 13QUIT Ongoing counselling and support Cost of a local call Confidential Counsellors available from 8:30am – 7.30pm weekdays 2 - 5pm Saturdays 46
Ways to help young people QuitAttend a Quitskills training course. Information about the course canbe found at : http://www.quitsa.org.au/aspx/register_for_training.aspxGet your student to visit www.kickit.org.auRefer them to the Quitline on 137 848http://www.quitsa.org.au/aspx/quitline_referral.aspxHelp them register for Quit onQ –Free text messaging support service http://quitonq.quitsa.org.auVisit www.quitsa.org.auFind us on Facebook 47
Ways to help Parents/Guardians QuitResearch confirms that children whose parents smoke are more likelyto pick up the habit themselvesRefer them to the Quitline on 137 848http://www.quitsa.org.au/aspx/quitline_referral.aspxHelp them register for Quit onQ –Free text messaging support service http://quitonq.quitsa.org.auVisit www.quitsa.org.auNicotine Replacement Therapy-Cheaper patches with a script from a GP http://www.quit.org.au/media/article.aspx?ContentID=31_jan_201101 48
Contact detailsSally MartinEducation, Training and Web Project OfficerPh: 08 8291 4143Email: email@example.comWeb: www.OxyGen.org.au www.quitsa.org.au www.kickit.org.au https://www.facebook.com/#!/quitsa https://twitter.com/#!/QuitSA1 www.youtube.com/quitsouthaustralia 49