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AVR Microcontroller

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  • 1. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR® Microcontroller Andreas Riedenauer Ineltek Mitte GmbH http://www.atmel.com
  • 2. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Agenda  Warum gerade die? Die AVR Familie kurz vorgestellt.  Neue Bausteine. Neue Features.  Die Spezialisten: AVRs mit Sonderausstattung.  A-Note für A-Typen  Randgebiete: Die Peripherie.  42: die Antwort auf mehr als eine Frage. Hardware Design.  13 Jahre FAE – und ein bisschen weiser. Tipps und Stolperfallen.  Gut versteckt im Datenblatt.  Rechenleistung statt elektrische Leistung.  Doppelte Sicherheit – Security und Safety  Touch me – kapazitiv.  Werkzeugkasten: Was brauche ich für den Start?  Was jetzt – Assembler oder C?  Wir fangen an: ein erstes Projekt mit Studio6  Wieso „Entwanzen“?  Wie geht´s weiter?  Quiz mit Preisverleihung www.atmel.com October 13
  • 3. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WARUM GERADE DIE? DIE AVR FAMILIE KURZ VORGESTELLT. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 4. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Flash Microcontrollers 32-bit AVR UC3 The highest performance AVR in the world 8/16-bit AVR XMEGA Peripheral Performance 8-bit megaAVR The world’s most successful MCU family 8-bit tinyAVR Small packages, big performance http://www.atmel.com
  • 5. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR CPU  AVR CPU  Harvard architecture  True single cycle execution  Up to 20 MIPS at 20 MHz  32 General Purpose registers  Xmega…  Up to 32 MHz CPU / 128 (256) MHz T/C  Adds DMA Controller  Adds flexible Event System  Adds Programmable Multi level Interrupt Controller http://www.atmel.com
  • 6. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel 10/16/2013
  • 7. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Leading 8-bit Architecture  RISC architecture with CISC instruction set  Single cycle execution  Harvard Architecture  Simultaneous, fast access to registers  Separate memories and buses for program and data  32 Working Registers (8 bit GPR)  16-bit Stack Pointer  22-bit Program Counter  Up to 20MHz System clock (Xmega: 32 MHz) 8
  • 8. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 32x8-bit General Purpose Registers  32 Accumulator Registers with 8 bit  3 register pairs for16-bit data pointers  Instructions with auto increment, decrement and displacement of pointers  Z Pointer suited for look up tables and indirect jump (Flash)  Direct address of up to 64K R0 R1 R2 X Pointer Y Pointer Z Pointer R26 R27 R28 R29 R30 R31 XL XH YL YH ZL ZH 9
  • 9. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller General Purpose IO Registers - GPIOR  IO mapped variable registers  Bit variables  General variables  Status Flags  ...  Up to three registers per device  Fast access through SBI, CBI, SBIS, and SBIC instructions  GPIOR within the address range 0x00 - 0x1F only 10
  • 10. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Single Cycle Instruction Execution Register File Register operations take ONE clock pulse on the EXTERNAL clock input ALU 11
  • 11. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Common for all standard AVRs  Self-programming FLASH program memory  In-System Programming within the whole voltage range  Internal calibrated RC Oscillator  Internal SRAM and EEPROM  debugWIRE or JTAG OCD support 12
  • 12. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR - Designed for C Programming  Architecture and instruction set co-designed with C-Compiler vendor  Compiler development project initiated before architecture and instruction set frozen  Compiler experts’ advice implemented in hardware  Potential HLL bottlenecks identified and removed  The design process resulted in  Instruction set support for 16-bit arithmetic operations  32 working registers which eliminate move to and from SRAM  Single Cycle execution 13
  • 13. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Program Memory and Data Pointers  Stack Pointer + Three Data pointers  One or two pointers + SP is common for 8-bit  Code efficient memory to memory copy  Pointer handling similar to C- language  Auto Increment/Decrement  Indirect with Displacement - Efficient for accessing arrays and structs - Efficient when placing local variables on Software Stack C Source code unsigned char *var1, *var2; *var1++ = *--var2; Assembly code LD ST R16,-X Z+,R16 14
  • 14. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Interrupt System Features  All AVR peripherals are handled through IO registers (SFR)  Automatic interrupt flag clearing  Automatic disable of other interrupts inside the interrupt routine  Each interrupt has its own vector and interrupt handler  Short response time  4 Clock Cycles + RJMP to interrupt handler Interrupt Routine 2 Interrupt Routine 1 Normal Mode INT2 flag INT1 flag I flag 15 TIME
  • 15. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller NEUE BAUSTEINE. NEUE FEATURES. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 16. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  • 17. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Some New Features  Modern Attiny Controllers with Features like  Pico Power Technology  Hardware USART  Self Programming  Precisio n RC Oscillator  HW Support für Cap. Touch / Proximity Detection  32 Pin ATxmega E5 Series (see also Xmega chapter)  ADC with up to16 Bit Oversampling Hardware Support  Asynchoronous Event System  Glue Logic 18
  • 18. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller DIE SPEZIALISTEN: AVRS MIT SONDERAUSSTATTUNG. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 19. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Application Specific Processors (ASSPs)  USB  CAN  PWM  Battery Management  MCU Wireless 20
  • 20. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller CAN Introduction  ISO standard (ISO 11898) for serial communication  developed 1980 by BOSCH for automotive applications  Asynchronous Serial Bus  Absence of node addressing      Message identifier specifies contents and priority Lowest message identifier has highest priority Non-destructive arbitration system by CSMA with collision detection Multi-master / Broadcasting concept Sophisticated error detection & handling system *  CAN has gained widespread use  Industrial Automation  Automotive, …etc. 22
  • 21. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Why CAN?  Mature Standard  Hardware implementation of the protocol  Simple Transmission Medium  Excellent Error Handling (CRC)  Fault Confinement  Most used protocol in industrial and automotive world  Best Performance / Price ratio 23
  • 22. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Motor Control: PWM3 Focus  3 Phase Brushless DC Motor  HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning)  Refrigerators  Fans  Pumps  High tech Industrial, constant speed applications  Traction elevator  Medical equipment  Hard disk, CD drives   3 Phase Induction AC Motor Automotive  HVAC  Washing machine  Blowers  Fans  Pumps  Industrial control 27
  • 23. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AT90PWMx Family  ATmega AVR with enhanced features for light ballast and motor control  Power Stage Controller (PSC)  synchronized PWM channels for 3 phase motors  Fast emergency shut down of PWM outputs (only few 10 ns)  Adjustable dead-band control  Over current protection  64 MHz PLL, providing 12-bit PWM accuracy up to 16 KHz  Analog synchronized with PSC  DALI - Digital Addressable Lighting Interface  Integrated Power Factor Correction (PFC)  10 Bit D/A with output driver (impedance < 1KOhm)  3 comparators for Back EMF for Sensorless motors 28
  • 24. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller From PWM Channels BLDC Motor Application Hall sensors to INT (sensor) Back EMF to ADC (sensor-less) 0 1 2 3 4 5 D R I V E R S 0 2 4 C U + C V 1 3 N S 5 C W To amplifier and ADC for regulation To comparator for emergency stop 29
  • 25. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 3 Phases Induction AC Motor Application Hall sensors to INT From PWM Channels Tachometer to ADC 0 1 2 3 4 5 D R I V E R S 0 2 4 C U + C V 1 3 5 C W To amplifier and ADC for regulation To comparator for emergency stop 30
  • 26. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Requirements for a 3-phase AC Motor Control MCU PWM cycle PWM cycle 0 2 4 U 0 + U V W - 1 V 2 3 1 3 5 W 4 5 Mandatory min. Dead Time  Up to 6 Synchronous PWM channels (12 bit precision or more)  PWM Timer Min clock frequency = 64MHz for 12 bit precision, 12KHz  Minimum dead time controlled by hardware for all 6 channels  All PWM must be disabled by hardware (Input) when overcurrent  Capability to support Scalar Algorithm and Space Vector Algorithm  10 to 16 MIPS for 3 phase AC induction with Space Vector Algorithm 31
  • 27. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensorless control of two-phase fan  AVR440 - sensorless control of two-phase BLDC fan  Patent filed – method can only be used with AVR microcontrollers  B-EMF voltage over passive winding used to time commutation.  Advantage  Hall-sensor can be eliminated to reduce fan cost  Disadvantage  Difficult to run the fan a very low speed  Requirements  Up-down PWM counter  PWM triggered ADC 33
  • 28. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensor based control of two-phase fan  AVR441 - two-phase BLDC fan with two speed references  E.g. Host and temperature sensor  Autonomous fan speed  Temperature sensor in  AVR442 - two-phase BLDC fan with TWI     Also uses integrated temp sensor Autonomous fan speed TWI/SMBus control multiple fans Advanced fan feedback 34
  • 29. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensor based control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR443, AVR448 – Three-phase BLDC motor  GPIO/PWM controls high side driver  PWM controls low side driver  Current sensing  Requirements  3/6 PWM channels and PWM triggered ADC 35
  • 30. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensor based control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR492 – sensor based control of three-phase BLDC motor     PWM on both high and low side driver Current control: ADC Overcurrent detection via on-chip comparator Adaptive fault detection using DAC possible  Performance  CPU: 18% @ 8 MHz, 14K RPM  Code: 3175 bytes (38%)  RAM: 285 bytes (55%) 36
  • 31. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensorless control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR444 – sensorless control of three-phase BLDC motor   PWM on both high and low side driver Current control  Advantage    Low cost microcontroller Low cost motor without sensors Automotive qualified (ATmega48 fam)  Disadvantage   Very low speed not possible Startup routine requires known load  Requirements   6 PWM channels PWM triggered ADC 37
  • 32. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sensorless control of 3-phase BLDC motor  AVR493 – sensorless control of three-phase BLDC motor  PWM on both high and low side driver  Current control using ADC  Zero Crossing Back-EMF using three on-chip comparators  Advantage  No ADC polling gives faster zero cross detection for Back-EMF  Hardware emergency shutdown  Communication: UART/SPI/LIN  Target devices  AT90PWM3 38
  • 33. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sine wave driving of permanent magnet motor  AVR447 – Sine wave driving of permanent magnet motor  Uses three hall sensors for sine wave synchronization / speed control  No encoder / tacho needed  Advantages  Low torque ripple  Low cost microcontroller  Speed control  Full featured solution - Safe startup w/synchronisation - Turning - Reverse rotation detection  Disadvantages  More CPU intensive than block commutation 39
  • 34. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Control of 3-phase AC Induction Motor  AVR494 / AVR495 – control of three-phase ACIM  V/f control  Space vector modulation  Complex algorithms  Speed PID control  Advantage  Hardware shutdown  Hardware deadband  Comm.: UART/SPI/LIN  Target devices  AT90PWM3 40
  • 35. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AUTOMOTIVE AVR www.atmel.com October 13
  • 36. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR für Automotive CMOS Process for Automotive µC  35K5 (AVR8)  0.35µm NVM CMOS  1.8V to 5V  Qualified up to 85°C, 105°C, 125°C and now 150°C  35K7 (AVR8)  0.35µm NVM CMOS  40V Breakdown voltage  18V operation  58K8/58K85 (ARM & AVR32)     0.18µm NVM CMOS Core at 1.8V - I/O at 3V – I/O 5V tolerant Qualification in progress up to 105°C 58K as ROM version 42
  • 37. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Automotive versus Industrial  Main difference between Automotive parts and Industrial parts is the Quality Level (EFR in PPM and LFR in FIT) and traceability  Parts have to be designed for automotive  Specific libraries  Specific analog IPs  Specific NV Memories  Simulated on the full temperature range  Guaranteed margin by process corner simulation  Parts have to be characterized for automotive  To know the robustness of the design versus process variation  Parts have to be screened during manufacturing  To remove any outliers  To bring PPM level from 100 to Sub-1  PPAPs on request (Production Part Approval Process) 43
  • 38. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Industrial versus Automotive Screening  Qualification Industrial Automotive Reference to Standard ATMEL CPQ-2001 AEC*-Q100 Grade 2 Electrical Distribution 1 Wafer Lot 3 Wafer Lots with Corner Lots 3 lots of 300 pieces 3 lots of 800 pieces 1 lot of 77 pieces 3 lots of 77 pieces at 3 Temperatures Wafer Level Data Retention No 168h at 250oC long term aging Post Thermal Cycle Wire Pull No Cpk** > 1.33 Industrial Automotive > 20PPM 1PPM 85PPM 1PPM 8 FIT 1 FIT*** ELFR: Early Life Failure Rate NVM Program/Erase Endurance test  Quality Targets AOQ: Average Outgoing Quality ELFR LFR: Latent Failure Rate (Long Term) *AEC = Automotive Electronics Council ** Cpk = Critical Parameter Index *** FIT = Failure In Time (10 -9/Oper. Hours) 44
  • 39. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Automotive Quality Requirement  AEC-Q100    STRESS TEST QUALIFICATION FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Defined by the Automotive Electronics Council 5 grades - Grade 0: -40°C to +150°C Grade 1: -40°C to +125°C Grade 2: -40°C to +105°C Grade 3: -40°C to +85°C Grade 4: 0°C to +70°C ambient operating temperature range  0 PPM – Zero Defect  ISO TS16949 certification  FMEA (Failure Mechanism and Effect Analysis)  APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning)  PPAP/PSW (Production Part Approval Process / Part Submission Warrant ) Specific Methodology, Specific Products, Specific Production Flow (Screening), Specific Qualified plants and subcontractors 45
  • 40. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Microcontroller - Overview  AVR-8  Subset of products qualified according to - AECQ100-Grade1 from –40°C up to 125°C - AECQ100-Grade0 from –40°C up to 150°C  AVR-32  Preliminary targets - Vision/Image processing for Safety Application - Flexray application (Backbone and XbyWire)  Secondary target: Multimedia & Infotainment 46
  • 41. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller High Temperature operating AVRs  Up to 150°C ambient temperature  Unique on the Market  Thanks to very stable Non Volatile Memory cell (E2Prom)  Qualification according to AEC-Q100 Grade 0  Many applications in engine management and gear box  Interface to Sensors or Actuators  Throttle/Valve management, Torque sensor, Turbo Charger, Injectors, Fan control 47
  • 42. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller A-NOTE FÜR A-TYPEN www.atmel.com October 13
  • 43. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Why process migration?  Atmel used proprietary 35k5 process  New 35k4 process compatible to manufacturing at foundry  Improve manufacturing and product sourcing flexibility  Yield optimization and parameter tuning  Reduced Active and Idle mode current by optimized routing October 13 4
  • 44. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Technology of the New Process  Metal shrink  Transistors identical to existing process  Standard cell library redesigned  Transistors placed closer in new process  Signal lines takes less space October 13 5
  • 45. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Part name and ordering codes  Devices in new process has Suffix ”A” (if old process device in 35k5)  Migration Notes available  One speed and voltage range on A-devices Old:  ATmega128-16xU = 4.5 - 5.5V 0 - 16MHz  ATmega128L-8xU = 2.7 - 5.5V 0 - 8MHz New:  ATmega128A-xU= 2.7 - 5.5V 0 - 16MHz  Functionally compatible products has only one new device Old:  ATmega48-20xU = 4.5 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz  ATmega48P-20xU = 4.5 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz  ATmega48V-10xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 10 MHz  ATmega48PV-10xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 10 MHz New:  ATmega48PA-xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz  ATmega48 A-xU = 1.8 – 5.5V, 0 – 20 MHz October 13 5
  • 46. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller RANDGEBIETE: DIE PERIPHERIE. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 47. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR –Single Chip Solution TWI Temperature Sensor USART SPI Flash EEPROM CPU CORE SRAM A/D Converter Register File I/O pins Hardware Multiplier Analog Comparator Brown Out Detector Reset Circuitry Programmable Watchdog On-Chip Debug Analog Reference JTAG Boundary Scan AVR Integrates Much More! Pull-Ups On Demand High Current Outputs Calibrated Oscillator In System Programming LCD Interface Output Driver LCD driver 53
  • 48. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller I/O Ports  Push-Pull Drivers with High Current Drive  Sinks/Sources up to 20 mA (40mA)  Pin-wise Controlled Data Direction and Pull-Up Resistors  Fully Synchronized Inputs  Three Control/Status Bits per Bit/Pin  Real Read-Modify-Write DDRx 0 Pull-Up PORTx 0 PINx ? Physical Pin ? 54
  • 49. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Faster IO PORT toggling  PINx Register toggles PORTx Register  Writing a ”1” to bit in PINx Register will toggle that bit in the PORTx Register  Faster IO toggle access  Dual cycle toggling  Toggle multiple pins in one operation 55
  • 50. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Timer/Counter  Wide range of 8- and 16-bit Timer/Counters  The AVR Timer/Counters can use various clock sources  Main CPU clock  Internal High speed PLL - High speed, 64MHz  By external clock source Relevant Application Notes AVR130 AVR133 - Max speed XTAL/2  External 32kHz asynchronous crystal  All clock sources can be pre-scaled before being fed to the Timer/Counters  AVR’s Timer/Counters are interrupt driven and controlled through the AVR IO registers  Special T/C versions on PLL/PWM AVR and Xmega  E.g. dead time generation 56
  • 51. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Analog Comparator  Compares the input values on pins AIN0 and AIN1  Dedicated Analog Comparator interrupt  Selectable trigger on Rise, Fall or Toggle  Output connectable to Input Capture of Timer/Counter1  Pulse-width measurement of analog signals  Easy Implementation of dual slope ADC  Bandgap reference available  ADC inputs can be used as AIN1 57
  • 52. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ADC Features  Almost all AVRs have ADC  Accuracy:  10bits ±0.5LSB  65 us conversion time*.  8bits ± 0.5LSB down to 12 us conversion time.  Up to 11 single ended channels and up to 7 differential channels  Programmable Gain Stage (1x, 10x, 100x, 200x)  Free-run, single conversion and timed modes  Interrupt on conversion complete  Internal Voltage reference *conversion Relevant Application Notes AVR120 AVR400 time is 6.5µs on AT90PWM Family 58
  • 53. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface  3 pin serial communication interface  Shift register type serial communication  Full duplex interface  AVR enables interrupt driven SPI communication  Master and Slave mode  Transmit at bit rates up to XTAL/2  Receive at bit rates up to XTAL/4  AVR supports industrial standard SPI interfaces  Memories  IO expanders  Other CPUs in system  SPI used for In System Programming (ISP) 59
  • 54. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller TWI – Two Wire Interface  2 pin serial communicantion interface  Master and slave  Fully interrupt driven  Fast Mode support  Wake-up from power down mode on address recognition  Slave Address  General Call  Peripheral device interface  Philips I2C compatible 60
  • 55. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller USI – Universal Serial Interface  Hardware support for software SPI and TWI drivers  Still a software driver but less resources required  Higher transfer rates than pure software interfaces - fkc/16 as TWI master and slave - fkc/4 as SPI master or slave  Polling and Interrupt support for  Data reception  Wakeup from sleep - In TWI mode also from PWD  TWI start condition detector 61
  • 56. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Memory Overview and Interconnection  General purpose registers manage all data transfer  Direct Program memory access  Direct SRAM access  EEPROM access via IO registers  EEAR,EEDR,EECR  Secure Program memory and Register File EEPROM access  Timed sequence SRAM I/O Registers EEPROM Program Memory 62
  • 57. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Flash Program Memory  All AVR uses Flash program memory  In-system (re-)programmable  Both by programmer and application  From 1.8 to 5.5V  More flexibility compared to ROM, PROM and EPROM  No external high voltage required  Internal charge pump  20 years retention time  Minimum 10K erase/write cycles, typical 100K 63
  • 58. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Internal EEPROM Data Storage  All AVRs with internal EEPROM for data storage  Linear address space  Size from 64B to 8K  Byte accessible  3 – 8ms Write time  Including erase  Instant read  Interrupt controlled  Handled through dedicated IO registers  20 years retention time  Minimum 100K erase/write cycles, typical 1M 64
  • 59. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Enhanced EEPROM Operation  Split erase & program cycle to save time  Traditionally erase and write one byte in one operation  Enables pre-erasing of locations  Faster interrupt handlers etc.  Available on ATtiny13 and all newer devices Exe. Time Operation 3.4 ms Erase and Write in one operation 1.8 ms Erase only 1.8 ms Write only 65
  • 60. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller SRAM Data Memory 32 Registers IO Registers 64 to 224  Most AVR MCUs feature internal SRAM for data memory  Linear address space  Size from 64B to 16K (new!) Internal SRAM 64B to 8K  Program and parameter stack in SRAM  Five different addressing modes  Direct  Indirect  Indirect with Displacement, Pre-dec and Post-inc  Indirect addressing handled X,Y and Z pointer  Data memory map External SRAM up to 64K  SRAM  32x8 General Register File  IO registers  External SRAM through XRAM interface  up to 64K 66
  • 61. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller External Memory Interface  Parallel Interface for external devices or peripherals  Memory map linear with the internal SRAM  Parallel bus with 8 data and 16 address lines  Up to 64K memory map  Dynamic pin allocation to release unused address pins  4 Wait-state settings D7:0  Flexible timing settings  Integrated Bus-keeper  Lower power consumption AD7:0 D ALE Q A7:0 G AVR A15:8 SRAM A15:8 /RD /RD /WR /WR 67
  • 62. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Flexible Clock Options  Crystal Oscillator  Low Power Crystal Oscillator  Full Swing Crystal Oscillator  32kHz Low Frequency Crystal Oscillator  Internal RC Oscillator  Can be calibrated within ±1% for most devices  Internal 128 kHz RC Oscillator (WDT)  External Clock  System Clock Prescaler (1 to 256)  Lower system clock frequency while running  Controlled by application 68
  • 63. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Internal EEPROM Data Storage  Most AVR MCUs feature internal EEPROM for data storage  Linear address space  Byte accessible  3 – 8ms write time  Including erase  Interrupt controlled  Handled through dedicated IO registers  20 years data retention time  Minimum 100K erase/write cycles, typical 1M Relevant Application Notes AVR335, AVR104 69
  • 64. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ISP - In-System Programming  FLASH, EEPROM, Fuses and Lock Bits programmed in-system  At all Frequencies  At all supply voltages 1.8V – 5.5V MISO VTG SCK GND SCK ISP6PIN GND RST GND VTG NC MOSI RST  SPI interface used for ISP MOSI GND MISO  Exc.: ATmega128 ! ISP10PIN  Only four pins + VCC and Ground required Relevant Application Note  RESET AVR109 AVR042  MISO  MOSI  SCK 70 GND
  • 65. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Redefining ISP - Self-Programming  The CPU can read and write its own program memory  Enabling reprogramming while running an application  Critical functions are still operating  Any communication interface, including software-implemented interfaces  Parameters can be stored in program memory  In addition to EEPROM 71
  • 66. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller LCD Controller/Driver  Integrated segment LCD controller/driver  For monochrome passive liquid crystal display  No external LCD driver required A F  100 and 160 segments  COM0  Interrupt driven Start Of Frame Interrupt  Internal contrast voltage generator  SEG1 Unused LCD pins can be used as general IO External capacitor as power reservoir  Own AVR LCD family  100Segment : ATmega169P, ATmega329, ATmega649  SEG2 G SEG0  B E C COM1 D COM2 Relevant Application Notes AVR064 AVR065 160Segment : ATmega3290, ATmega6490... 72
  • 67. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 42: DIE ANTWORT AUF MEHR ALS EINE FRAGE. HARDWARE DESIGN. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 68. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AppNote AVR042 AVR Hardware Design Considerations AppNote AVR4100 Selecting and testimg 32 kHz Xtal… www.atmel.com October 13
  • 69. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 13 JAHRE FAE – UND EIN BISSCHEN WEISER. TIPPS UND STOLPERFALLEN. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 70. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Ports  Doppelfunktionen bestimmter Pins beachten, zum Programmieren, zum Debuggen, Analogfunktionen, ext. Interrupts,..  Programmierung über SPI: MOSI MISO SCK Achtung: Beim ATmega128 und Pin-kompatiblen Bausteinen liegen die Programmierpins NICHT an der SPI, sondern an der UART-Schnittstelle ! www.atmel.com October 13
  • 71. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Manche Ports sind nur teilweise ausgeführt: beim 2313 fehlt PortD.7, bei Ausführungen im PDIP (DIL) Gehäuse teilweise weniger IO-Pins. Konfiguration beim Einschalten ist INPUT. Ausgänge durch „1“ im DDRx einstellenRS232: RxD = PD0 TxD = PD1 JTAG-Debug-/Programmierschnittstelle www.atmel.com October 13
  • 72. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Floating Inputs vermeiden: Ausgang oder Pullup (PORTx)  Ausgabe über PORTx  Pin Toggeln durch Schreiben einer „1“ nach PINx bei OUTPUT  RESET Pin nach Bedarf beschalten: HV-Programming? DebugWire? (siehe AVR042)  RESET Pin darf während Debugging über DebugWire oder bei Nutzung des PDI (Xmega) nicht mit Kondensator belastet sein  Große Streuung bei Pullups (bis 500KOhm) www.atmel.com October 13
  • 73. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Höhere Eingangsspannung als Vcc möglich, wenn Vorwiderstand zur Begrenzung des Stroms durch die Schutzdioden (Beispiel Nullspannungsdetektor) vorhanden  Mehrere Ausgangspins innerhalb desselben Ports können zusammengeschaltet werden, um Treiberleistung zu erhöhen. Dabei Maximalbelastung von Port und Chip beachten!  Nicht alle AVRs haben die 20mA Belastbarkeit der Ausgänge. Ausnahmen sind einige ATtinys und die Xmegas. 20mA bei Einhaltung der Logikpegel, sonst 40mA  Maximalbelastbarkeit ist abhängig von Betriebsspannung www.atmel.com October 13
  • 74. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Bei Verwendung desselben Pins als Eingang für Taste und LED Ausgang: Durchlass-Spannung der LED, Vcc und Logikpegel beachten!  LEDs haben verschiedene Durchlass-Spannungen je nach Farbe  Tasten in der Regel gegen Masse schalten und Pullups nutzen  Bei induktiven Lasten zusätzliche Schutzdiode direkt an der Induktivität (1N4148 besser als 1N4001, da schneller)  Externe Interrupts: Ältere AVRs (z.B. ATmega32) haben nur wenige INTx Pins, neuere (z.B. ATmega324P) haben externe Interrupts an allen IO-Pins. Unterschiedliche Handhabung beachten.  Ggf. Analogkomparator-Interrupt nutzen. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 75. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  BOD und POR sind unterschiedlich robust, z.B. Mega88P(V) besser als ATmega88(V). Fußnoten im Datenblatt beachten - Table 28.3 Page 306 (M88) vs. Table 28.5 Page 318 (M88PA).  Interne RC-Oszillatoren haben unterschiedlich ausgeprägten Jitter.  Interne RC-Oszillatoren bei älteren Typen stärker temperaturabhängig.  RC-Kalibrierung gilt nur bei der jeweiligenTemperatur.  RC Oszillator angeblich durch Metall/Magnet von außen beeinflussbar  UART braucht 2% genauen Takt, USB noch deutlich genauer www.atmel.com October 13
  • 76. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Keine (unbenutzten) Komponenten an Quarzanschlüssen  Full Swing nur bei 2.7 Volt und mehr  „Sägezahn-Effekt“ bei parasitärer Speisung über externe Komponenten und Schutzdioden.  Programmierkabel nicht zu lang! Ggf. 10-Pin statt 6-Pin Belegung  TWI-Kabel (I2C) nicht zu lang!  Port-Erweiterungen über spezielle I2C-Chips, Schieberegister, ATF15xx  Treiber für LEDs oder Induktive Lasten über I2C oder SPI mit Schutzfunktionen bei Unterbrechung Kurzschluss, Übertemperatur. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 77. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller  Low Cost Alternative zu MAX232: siehe Butterfly  RC-Oszillator Kalibrierung bei UART Kommunikation: siehe Butterfly www.atmel.com October 13
  • 78. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller GUT VERSTECKT IM DATENBLATT. ATMEGA48 ATMEGA48PA www.atmel.com October 13
  • 79. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller RECHENLEISTUNG STATT ELEKTRISCHE LEISTUNG. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 80. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Oscillator Types Cost External high frequency crystal External low frequency (32kHz) crystal External ceramic resonator External R/C oscillator Calibrated Internal R/C oscillator External clock Accuracy Startup time High High (10-50 ppm) High (10-50 ppm) Long (16k cycles) Long (16k-32k cycles) Medium (0.5-1%) Depending on R and C Medium (2001k cycles) Short (6 cycles) Medium Medium Low ±1% after calibration Depending on other circuits in the system NONE Short (6 cycles) Short (6 cycles) Notes Additional timer oscillator on some devices May be re-calibrated by application at any time Use the internal RC for fast startup time and low power consumption 86
  • 81. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  • 82. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Sleep Modes  Idle mode  CPU Stopped, but oscillators and most I/O modules active  Allows fast wakeup (immediate) from sleep  ADC Noise Reduction mode  Like Idle mode, but fewer I/O modules active  Power Down mode  Power Save mode  Like Power-down mode, but 32kHz timer oscillator running  Standby mode  Like Power-down mode, but main crystal/resonator oscillator running  Allows fast wakeup (6 cycles) from sleep  Extended Standby  Oscillator stopped, CPU stopped, most functions inactive  Both main crystal/resonator oscillator and 32kHz timer oscillator running  Slow wakeup from sleep, oscillator must be restarted  Allows fast wakeup (6 cycles) from sleep 88
  • 83. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Sleep Modes - Example  By using sleep modes, power consumption can be reduced by a factor 100  Ideal for periods of inactivity – waiting for interrupts!  Power Saving Example: Using the ATmega48  Use sleep modes and wait for wake-up condition  Internal RC @ 1MHz, 1.8 volt @ 25°C mega48 Internal RC 1Mhz @ 1,8V 25'C 1000 250 ICC (uA) 100 10 Active 40 Idle 7,2 Power Save WDT 4,2 3 Power Save no WDT Power Down WDT 1 Power Down no WDT 0,1 0,1 89
  • 84. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller PicoPowerTM Technology Key elements:  (Almost) Zero current 32kHz oscillator  Sleeping BOD  Power Reduction Register (PRR)  Digital Input Disable Register (DIDR)  Flash sampling  Low leakage process  1.8V operation  Power Save mode now 0.6 uA vs 10uA  PicoPower AVR is #1 in Power Consumption & Performance 90
  • 85. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Low Current 32kHz Oscillator  Power Save is the most highlighted ultra low power number  Time in active is insignificant compared to time in PS for ULP  The new 32kHz oscillator brings Power Save current almost to Power Down.....  0.6uA Power Save mode @ 2.2V  ATmega165P: Typical 0.6uA  32kHz running  PicoPower Power Save mode is industry leading  Less current consumption than MSP430F2 in PowerSave 91
  • 86. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Sleeping BOD (SBOD)  SBOD enter sleep together with the AVR  No need for BOD in sleep  Wakeup from sleep first starts the SBOD, then the AVR  Enabled by application  Secure two step operation  Automated operation when enabled  No SBOD power consumption penalty while in sleep, full protection while in active mode 92
  • 87. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Power Reduction Register - PRR  Stop clock to individual peripherals  Peripheral is in PWD sleep while rest of device is running  Reduces overall power consumption  PRR accessible by application while running  When stopping the clock to a peripheral...  The current state of the peripheral is frozen  All I/O registers are inaccessible  When re-starting a module...  It continues in the same state as before shutdown 93
  • 88. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Digital Input Disable Registers - DIDR  DIDR decreases overall power consumption  Shut off digital input buffers on individual pins  Enable DIDR on all ADC pins  Not required in Power-save, Power-Down and Standby 94
  • 89. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller PicoPowerTM AVRs  Existing high volume megaAVRs will be upgraded to PicoPower megaAVRs  Special naming by the use of the letter ‘P’  Example: ATmega169P 95
  • 90. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ATtiny23V/43V  Operate from a single cell battery (1.4 V)  Integrated Boost Regulator  Autonomous analog block that is NOT controlled by the MCU  Fixed 3.0V Vcc for the MCU from an external supply of 0.9V to 1.7V  Starts up automatically when the voltage at the BATS pin is greater than 0.6V (± 0.15V).  Output voltage rises above POR and BOR levels (if enabled), the MCU will start up  Shuts down automatically when the voltage drops below 0.6V avoiding battery drainage  Alternatively the device can be operated directly from supply of 1.8 to 5.5 volts (LSW and BATS grounded) 96
  • 91. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller DOPPELTE SICHERHEIT SECURITY UND SAFETY www.atmel.com October 13
  • 92. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Internal Brown-Out Detection  Reset when voltage level is below specification  Preventing CPU run-away and EEPROM corruption.  Flexible BOD levels  Extremely fast detection (7 µs)  BOD status bit set after reset  MCUSR IO register  BOD is optional  BODEN fuse 98
  • 93. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WDT - WatchDog Timer  Free running timer used to generate a System Reset allowed to time out  Time-out period between 16ms and 8s set by prescaler  Timer is reset by WDR instruction  Prevents device from being trapped in dead loops  WDT runs from it’s own clock source (RC Oscillator)  WDT enabling through IO bits or Fuses  Timed IO sequence for enabling and changes  Safe WDT enabling through WDTON fuse  Watchdog reset detectable by reading the WDRF flag  Enganced WDT with WDT interrupt  Interrupt instead of or prior to System Reset  Suited for timing sequences, wake up from sleep etc. Relevant Application Note AVR132 99
  • 94. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Fuses and Lock Bits  Fuses  Programmable bits not accessible by application software for device settings - Clock settings, BOD settings, Boot-Loader settings, etc.  Not affected by chip erase  Lock Bits  Programmable security bits to secure IP stored in Flash and EEPROM  Disables read and write access to Flash and EEPROM  Only removed by chip erase - Chip erase will also clear Flash and EEPROM  Flexible settings for level of security and area to secure - Own set of lock bits for self-programming 100
  • 95. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller TOUCH ME – KAPAZITIV. www.atmel.com October 13
  • 96. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Touch Solutions Buttons, Sliders, Wheels Touch Software Touchscreens Application Specific (“ready-to-use”) Add touch functionality to your general purpose Atmel MCU Revolutionary Unlimited Touchscreen Technology 1 – 48 Channels Buttons, Proximity & Sliders Self- & Mutual- Capacitance No programming required Limited Flexibility 1 – 64 Channels Buttons, Proximity & Sliders Self- & Mutual- Capacitance Fully programmable Excellent Flexibility Excellent Integration Single-Touch & Dual-Touch devices also offered
  • 97. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller QTouch QMatrix  Self-Capacitance  Mutual-Capacitance  Robust and simple electrode design  Well defined key area for detection  Ideal for low node count  Ideal for high note count (>10 nodes)  Good proximity, providing better sensing distance  Very resilient to moisture & environment  Passive tracking – longer tracks possible  Very resilient to noise and ground loading  Virtually any electrode shape possible  Easy to tune sensitivity - Flooded X design Vdd SENSE ELECTRODE MCU Xn Cx Ykn Cs Yn GND
  • 98. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Evaluation and Development Kit Ordering Code: ATQT600 3 Sensor boards • 8 channel QTouch board • 16 channel QTouch board • 64 channel QMatrix board 3 MCU boards • ATtiny88 (QTouch) • ATmega324PA (QMatrix) • ATxmega128A1 (QTouch) Interface board • 2-way debug data • ISP Programmer • Supports AVR / AVR32
  • 99. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WERKZEUGKASTEN: WAS BRAUCHE ICH FÜR DEN START? www.atmel.com October 13
  • 100. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WAS JETZT – ASSEMBLER ODER C? www.atmel.com October 13
  • 101. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WIR FANGEN AN: EIN ERSTES PROJEKT MIT STUDIO6 www.atmel.com October 13
  • 102. Atmel Studio 6 Integrating ARM and AVR Design Copyright 2012 Atmel Corporation Atmel Studio 6/SAM3 Press Presentation 2/28/12
  • 103. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Studio 6 – IDE  Intelligent editor  New Project Wizard with over 1,000 project examples  Integrated GNU C/C++ Compiler  Seamless connection to all in-system debuggers  Cycle accurate chip and peripheral simulator
  • 104. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Studio 6 – Atmel Software Framework  Software Library  Peripheral drivers  Hardware abstraction  Communication  Graphics  Standard APIs  Easy code migration  Support for ARM + AVR MCUs  Common 8/32-bit platform  ASF Explorer  Manage ASF components  Trace driver dependencies  Easy access to documentation
  • 105. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Atmel Studio 6 – QTouch Composer  QTouch Project Wizard  Configure QTouch project  Optimized QTouch library code  Automatic power management  Touch Wizard  Automatic performance tests  Optimal design recommendations  Power Analyzer  Real-time monitoring of MCU power consumption  Profiling and visualization
  • 106. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller JTAGICE3 www.atmel.com October 13
  • 107. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR Dragon  Low cost development tool  High performance  Easy to use  USB Connection  USB Powered  Combination of  JTAGICE mkII ( $299)  AVRISP mkII ($34)  STK500 ($79)  Programs all devices  Debug support for devices <=32K  Price: €49! 115
  • 108. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XPLAINED KIT www.atmel.com October 13
  • 109. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller STK600 117
  • 110. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WIESO „ENTWANZEN“? www.atmel.com October 13
  • 111. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR JTAG interface  The AVR JTAG interface is a integrated hardware module for:    In-System Programming On-Chip Debugging PCB test through Boundary-Scan  Dedicated hardware module  All AVR resources present while debugging - Except 4 pins for JTAG communication  Supports all Vcc levels and Frequencies  Complies to IEEE std 1149.1 (JTAG)  Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)  JTAG interface in all AVRs with 16K program memory or more 119
  • 112. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR debugWIRE interface  On-Chip Debugging via single wire interface  Program flow control  EEPROM and Flash memory access  Peripheral access  debugWIRE is a hardware module 1.8 - 5.5V Vcc JTAGICE MKII dW(/RESET)  Not a ROM monitor!  All AVR resources present while debugging AVR  Supports all Vcc levels and Frequencies GND 120
  • 113. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Enabling debugWIRE  debugWIRE functionality is enabled by DWEN fuse  Set by ISP or HV programming  Cleared by debugWIRE or HV programming  debugWIRE is disabled by default from Atmel  debugWIRE require system clock in all sleep modes  No PowerSave/PowerDown mode current consumption possible as long as the DWEN fuse is set 121
  • 114. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller WIE GEHT´S WEITER? www.atmel.com October 13
  • 115. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA Technical Walk-Through http://www.atmel.com
  • 116. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA  Extraordinary Low Power  2nd generation picoPower ®  True 1.6 V operation  Exceptional Performance  Up to 32 MIPS  DMA Controller  Event System  Extreme Peripherals  Leading Analog Integration  Fast Crypto engine  Rich feature set http://www.atmel.com
  • 117. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA AVR core  Code compatible with existing tinyAVR and megaAVR  True RISC architecture  True single cycle execution  32 MIPS at 32 MHz - 32 MHz 2.7V – 3.6V - 12 MHz 1.8V – 2.7V  32 GPR  Harvard architecture  DMA Controller  Flexible Event System  Programmable Multi level Interrupt Controller – PMIC 125
  • 118. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EBI- External Bus Interface  2-port, 3-port or 4-port interface selectable in SW  All external memories are directly mapped in AVR  No banking  Stack and variables anywhere  Simultaneous support of SRAM and SDRAM possible  Ex: memory mapped devices  Up to 128 Mbit SDRAM 126
  • 119. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Interrupt Controller  4 interrupt levels  NMI - Non Maskable Interrupts  High, Medium and Low level  Round robin priority possible for low level interrupts  Ensures all interrupts are serviced  All peripherals can also be controlled by polling http://www.atmel.com
  • 120. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Event system  CPU and DMA independent Inter-peripheral communication www.atmel.com October 13
  • 121. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Event System AVR CPU http://www.atmel.com
  • 122. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Event System  8 Event Routing Channels  Peripherals specify how to generate events  Everything that can generate an interrupt  Ex: Pin change, Timer overflow, ADC complete, Comparator toggle  Peripherals specify how to use events  Ex: Increment Timer, Output signal, Start ADC conversion  Reduce the use of interrupts  Event system ensures control of critical function  Predictable reaction time of 2 chip clock cycles  Safe fault protection  Reduces power consumption – no CPU needed  Works in Active and Idle mode http://www.atmel.com
  • 123. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA DMA Controller  Allows high-speed data transfer  From memory to peripheral  From memory to memory  From peripheral to memory  From peripheral to peripheral  Main features  4 channels  From 1 byte to 16 Mbyte transfers  Optional interrupt at end of transaction  Multiple addressing modes - Static, Increment, Decrement  1, 2, 4 or 8 byte bursts  Programmable priority between channels http://www.atmel.com CPU Load, SPI Communication Data rate With DMA No DMA 250 kbps 0% 8% 500 kbps 0% 16 % 1 Mbps 1% 30 % 2 Mbps 1% 57 % 4 Mbps 2% 98 %
  • 124. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Memories  Flash  Memory setup  Application area for main program Flash 16K + 4K 32K + 4K 64K + 4K 128K + 8K 256K + 8K  Boot area for bootloader  Application Table area for fail safe EEPROM emulation  EEPROM SRAM 2K 4K 4K 8K 16K EEPROM 1K 1K 1K 2K 4K  EEPROM on all devices  Byte and page accessible  Optional memory mapped  SDRAM  SRAM  Internal on all devices  Optional external on some devices - Up to 16 MB directly addressable - Optional multiplexed address and data http://www.atmel.com  Optional external on some devices - Up to 128 Mbit directly addressable - 4-bit and 8-bit supported
  • 125. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Analog to Digital Converter  Features  12 bit resolution  2 MSPS ADC in XMEGA A  200 kSPS ADC in XMEGA D  Single or continuous conversion modes  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Internal and External reference voltages  Interrupt/event on compare result  Interrupt if lower or equal  Interrupt if higher or equal  Interrupt/event on conversion complete http://www.atmel.com
  • 126. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA ADC – Pipelined Conversion Channels     4 ADC conversion channels 8 – 16 external single-ended inputs per ADC 8 x 4 external differential inputs per ADC 4 internal inputs  VCC, Bandgap, Temperature, DAC output  1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 16x, 32x or 64x gain  Synchronous sampling in dual ADC devices http://www.atmel.com
  • 127. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Digital to Analog Converter  Features:  12 bit resolution  Up to 1 MSPS conversion rate, 1 µs settling time  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Two independent output channels per DAC http://www.atmel.com
  • 128. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Analog Comparators  Selectable hysteresis  0, 20mV, 50mV selectable  Flexible input selections  Any analog input pin  Output from DAC  Bandgap voltage reference  64-level VCC scaler  Flexible interrupts and events generation  Window compare function by combining 2 comparators  Possible to have comparator output on a pin http://www.atmel.com
  • 129. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Timer/Counter  Multiple 16-bit Timer/Counters in each device        Counts chip clock (Timer) or events (Counter) 4 or 2 Output Compare on each Timer/Counter 4 or 2 Input Capture on each Timer/Counter Programmable Top Value Direction control Flexible interrupts and events generation Split option: 2 x 8 instead of 1 x 16 Bit  High-Resolution Extension  4x of chip clock = up to 128 MHz (256 MHz) operation  Advanced Waveform Extension     Inverted and Non-inverted PWM Outputs Dead Time Insertion Fault protection mechanism Available in all devices, but on 1-2 timer/counters only http://www.atmel.com
  • 130. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Real Time Counter  Separate Timer for Asynchronous Clock  Independent of other Timer/Counters  Works in Power Save, Idle and Active mode  16-bit timer with Programmable Prescaler  Prescaler provides 1 Hz – 32 kHz input  Programmable top value  Compare register  Max timeout 65 536 seconds (= more than 18 hours)  Can generate Events and Interrupts  Both overflow and compare match http://www.atmel.com
  • 131. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Clock Options  32- and 2 MHz internal RC osc.  +/- 1% accuracy over temp and voltage with automatic run-time calibration  32.768 kHz internal RC osc.  +/- 2% accuracy over temp and voltage  400 kHz – 16 MHz Crystal osc.  For accurate timing in application  32.768 kHz Crystal oscillator  for 32 kHz watch crystal  500 nA current consumption  32 kHz ULP RC oscillator  For WDT and BOD  1A power consumption  Internal PLL for high-freq clock generation  400 kHz – 32 MHz input  8 – 128 MHz output  Max 32 MHz output to main system clock http://www.atmel.com
  • 132. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Serial Communication Modules  USART  Full duplex asynchronous or synchronous operation  Can also be SPI master  Baud Rate Generator with fractional divider - UART frequency crystals not needed  SPI – Serial Peripheral Interface  Full duplex, three-wire synchronous data transfer  TWI – Two Wire Interface  I2C compatible  SMbus compatible  Fast data rate on slow chip clock - Clock / 10 for master operation - Asynchronous slave operation http://www.atmel.com
  • 133. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA A USB Device  USB added to all XMEGA A products  New ordering codes for all XMEGA A with USB  ATxmega128A1-AU -> ATxmega128A1U-AU  USB 2.0 Compliant Device  Low and Full speed operation  32 configurable endpoints  High throughput with minimim CPU load  Support DMA and large transactions without interrupt  Free device class software library  CDC, DFU, HID, Mass Storage, Audio, ... 141
  • 134. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Crypto engine  AES  128-bit key length  Encryption of 16 bytes in 375 clock cycles  Decryption of 16 bytes in 375 clock cycles  DES  56-bit key length  Encryption of 8 bytes in 16 clock cycles  Decryption of 8 bytes in 16 clock cycles  Supports up to 4 Mbps AES encrypted communication  Supports up to 3.2 Mbps Tripple-DES encrypted communication http://www.atmel.com
  • 135. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Crypto Performance  AES an DES crypto for high speed encrypted communication  Offload CPU and reduce power Max encrypted communication rate UART SPI Vs. Software 128-bit AES 4 Mbps 3.2 Mbps 10x faster Tripple-DES 3.2 Mbps 2.3 Mbps 100x faster  XMEGA with crypto is authorized for export to all contries  ECCN 5A002A.1  XMEGA enables crypto communication for low power applications http://www.atmel.com
  • 136. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA I/O Pins  IN, OUT and DIR registers for safe read modify write operations  Virtual registers for easy pin manipulation   Move IN, OUT and DIR control to bit addressable memory area Port Toggle, Clear and Set registers for easy and glitch free pin manipulation  Advanced pin configurations Push-pull Push-pull w/ buskeeper http://www.atmel.com Push-pull w/pull-up Wired AND w/ optional pull-up Push-pull w/pull-down Wired OR w/ optional pull-down October 13
  • 137. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 2nd generation picoPower  All picoPower features included  New sampled BOD  New low power Watchdog Timer  New Event system controls peripherals in Idle mode  New DMA moves data in Idle mode  Lowest power consumption  100 nA Power Down (RAM retention)  550 nA Power Save (Real Time Counter)  5 µs wake-up from sleep http://www.atmel.com
  • 138. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller 2nd generation picoPower  Industry leading in low power applications  True 1.6V operation  Flash, Analog, EEPROM, Oscillators down to 1.6V  Enable 1.8V +/-10% power supply  Lowest power 32 kHz Crystal Oscillator  550nA RTC  Low leakage Process Technology  100nA for all devices  1 µA Watchdog and Brown-Out 146 146 http://www.atmel.com
  • 139. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Special Features  Calibration memory  Oscillator failure detection  Readable from application  Memory lock bits  Factory calibration  Brown-Out Detector  User calibration - Can be modified by customer  Not affected by Chip Erase or SPM  Serial numbers  Unique identifier  Random number seed  Dynamic Clock Switching  Very fast  Low power  Off, 1 kHz sampled or On  Watchdog Timer  Separate oscillator  Clock generation  Clock output  CRC checksums  Available on locked devices http://www.atmel.com
  • 140. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  • 141. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA B Family Overview  Adds LCD to XMEGA family  Reuse modules from XMEGA A and XMEGA D  XMEGA B family:      64 – 100 pins 64 – 256 KB Flash 6 – 32 KB SRAM LCD driver 1.6 – 3.6V operation - 12 MHz from 1.6V - 32 MHz from 2.7V  XMEGA B Features         Segment LCD driver USB Device + Host Up to 3 16-bit Timer/Counter Up to 2 USART, 1 SPI, 1 TWI 12-bit 200 ksps ADC w/gain 2 Analog Comparators Event System CRC-16/32 support 150 150 Mar 2009 1
  • 142. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  • 143. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13
  • 144. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA C Family Overview  Adds USB Host to XMEGA family  Compatible to XMEGA D, but adds USB Device and Host  XMEGA C family:  XMEGA C Features  64 pins  USB Device + Host  64 – 256 KB Flash  5 16-bit Timer/Counter  4 – 16 KB SRAM  3 USART, 2 SPI, 1 TWI  1.6 – 3.6V operation  12-bit 200 ksps ADC w/gain - 12 MHz from 1.6V  2 Analog Comparators - 32 MHz from 2.7V  Event System - USB from 2.7 to 3.3V  CRC-16/32 support 153 153 Mar 2009 1
  • 145. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA C USB Module  USB 2.0 Compliant Device and Host  Low and Full speed operation, up to 12 Mbps  32 Endpoints - maximum number in USB specification  Easy to use  High throughput  Ping-pong mode to increase bandwidth  Multi-packet feature to reduce number of interrupts  Data buffers and endpoint configuration in SRAM  Low cost with maximum flexibility  Only the amount of SRAM needed will be allocated  USB pins multiplexed with I/O pins, no dedicated pins  3.0 to 3.6V VCC during USB communication Mar 2009 1
  • 146. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA D Family Overview  Lowest cost XMEGA family  Compatible to XMEGA A with reduced feature set  XMEGA D family:  XMEGA D Features  44 – 64 pins  Up to 5 16-bit Timer/Counter  16 – 256 KB Flash  Up to 3 USART, 2 SPI, 1 TWI  2 – 16 KB SRAM  12-bit 200 ksps ADC w/gain  1.6 – 3.6V operation  2 Analog Comparators - 12 MHz from 1.6V  Event System - 32 MHz from 2.7V 155 155 Mar 2009 1
  • 147. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E target specification      Sixteen-channel 12-bit 300 ksps ADC Two-channel 12-bit 300ksps DAC Two Analog Comparators Two standard 16-bit Timer/Counters One high-end 16-bit Timer/Counter        Optimized for ballast, LED, induction control, DC/DC supply/converter, motors, buck/boost converter, wireless charger, battery charger RTC with digital calibration and correction for XTAL error Two USARTs with master SPI I2C master and slave, up to 1MHz support One SPI 4-channel peripheral DMA controller Device Flash 8-channel event system  Asynchronius event routing RAM EEPOM  26 I/O pins 32KB 4KB 1KB ATxmega16E5  32-pin packages ATxmega32E5 16KB 2KB 1KB ATxmega8E5 8KB 1KB 512b
  • 148. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Analog to Digital Converter  300 ksps  12 bit resolution  Single or continuous conversion modes  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Internal and External voltage references
  • 149. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Digital to Analog Converter  12 bit resolution  Up to 300 ksps conversion rate  Connected to Event System  Connected to DMA Controller  Two independent output channels
  • 150. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Analog Comparators  Selectable hysteresis  0, ~20mV, ~50mV selectable  Flexible input selections  Any analog input pin  Bandgap voltage reference  64-level VCC scaler  Interrupts and events generation  Window compare function by combining 2 comparators  Detect level inside or outside window  Possible to have comparator output on a pin
  • 151. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Timer/Counter  One 16-bit timer/counter type 4 (high end)  4 Output Compare Channels with 8 outputs - 4 non-inverted output (High Side) - 4 inverted output (Low Side)  Dead-time insertion between high- and low-side  Fault protection with asynchronous PWM shut-down - Multiple and selectable triggers and restart conditions  High-resolution extension - Increase PWM resolution up to eight times (4 nS period)  Two 16-bit timer/counters type 5 (standard)  2 Output Compare or Input Capture Channels  High-resolution extension
  • 152. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Serial Communication Modules  USART  Full duplex asynchronous or synchronous operation  SPI master mode  Baud Rate Generator with fractional divider - UART frequency crystals not needed  SPI – Slave Serial Peripheral Interface  Full duplex, three-wire synchronous data transfer  Double buffered receive and transmit  TWI – Two Wire Interface  One master operation interface  One slave operation interface  100kHz, 400Khz and 1MHz operation  I2C and SMbus compatible
  • 153. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E Real Time Counter  Separate Timer for Asynchronous Clock  Independent of other Timer/Counters  Works in Power Save, Idle and Active mode  16-bit timer with Programmable Prescaler     Prescaler provides 1 Hz – 32 kHz input Programmable top value Compare register Max timeout 65 536 seconds (= more than 18 hours)  Can generate Events and Interrupts  Overflow and compare match  Digital calibration and correction for 32-768kHz XTAL error  Correction of mount error down to +/- 1 ppm accuracy
  • 154. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA Custom Logic Overview (XCL)  Two independent units including:  8-bit timer/counter  Glue logic with programmable look up table (LUT) - Defines a truth table of logical condition between inputs - Delay elements for filter and synchronistaion  Can be cascaded for more powerful features  16-bit timer/counter, larger LUT CPLD CPLD0 Timer/Counter Control Logic Timer Period Counter Delay Glue Logic I N T E R C O N N E C T CPLD1 Timer/Counter Control Logic Timer Period Counter Delay Glue Logic Prescaler I/O Pins Event System USARTs Interrupts Events CLKPER
  • 155. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR XMEGA E XCL - 8-bit Timer/Counters  Two 8-bit timer/counter, with 16-bit cascade otion     Normal operation Single-slope PWM Input capture and frequency capture LUT input  Peripheral configuration:  Receive events from selectable USART - For count and restart actions,  Provide event to USART  Applications:  UART, USART, master SPI with variable data length in - 1 – 256-bit data lenght wthout software and I/O pin overhead  Enables LIN and DALI communication  Sensor applications: no IO pin need to signalize slot where data is valid
  • 156. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR® XMEGATM – Basics XMEGA Training: Basics
  • 157. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Introduction (1/2)  AVR XMEGA datasheet information is divided in two parts: Family Manual Device datasheets ATxmega A manual ATxmega64A1 / 128A1 / ...
  • 158. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Introduction (2/2)  AVR XMEGA has more advanced header files for C programming than previous AVRs.  Slightly different syntax  More advanced, not more complicated  Better use of the features in the C language
  • 159. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller The header file differences  What is different?  structs are used for registers of a peripheral  Bit masks, bit positions, group masks, group configurations for configuring bits in each register  Why the change?  Easier to configure registers correctly  Much easier to write generic drivers
  • 160. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Register Names  Longer descriptive names preferred over complex short forms  DDRA is now PORTA.DIR  PINA is now PORTA.IN  UCSR0A is now USARTC0.CTRLA (This is USART 0 on port C)  Try to avoid control-and-status registers  Easier to read, write, and remember  Application Note AVR1000
  • 161. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Register configuration  Bit position  PORT_SLREN_bp = 7  Bit mask  PORT_SLREN_bm = 0b1000 0000 = 0x80  Group mask  PORT_OPC_gm = 0b0011 1000 = 0x38  Group configuration  PORT_OPC_PULLUP_gc = 0b0001 0000 = ( 0x02 << 3)
  • 162. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Bit mask/bit position  Use bit mask directly for setting a bit:  PORTD.PIN0CTRL |= PORT_SRLEN_bm  Or alternatively use bit position (like Mega/Tiny AVR):  PORTD.PIN0CTRL |= ( 1 << PORT_SRLEN_bp )  XMEGA header file definition: #define PORT_SRLEN_bm 0x80 // Slew Rate Enable bit mask #define PORT_SRLEN_bp 7 // Slew Rate Enable bit position
  • 163. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Register Bits usage  Single control and status bits  Mask PORT_INVEN_bm and position PORT_INVEN_bp  Set bit: - PORTA.PIN0CTRL |= PORT_INVEN_bm; PORTA.PIN0CTRL |= (1 << PORT_INVEN_bp);  Clear bit: - PORTA.PIN0CTRL &= ~PORT_INVEN_bm; PORTA.PIN0CTRL &= ~(1 << PORT_INVEN_bp);
  • 164. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group mask  Useful for clearing all bits of a specific configuration in a register  Example:  PORT_OPC_gm  XMEGA header file definition:  #define PORT_OPC_gm 0x38 // Output/Pull Configuration group mask  #define PORT_OPC_bp 3 // Output/Pull Configuration group position
  • 165. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group configuration  Group configuration  One specific configuration of a group of bits  Group configurations defined as enum in header file  typedef enum PORT_OPC_enum { … } PORT_OPC_t;  Value something defined as PORT_OPC_something_gc  Enumerator types useful as function parameters – automatic checking
  • 166. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group configuration  Example:  PORT_OPC_PULLDOWN_gc  All available configurations are shown in the XMEGA manual
  • 167. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Group mask and group configuration usage  Changing configuration – compact and efficient  Clear all bits of previous configuration and set new configuration:  PORTA.PIN0CTRL = ( PORTA.PIN0CTRL & ~PORT_OPC_gm ) | PORT_OPC_PULLDOWN_gc;
  • 168. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA header files  If the definitions on the previous slides do not make sence to you:  Don’t need to know how the peripherals are defined, but how to use it:  PORTA.OUT = 0xff  unsigned char value = PORTB.IN
  • 169. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA I/O Ports  Direction control  PORTx.DIR  Input and output  PORTx.IN and PORTx.OUT  Manipulation of direction register bits  PORTx.DIRSET, PORTx.DIRCLR, and PORTx.DIRTGL  Manipulation of output register bits  PORTx.OUTSET, PORTx.OUTCLR, and PORTx.OUTTGL  Application Note AVR1313
  • 170. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller XMEGA I/O Ports
  • 171. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Output and Pull Configuration  Individual pin control  Pull-up or pull-down  PORT_OPC_PULLUP_gc or PORT_OPC_PULLDOWN_gc  Wired-AND or wired-OR  PORT_OPC_WIREDAND_gc or PORT_OPC_WIREDOR_gc  Bus keeper support  PORT_OPC_BUSKEEPER  Application Note AVR1313
  • 172. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Configuring multiple pins  Several pins can be configured at the same time  MPCMASK register sets which pins are affected  The following configuration of a pin is applied to all pins set in MPCMASK  Example:  PORTA.MPCMASK = 0x0F;  PORTA.PIN0CTRL = ( PORTA.PIN0CTRL & ~PORT_OPC_gm ) | PORT_OPC_PULLUP_gc ; → All pins configured as pullup
  • 173. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Pointers to Peripheral Modules  Allows for generic code and drivers  Access modules through pointers  Some overhead when dereferencing pointers  Great flexibility, saves code space  Module struct allows for pointer referencing  PORT_t * ledPort = &PORTD;  void SetLEDs( PORT_t * port, unsigned char value );
  • 174. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Timer/Counter  Wide range of 8- and 16-bit Timer/Counters (TCNT)  The AVR Timer/Counters can use various clock sources  Main CPU clock  Internal High speed PLL - High speed, 64MHz  By external clock source - Max speed XTAL/2  External 32kHz asynchronous crystal  All clock sources can be pre-scaled before being fed to the Timer/Counters  T/C are interrupt driven and controlled through the AVR IO memory 184
  • 175. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Timer/Counter Features  Overflow detection with interrupt  Compare match detection with Interrupt    Own compare value registers Pin change on compare match TCNT clear on compare match  Input Capture with Interrupt and Noise Canceller   Own capture counter value register Input capture by the Analog comparator  Real Time Counter with 32 kHz oscillator  Asynchronous to the main clock; separate 32kHz Crystal  Pulse width Modulation (PWM) functionality     Selectable 2-Bit to 16-Bit Resolution on devices with 16-Bit Timer High speed, up to 250kHz Phase and Frequency Correct PWM mode Variable TOP value Relevant Application Notes AVR134 AVR304 185
  • 176. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller ERGÄNZUNGEN ZU UC3A3 (AUDIO) & UC3L www.atmel.com October 13
  • 177. AVR and AVR32 TMM Call 4. May 2009 EVK1105 Digital Audio Gateway
  • 178. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EVK1105 Digital Audio Gateway Reference Design  EVK1105 demonstrates the full potential of AVR32 AT32UC3A0512 in digital audio applications  Software audio decoders  Be prepared for changes in digital audio formats  Complete HW and SW Reference Design      Play MP3 and WMA from a USB Mass Storage device Control your iPod Prepared for Internet radio Prepared for Bluetooth® Prepared for IEEE 802.15.4 / Zigbee PRO Mar 2009 1
  • 179. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EVK1105 Digital Audio Gateway Target Applications  USB Docking Station  MP3 Player / iPod  Mobile Phone / PDA  Camera  SD Card Player  Car Radio  Home Stereo  Internet Radio  Speaking appliances Mar 2009 1
  • 180. AVR and AVR32 TMM Call 4. May 2009 AT32UC3A3
  • 181. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller Introducing the new AVR32 AT32U3A3  Audio playback  Single chip solution  Software audio decoding  High quality playback  iPod docking  High speed communication  Hi-Speed USB  Dual SD card  NAND w/MLC ECC  Distributed SRAM  Target Markets  Audio Playback  USB to SD Card Bridges  USB Dongles  USB Tokens Mar 2009 1
  • 182. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller AVR32 UC3A3 – It is all about true performance Instr. MemIF SRAM 64 KB Data  Improved DMA transfer speed  Peripheral DMA 6-layer High Speed Bus Matrix  Memory to Memory DMA Peripheral Bridge Peripheral DMA Controller: 18 channels USB On-The-Go  Eliminate on-chip communication bottleneck  Avoid DMA collision  Remove delay and latency PDC PDC PDC PDC USART SPI x2 TWI x2 SSC x1 x4 PDC Timer PWM 3 ch 3 ch PDC ADC 8 ch Audio DAC User Peripherals Mar 2009 1 EBI / ECC MPU SRAM 32 KB  2 x 32 KB BUS SRAM AVR32 CPU 66 MHz Flash  64 KB dual port CPU RAM JTAG/ Nexus OCD SRAM 32 KB  128 KB SRAM on-chip SRAM split into 3 regions
  • 183. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller EVK1104 – AVR32 UC3A3 Evaluation Kit Mar 2009 1
  • 184. AVR and AVR32 TMM Call 4. May 2009 AT32UC3L - picoPower
  • 185. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller UC3L  picoPower™ Technology  Industry’s lowest power consumption  Down to 0.5 mW/MHz  1.6µA with RTC running  100nA in Shutdown mode  SleepWalking™  1.62 – 3.6V operation  Integrated Hardware QTouch  Use QTouch as any other peripheral  Wake up from sleep with a touch button  FlashVault™ code protection  Partially program and lock the flash  Protect your software IP Mar 2009 1
  • 186. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller UC3L – Further Cutting Edge Innovations Improved Reliability and Reduced Cost  Peripheral Event System  PWM on all GPIO pins  High precision clock system        Digital frequency lock loop Crystal osc. precision tuner Clock failure protection Ultra low power oscillators Frequency meter RTC with calendar mode Windowed watchdog timer  9 channel 12 bits ADC  8 channel Analog Comparator  Advanced Debug Functionality  Advanced Trace Mar 2009 1
  • 187. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller QUIZ MIT PREISVERLEIHUNG www.atmel.com October 13
  • 188. ELEKTOR live 2013 – AVR Microcontroller www.atmel.com October 13