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Nom2

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  • 1. Lesson 1 Livestock in Mongolia About 80 percentage of the total Mongolian agriculture production is produced by the livestock sector. Generally, our livestock system is pasture grazing livestock husbandry. Lately, total number of livestock has been increased dramatically and reached more than 40 million heads which is the positive result for increasing total production of the sector, but on the other hand, it call challenges and pressure for pasture land, which is the major condition for running livestock husbandry. In addition to the dramatic increase of the livestock growth, there is desertification process has been taken in place so rapidly as never before caused by the global climate change and dryness. Under the influence of the globalization, we are facing high rocking fuel and wheat price increase, that hits hard the agricultural production itself. Our goals are: To increase the livestock sector’s production by successful breeding of local elite livestock breeds that are adapted to the country’s climatic conditions, along with using high quality breeds from abroad, especially nearby population concentrated urban areas while introducing modern biotechnological techniques. To increase pasture land, hay and fodder production and improve quality of feed .To protect pasture land pests and rodents, to use modern technologies to fight against pests such as locusts and uliin tsagaan ogotn. Issues regarding the preservation of our natural environment, rehabilitating damaged areas, combating against desertification, eradicating food shortages, and reducing poverty have become not only Mongolia’s problems, but also the world’s problems. We are working to prevent sudden changes and environmental disasters, while preparing to withstand unforeseen occurrences with less impact if and when they happen. Vocabulary: pasture grazing livestock husbandry бэлчээрийн мал аж ахуй dramatically гайхалтай head тоо толгой production үйлдвэрлэл growth хөгжил, өсөлт, бүтээгдхүүн desertification цөлжилт influence нөлөө fuel шатахуун wheat улаан буудай breed, n. угсаа, үүлдэр 1
  • 2. pests and rodents хортон, мэрэгч fodder production малын тэжээлийн үйлдвэрлэл feed тэжээл abroad гадаад capacity багтаамж, хүчин чадал concentrate, төвлөрүүлэх preservation хамгаалалт disasters аюул, гамшиг unforeseen урьдаас мэдээгүй occurrences хэрэг явдал, тохиолдол Exercise 1. Pay attention to the following pair of words. It is necessary to learn. мал аж ахуй animal husbandry, cattle breeding таван хошуу мал five types of domestic animal бог мал sheep, goat бод мал cattle (cow), horse, camel төл мал newborn young animal малын бэлчээр pasture, grazing field амины мал private livestock бэлчээрийн мал pasture livestock нутгийн мал aboriginal stock, native breed бэлчээрийн маллагаа pasture breeding малын ашиг шим animal produce, output of livestock мал тооллого census of livestock 2
  • 3. Exercise 2. Read and translate into English 1. Монголын малын тоо толгой 40 гаруй саяд хүрээд байна. ………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………. 2. Малын өсөлт нь цаг агаарын өөрчлөлт, хуурайшилт, цөлжилтийн шалтгаан болж байна. ................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................. 3. Цөлжилт , хүнсний хомсдол,ядуурал нь монголын төдийгүй дэлхий дахины тулгамдсан асуудал юм. ………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………….. Grammar Present simple Affirmative Interrogative I work Do I work ? You work Do you work? He works Does he work? She works Does she work? It works Does it work? We work Do we work? You work Do you work? they work Do they work? Negative Long from Short from I do not work I don’t work You do not work You don’t work He does not work He doesn’t work She does not work She doesn’t work It does not work It doesn’t work We do not work We don’t work You do not work You don’t work They do not work They don’t work 3
  • 4. Use : We use the present simple for: • Daily, routines, repeated, action or habits. I get up at seven every days. • Permanent states. I live in London Time expressions used with present simple : every hour / day/week/ month/ summer/ year etc, usually, always, every, morning, afternoon, night, in the morning/afternoon/evening/night/ at night /etc Short answers: Yes , I do./ Yes, we do. Do you ….? No, I don’t./ No, we don’t. Yes ,he/she/it does. Does she/he/it ….? No ,he/she/it doesn’t. Yes ,they do. Do they ….? No, they don’t. In short answers we use Yes or No ,the subject pronoun and Do/Don’t or Does/Doesn’t. Exercise 1. Underline the correct verb form. 1. The earth goes/ doesn’t go/ go/ round the sun. 2. Mice catch/ don’t catch/ catches/ cats. 3. An atheist believe / believes/ doesn’t believe in God. 4. Vegetarians don’t eat/ eat/ eats meat. 5. What does /do/ the word mean/ means? Exercise 2. Put the words into the correct order. 1. fishing/ at/ weekends/ often/ Bold/goes ………………………………………………………… 2. dinner/cooks/ rarely/Dad 4
  • 5. …………………………………………………. 3. on/ Naraa/up/ Sundays/ never/ gets/earl ………………………………………….. 4. his/always/ does/ Bat/ homework/ …………………………………….. 5. gym/ to/ she/ usually/go/the. ………………………………………………. Lesson 2 The native sheep The Mongolian native sheep is the short fat-tailed race of sheep. Under the strong continental climatic conditions of Central Asia, only very hardy sheep could survive. The original sheep reduces 23-25% in their body mass during the cold winter season. The Mongolia sheep is the back faced white type. The wool consists of heterotype fibers: widely, medium and kemps. The average wool clip of the ewe and the ram of the native breed of sheep is 1-1.4 kg and 1.6-2.0 kg correspondingly. The body weight of younger animal is in progress up to 4.5 years old. But the most intensive development of the younger animal is going on the first year of their life. The major product of the native sheep is meat. The ewe, body weight is 42.92-61.5 kg in autumn. The ram’s weight 67-75 kg. The yield of the meat is 52.7-55.28% of the body weight. Milk productivity is not high, the ewe gives 55.97 liter of milk in the period of lactation. Mongolian native sheep gives skin of high quality. The skin has the technical and commoditive property because of the well developed reticular layer. Vocabulary: sheep хонь to survive амьд үлдэх fiber судал, ширхэг ewe эм хонь ram эр хонь, ирэг yield бүтээмж, ашиг өгөх reticular торон commoditive өргөн хэрэглээний layer үе давхарга 5
  • 6. to reduce хасах, буурах, турах heterotype олон төрлийн to clip хяргах, хяргасан ноос property хэв шинж major гол үндэс wool ноос short fat-tailed богино өөхөн сүүлт correspondingly таарах, зохих kemp хялгастай ноолуур Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. Which type is native sheep? ……………………………………………………………. 2. What do you say about fibers of sheep’s wool? ……………………………………………………………. 3. What is the major product of the sheep? ……………………………………………………………….. 4. What skin does native sheep give? …………………………………………………………………… Exercise 2. Pay attention to the meaning of the following words and phrases. хонин сүрэг herd of sheep хонины ноос sheep’s wool хонины мах mutton, camp хонины бэлчээр sheep range, sheep walk нэхийний чанар quality of skin боловсруулсан хонины нэхий tanned sheepskin сүүний гарц yield of milk цэвэр ноос pure wool 6
  • 7. Exercise 3. Translate into English Хонин сүргээс төрөл бүрийн бүтээгдэхүүн /ноос, мах, сүү, хурганы арьс, нэхий/ авдаг. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол үүлдрийн хонь богино өөхөн сүүлтэй. …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………. Монгол хонь ихэвчлэн хар толгойтой цагаан зүстэй. ……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… Exercise 4. Translate into Mongolian Sheep an animal raised for wool, meat or skin. Sheep are cub-chewing mammals related to goats and cattle and sometimes have horns. The various kinds comprise a genus of animals. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………. ................................................................................................................................... Grammar Present Continuous (to be + verb -ing) affirmative interrogative Negative I’m playing Am I playing I’m not playing You’re playing Are you playing You aren’t playing He’s playing Is he playing He isn’t playing She’s playing Is she playing She isn’t playing It’s playing Is it playing It isn’t playing We’re playing Are we playing We aren’t playing You’re playing Are you playing You aren’t playing They’re playing Are they playing They aren’t playing 7
  • 8. Use : • We use the present continuous for : actions happening now ,at the moment of speaking. I am doing homework now. • Actions happening around the time of speaking. We’re looking for a flat at the moment. • Fixed arrangements in the near future. I’m seeing John tomorrow Time expressions used with the present continuous: now, at the moment, at present Short answers : Yes, I am. /Yes, we are. Are you…? No, I am not. /No, we aren’t. Yes, he/she/it is. Is he/she/it…? No, he/she/ it isn’t. Yes, they are. Are they…? No, they aren’t. Exercise 1. Use the words in the list to complete the dialogue below. Am, is, are, do A: Hello? B: Hello, Tulgaa. This…. Bat. What …..you doing? A: Hi, Bat I………… studying for an exam. How …… you? B: Oh, I……. fine. I want to ask you a question. A: Sure. B: ……. you know anyone who repairs cars ? A: Of course I……..! My cousin Bold ……a mechanic. He loves repairing cars-especially old ones like your Exercise 2. Underline the correct verb form 8
  • 9. 1. I watch/ am watching/ watches TV every weekend. 2. Mum cook/ cooks/ is cooking dinner at the moment. 3. He phones/ phone/ is phoning his friend right now. 4. She paint/ is painting/ paints pictures in her free time. 5. My brother drive/ drives/ is driving his son to school every day. Lesson 3 The native goat The native goats are bred primarily for meat and milk. The native goat well built and reduces 25-27% in their body mass during winter and spring seasons. But they gain 25- 35% of their weight during summer and autumn and by the end of autumn the female’s weight is 35.66 and male’s 55 kg. Besides this, the aboriginal goat produces a valuable down of high quality. The mean of down fiber diameter is 13-16 mkm. The she –goat produces 224g down an average and male 230-360g. The native goat has a thin and dense skin which is of a valuable raw material for tanning industry. The she-goat gives 60-70L of milk is the period of lactation, which is used as a dietetic nutrition of children and elderly people. “The Gobi Gurvan saihan” is a new breed of goat which has been raised in the South Gobi zone by selective breeding of the better hybrids from crossing of the native goat with the pridone breed of goat. Vocabulary: goat ямаа primarily гол үндсэн чухал dense skin нягт арьс tanning арьс ширний dietetic хоолны нарийн дэглэм, тусгай дэглэм nutrition хүнс тэжээл pridone бахархал down cashmere ноолуур to gain олж авах fiber ноосны урт thin skin нимгэн арьс, нэхий 9
  • 10. raw material түүхий эд Exercise 1. Pay attention to the following pair of words. ямаан сүрэг herd of goat ямааны мах goat flesh ноолуурын чиглэлийн ямаа cashmere goat ямааны арьс goat skin сүргийн чанар quality of herd сүргийн чанарыг дээшлүүлэх to improve herd quality сүргийн ерөнхий чанарыг дээшлүүлэх to improve over all herd quality ямаа самнах улирал combing season бэлчээр хамгаалах preserve pastureland ямаачин goat herder чанар муутай мал low quality livestock Exercise 2. Translate into English Монгол ямааны мах, сүү, ноолуур, хялгас, арьс болон бусад бүтээгдэхүүнийг өргөн ашигладаг. …………………………………………………………………………………… Монгол ямаа нь мах, сүү, ноолуурын хосолмол чиглэлтэй байдаг. ……………………………………………………………………………………. Ямаа нь намар сэрүү орохоор тарга хүчээ сайн авдаг. …………………………………………………………………………………… Ямааны сүү гарц ямааны бэлчээрийн нөхцөл, өсөлт, хувийн онцлогоос хамаардаг байна. ........................................................................................................................... …………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
  • 11. Exercise 3. Read the text and translate Goat cub- chewing mammals with hollow horns and usually a beard. Goat are closely related to sheep but are stronger, less timid, and more active than sheep. They are raised in all parts of the world for their milk, flesh, hair and hides. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Grammar Past simple affirmative Negative interrogative I worked Did I work? I didn’t work You worked Did you You didn’t He worked work? work He She worked Did he didn’t work It worked work? She didn’t We worked Did she work You worked work? It didn’t they worked Did it work? work We Did we didn’t work work? You didn’t Did you work They work? didn’t work Did they work? Use : • We use the past simple for actions which happened in the past and won’t happen again. He graduated from high school in 2008. (When did he graduate? In 2008) 11
  • 12. • We also use the past simple for the action which happened at a specific time in the past. He visited his grandparents last Sunday . (When? Last Sunday) Time expressions used with the past simple yesterday ,last night/morning/evening etc, two weeks/a month etc ago, in 1964 etc. Short answers : Yes, I /he/you etc did. Did /I/you/he/ etc work….? No, I /he/you etc didn’t. Exercise 1. Match the present simple forms to the past simple forms. appear was travel sang be went live appeared sing lived go traveled learn started receive had start learnt change enjoyed have received enjoy changed 12
  • 13. Exercise 2. Choose the correct verb form 1. Dulmaa wrote/ write/ has written her test yesterday. 2. He has been/ were/ was in London in 2000. 3. I meet/ met/ have met her 2 days ago. 4. Od went/gone/ has gone to Khovsgol last summer. 5. Tenges seen/saw/ has seen this play before. Exercise 3. Put in the most suitable tense. A: Where …. /be/ you last night? B: I…./be/ at the party A: What ….you…/do/ there? B: We …../dance/ a lot at the party. A: …/be/ he at the party? B: No, he …/be/ . Lesson 4 The cattle and yak The native cattle is the main contingent of cattle in Mongolia and 20% of the total number of them are the yaks /Sarlag / and the hybrids /Khainag/.The aboriginal Mongolian cattle belong to meat type of cattle and relatively short, broad body with short legs is peculiar to their constitution, the adult cow weight 280-300 kg, the bull’s 360-450 kg. Female and male yaks weight 280 kg and 450 kg accordingly in autumn. While the native cattle and the yak which had been mated together gave progeny of increased size. The hybrids weigh 660 kg, but the male animals resulting from this cross are sterile. The East-Mongolian type of cattle is the best one among others by their productivity. The body weight of young animals of the native breed of cattle is in the progress up to 7-8 years old. Yield of milk native cow is 600-800L in the period of the lactation. The cow yak gives 500-700L of milk and the hybrid cow 800-1000 L .The native cattle gives meat of high nutritive quality and good to the taste. Dominating colors of the aboriginal cattle are red, reddish –brown, black and gray. The coat color of the yak has the ecological significance. The yak well adapted to the high mountainous condition. The native cattle and the yak have a well expressed herd instinct in their behavior. Vocabulary: cattle мал, үхэр progeny үр удам 13
  • 14. to increase өсөх нэмэгдэх relatively харьцуулбал sterile үргүй, сувай dominating зонхилох голлох significance ач холбогдол pasture бэлчээр to breed үржүүлэх peculiar хувийн шинж чанар онцлог instinct зан байдал behavior авир байдал Exercise 1. Comprehension questions. 1. What constitution do the native cattle have? ………………………………………………………… 2. What yield of milk do native cow have in the period of the lactation? ……………………………………………………………. 3. What are the dominating colors of the cattle? …………………………………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian. 1. The cattle are on the pasture now. ………………………………………………… 2. The grass stand is very good this year. ……………………………………………….. 3. This cow produces the milk of high quality. ………………………………………………………….. 4. We shall need 20 more workers during the hay time. ………………………………………………………………….. 14
  • 15. 5. Milk is unavailable at present. ………………………………………………………………….. Exercise 3. Read these sentence. Translate into your language. 1. We water vegetable every day. ……………………………………………………………………….. 2. Dairy cows must be provided with much water every day. …………………………………………………………………………. 3. They milk cows with special milking machine. ………………………………………………………………………. 4. These milk cows are high-productive. ………………………………………………………………………… 5. Silage and hay are water feeds. …………………………………………………………………………… 6. They pasture their cattle all the year round in this part of the country. …………………………………………………………………………………. Exercise 4. Complete the sentences. Use the words in B to match sentences In A. A Grass silage and hay …. Dairy cattle need …. Many up-to-date machines …. To improve pasture … High milk yields …. This breed of dairy cattle ….. The amount of feed to be given to each cow B are obtained this farm. 15
  • 16. farmers use fertilizers. is not very productive. are winter feeds. depends on her size and productivity. do different farm work. Exercise 5 . Complete the sentences. Use the words below. pasture, yield, hay, quality, to, obtain, clover, breed Cattle grow and develop well when high ………. feeds are fed in winter and when they are on ………. in summer. Vitamin A is supplied when cattle are fed good grass and ……. It is very difficult ……. high quality hay. The milk ……. per cow per year is about 800 gallons. Legume ……… is the best winter feed. They do not ……… dairy cattle. Exercise 6. Translate into English Монгол үүлдрийн үхэр эрс тэс цаг уурын байдалд сайн зохилдсон байдаг. ……………………………………………………………………………………. Манай оронд үхэр сүргийг сүүний чиглэл, махны чиглэлээр үржүүлдэг. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол үхрээс сүү, махнаас гадна арьс шир, хөөвөр, хялгас, эвэр, өлөн гэдэс зэрэг бүтээгдэхүүн ашигладаг. …………………………………………………………………………………………… Нутгийн монгол үхэр уулын болон тал хээр нутгийн экологид сайн зохицсон. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Сарлаг бол манай орны Хангай, Хөвсгөлийн уулархаг нутагт бэлчээрээр маллахад тохиромжтой …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
  • 17. Grammar Used to Use : • We use the used to + infinitive to refer to past habits or states which don’t exist any more. He used to smoke. I didn’t use to wear glasses. Did you use to have long hair? Exercise 1. Complete the sentence with used to. 1. She ……..my best friend but we aren’t friends any longer. 2. We live in UB now but we ………. live in Erdenet. 3. Now there’s only one shop in the village but there …… three. 4. When I was a child I…….. ice cream , but I don’t like it now. 5. Tom has got a car. He …….a motorcycle. Exercise 2. Brain changed his lifestyle. Write sentence about Brain with used to and didn’t use to. He stopped: studying hard, going to bed early, running 3 miles every morning. He started: smoking, going out in the evening, spending a lot of money. 1. He used to study hard. He didn’t use to smoke. 2. ………………………………………………………………………….. 3……………………………………………………………………………….. 4. ………………………………………………………………………………… ….. 5. ……………………………………………………………………………… 6. …………………………………………………………………………………… 17
  • 18. Lesson 5 The native horse The native horses are bred not only for transport but for meat and milk. The aboriginal horse is typical pastureable animal. Mongolian horse is small /300-350kg/ but very hardy and vigorous animal. The Mongolian native horse is capable of great endurance and they can run over a long period of time. Dominating coat colors are gray, bay and light bay etc. The Mongolian horse is late ripenesly and their body development is in progress up to 7.5 year. The horse gives milk, meat and other products. Meat contains much protein, albumin, globuinand fractions of miogen. The high content of glutamine acid causes the high quality of meat. The mare’s milk contains much amino acids, vitamins, immunoglobulin, betalactolobulin and unsaturated fat acids. From the ancient time the Mongolian people make airag, fermented mare’s milk which contains much free amino acids. Vocabulary: vigorous хүч тэнхээтэй bay хээр endurance тэсвэр хатуужил to ripen боловсрох saturated шингэсэн, шингээсэн ancient эртний acid хүчил capable чадвартай Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What are horses bred for? …………………………………………….. 2. What is physical structure of horse? 18
  • 19. ………………………………………………. 3. Which distinction does mare’s milk have? ………………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Pay attention to the following pair of words. адуун сүрэг herd of horses адууны мах horse meat, horse flesh адууны хялгас хөөвөр horse hair алуу мал horses адуучин horse herder Exercise 3. Put the following words into three groups. Noun, verb and adjective develop, development ……………………………………. vigor, vigorous ………………………………………… ripe, ripen, ripeness …………………………………………….. Exercise 4. Translate into English Адууны зүтгэх хүчийг уналга, тэвэрт ашиглахын зэрэгцээгээр түүний мах, сүү /айраг/ зэрэг бүтээгдэхүүнийг ашигладаг. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Адууны мах төгс чанартай уураг, тос мөн витамин элбэг байдаг учраас түүнийг сувилгааны чанартай хоол хүнсний зүйлд хэрэглэдэг. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… Монгол адууны махны чанар, найрлага нь бусад малынхаас ялгаатай. 19
  • 20. …………………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол адуу бэлчээрийн мал учраас мах нь амт чанар сайтай. …………………………………………………………………………….. Адуун сүргээс их хэмжээний хөөвөр, хялгас, арьс ширийг ашигладаг. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Адууны нэг чухал ашиг шим бол сүү, түүгээр бэлтгэсэн айраг болно. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Grammar Past Continuous Use : We use the past continuous for: Two or more actions happening at the same time in the past John was cutting the grass while Jenny was painting flowers. • An action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action that interrupted it. (shorter action) She was having a bath when the phone rang. • An action in progress at a stated time in the past . James was sleeping at 9 o’clock last night. • Background information in a story The wind was blowing when Jane left work last Friday. Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or the past continuous. 1. The letter ………/lie/ on the table when she got home. 2. They ………… /watch/ a film when the pizza arrived. 20
  • 21. 3. “I don’t know where she is,” he …………../reply/. 4. As I…………../get/ on the bus yesterday, I fell and hurt my foot. Exercise 2. Underline the correct verb form. 1. I / looked/ was looking/ out of the window and /saw/was seeing/ an unusual bird. 2. The plane was late and we /waited/were waiting/ at the airport all morning. 3. She /were playing/ played/ was playing/ tennis at 5 o’clock yesterday. 4. I /talked/ were talking/ was talking/ with my friend when suddenly he /was crying/ cried/. Lesson 6 Two humped camel The native two humped camels have excellent potential as providers of drought power for transport, wool, fat and meat. The Mongolian bacterial camels have the following exterior date, elongated and roundest muzzle, large forehead hare lip, short ears, well developed muscles, mobile body, lumbar-sacral bones, long ribs, short tail and straight legs. The most valuable quality of the Mongolian camel is the wool productivity. The adult native camel gives 5.2kg of wool at the average. The male camel gives more than 8 kg of wool and the maximum 16-18 kg of wool. Lactation period of the female camel is 12-18 months and gives 174-574L of milk which is rich in vitamin C. The body weight of the native camel is in progress up to 7 years old. But the most intensive development of the younger animals is going on the 3.5-4 years of their life and depends on the natural and climatic factors. The Mongolian bacterial well adapted to severe continental climate of Gobi one and they have a high ecology –physiological plasticity to stand out the external condition, hot summer and cold winter during which they reduce 20-25% in their body mass. The high stability of the camel organism to the hot desert climate in summer is bound up with economic expenditure of water by the organism. Vocabulary: potential чадамж, боломж provider нийлүүлэгч draught power үлэмж, их хүч чадал exterior өнгөн тал, гадна байдал 21
  • 22. to elongate сунах, сунгах roundest дугариг, дугуйвтар muzzle хошуу, хоншоор lumber sacral ууц зоо- нуруу to bound up хязгаарлах expenditure үрлэг зарлага Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. Which potential do camels have? ……………………………………………………………. 2. What is the most valuable quality of the camel? ………………………………………………………………… 3. How long is the body weight in progress up? ………………………………………………………….. 4. Where do camel adapt well? ………………………………………………………………… 5. How long does lactation on period last? ……………………………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Pay attention to the meaning of the following words тэмээн сүрэг camel herd ганц бөхт тэмээ dormedory тэмээчин camel herder ноос wool down цэвэр ноос pure wool adapt v. тааруулах тохируулах adaptability n. тааруулж хэрэглэж сурах adaptable adj. хялбар тохируулж болохуйц 22
  • 23. locate v. байрлуулах, суурьшуулах location n. байрлал, байршил, суурьшил mobile adj. хөдөлгөөнтэй өөрчлагддаг mobility n. хөдөлгөөн, өөрчлөмтгий чанар Exercise 3. Choose the necessary word and put in the sentence The adult native camel gives 5.2 kg of …… the average. Milk is … in vitamin C. Intensive development of the …… animals ……. the natural and climatic factors. rich younger to depend on, wool Exercise 4. Translate into English Монголын таван хошуу мал сүргийн нэг нь тэмээ юм. ……………………………………………………………………………….. Монгол тэмээний биеийн өсөлт хөгжил нь 5-6 настайдаа үндсэндээ гүйцдэг байна. …………………………………………………………………………………… Тэмээний ноосыг чанараар нь зөөлөн буюу ширүүн гэж ангилдаг. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Тэмээний ноосон эдлэл дулаан хадгалдаг, хөнгөн, бөх байдаг. ……………………………………………………………………………. Монгол тэмээ нь хүч тэнхээтэй, тэсвэр хатуужилтай мал. ……………………………………………………………………………. 23
  • 24. Grammar Present perfect Affirmative interrogative Long form short form Have I worked? I have worked I’ve worked Have you worked? You have you’ve worked Has he worked? worked he’s worked Has she worked? He has worked she’s worked Has it worked? She has it’s worked Have we worked? worked we’ve worked Have you worked? It has worked you’ve worked Have they We have they’ve worked worked? worked You have worked They have worked Negative : Long form Short form I, we, you, they have not I, we, you, they haven’t He, she, it has not He, she, it hasn’t Use: We use the present perfect : • To talk about an action which started in the past and continues up to the present. She has lived in UB for the last two months. • To talk about a resent action whose result is visible in the present I have broken my leg, so I can’t walk. • To talk about an experience. 24
  • 25. Have you ever worked as teacher? • To talk about an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. The action is more important than the time. He’s been to the dentist’s four times. Exercise 1. Put the verbs into the present perfect or the past simple. A: What’s the matter, Bill? B: I……./hurt/ my arm. A: Oh, when …………./you /do/ that ? B: I …/do/ it yesterday when I was playing football A: Is it still painful? B: Well It …../hurt/ a lot when it ………../happen/ A: ………………./you/see/ a doctor yet? B: Yes……………./never/injure/ myself playing football before. Exercise 2. Underline the correct verb form. 1. The party /has finished/ finished/ at the midnight. 2. We /never had/ have never had/ a car. 3. Sam /have come in / came in / a moment ago. 4. It’s ages since Tim /visited/ has visited/. 5. She /started/ has started/ her job two days ago Lesson 7 Meat Meat means the whole or part of a carcass of: any buffalo, camel, cattle, deer, goat, hare, pig, poultry, rabbit or sheep that is slaughtered other than in the wild state. The definition 25
  • 26. of meat does not include eggs or fish because these foods are regulated elsewhere in the new Code. Meat flesh Meat flesh is defined as skeletal muscle to distinguish it from other parts of a carcass of meat such as offal, bone and bone marrow. Meat flesh includes any attached fat, connective tissue, rind, nerves, blood vessels and blood, and skin (if poultry). Offal Offal is defined to distinguish it from meat flesh and to assist with provisions relating to offal such as labelling requirements. Offal means parts of a carcass such as blood, brain, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, thymus, tongue and tripe, but excludes meat flesh, bone and bone marrow. The use of offal in meat products is restricted subject to specific labelling requirements Manufactured meat Manufactured meats are a category of processed meats. They are products made from meat and are usually processed with other foods. They must contain at least 660 g/kg meat. Manufactured meat also includes any cured and/or dried meat flesh products in whole cuts or pieces that have had other foods added to them. Sausages Sausages are a category of processed meat. They are minced processed meat and/or comminuted meat, which may be combined with other foods, and are encased or formed into discrete units. They do not include meat formed or joined into the semblance of cuts of meat. Meat pies A meat pie must contain at least 250 g/kg of meat based on the total weight of the pie including pastry. This is a major change from the New Zealand regulations, which specify that the meat content be based on the filling only, i.e. minus the pastry. Vocabulary: Offal гэдэс дотор bone marrow ясны чөмөг tissue эд rind хальс blood vessels судас slaughtered нядлагдсан 26
  • 27. distinguish ялгарах,ялгагдах labeling тодорхойлох process боловсруулах pancreas нойр булчирхай Buffalo одос үхэр semblance төстэй байдал Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What does meat mean? …………………………………. 2. What is meat flesh? ……………………………………….. 3. What does offal mean? …………………………………………. 4. What does manufactured meat include ? ………………………………………………… 5. What other kind of meat do you know ? ……………………………………………………. 6. What does meat flesh include? ………………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ”Meat”. Grammar EVER / NEVER • We use ever in questions and statements. Have you ever visited Russia? Cairo is the best city I’ve ever visited. • We use never in statements. I have never visited America 27
  • 28. Exercise 1. Сomplete the following sentences with “ever’”or “never”. 1. Has she ….. been to Paris? 2. I ‘ve …… been to USA. 3. He has …..been to London. 4. Have you …..ridden a horse? Lesson 8 Meat composition The three major components of meat are water, protein and fat. Water Water is, by far, the largest component, comprising about 70% of lean tissue. Generally, water content is about 3.5 to 7.7 times the amount of protein present. In living tissue, for every kilogram of protein the body synthesizes, 3.5 to 3.7 kilogram of water is needed to surround the proteins. Fat tissue commonly contains 5 to 8% water. Meat with high fat content will have lower amounts of protein and water. Protein Protein is categorized in three groups: myofibrillar (salt soluble), sarcoplasmic (water soluble) and connective tissue (salt insoluble). These protein groups have different basic properties that affect processed meats differently. The myofibrillar proteins, also called contractile proteins, form the largest structure and bulk of muscle. These proteins are responsible for the contraction ability of living muscle and are found inside the muscle cell. They form the structure called myofibrils. Myoglobin is one protein in this group that has significant importance in processed meats. Myoglobin gives meat its color. Collagen is the major connective tissue protein in meat and it is similar to the collagen found in skin, ligaments and tendons. Fat Fat is the most variable component in processed meat. Fat cells are almost completely filled with lipid. Animal lipids are generally triglycerides, which are glycerol molecules with three fatty acids attached. There are many different fatty acids. Fatty acids differ due to the differing number of carbon atoms and number of unsaturated bonds in the carbon chain. A single bond between carbons is called a saturated bond and a double bond between carbons is called an unsaturated bond. Unsaturated bonds have the greatest influence on melting point because they are more susceptible to breakage by heat than are saturated bonds. Pork fat has more unsaturated fatty acids than beef or lamb fat, it is more susceptible to oxidation. 28
  • 29. Vocabulary: to surround хүрээлэх bond хэлхээ, холбоо saturated ханасан unsaturated ханаагүй carbon chain нүүрстөрөгчийн холбоо Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What does give meat’s color ? …………………………………… 2. Where did collagen find ? ……………………………………….. 3. What is saturated bond ? ………………………………………………… 4. What is unsaturated bond ? ………………………………………………… 5. What are the major components of meat ? …………………………………………………… Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Meat composition”. Grammar YET / ALREADY • We use already in positive statements and questions. Have you done the washing up already? Yes, I have. I’ve already done it. • We use yet in question and negative. Have you done homework yet? No, I haven’t . I haven’t done homework yet. Lesson 9 WHAT ARE THE FLAVORS IN MEAT PRODUCTS? 29
  • 30. Hot Dogs The flavor of most hot dogs is black pepper and nutmeg. Other hot dogs have a garlic flavor as a secondary flavor. Many chicken hot dogs have onion as a secondary flavor. Smoke is another important flavor of hot dogs. It is not a spice, but it can confuse people tasting two products for flavor comparison. Heavy mustard usage is common. Hot dogs are eaten warm and therefore require less flavor (spices) than bologna. Bologna Most bologna has the same flavor as hot dogs. The most consistent difference is bologna usually has garlic to give more flavor to the cold product. Bologna is not smoked, and again, smoke is not a spice, but is a major flavor in processed meat products. Heavy mustard usage is common. Smoked Sausage Smoked sausage is a simple seasoned product. Black pepper is the major spice flavor in smoked sausage. Red Pepper is used at very low levels. Coriander is sometimes used. Smoke and the sweet burnt flavor of dextrose are the major flavors of smoked sausage. Polish Sausage (kielbasa) The same rules as smoked sausage, except garlic is added for typical flavor. Fresh Pork Sausage Black pepper and sage are dominate flavors with red pepper used for "hot" varieties. Dextrose is added for browning characteristics. Italian Sausage Black pepper and fennel (licorice flavor) are the flavors in Italian sausage. Red pepper is added for hot Italian sausage. Liverwurst (braunschweiger) Onion and nutmeg provide spice flavor for this product. Smoked bacon provides additional flavor, particularly to braunschweiger. This is one product where the sweet flavor of nonfat dry milk helps product flavor. Salami Black pepper, particularly in the form of whole pepper corns, creates flavor of cotto (cooked) salami. Nutmeg is used at low levels. Heavy mustard usage is common. Pepperoni 30
  • 31. Paprika, red pepper, black pepper, garlic, and fennel are spices used for pepperoni or sausage for pizza. Summer Sausage (beef stick) Black pepper is usually only spice used for flavor. Heavy mustard usage is common. Dry Sausage Most other dry sausages use black pepper for major flavor, and may include garlic, coriander, and nutmeg for other spice flavors. Vocabulary: Flavor амтлагч fennel ногоон гоньд mustard гич nutmeg задь spice халуун ногоо Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What are the flavor of hot dogs ? ………………………………………… …………………………………………. 2. What kind of meat products do you know ? ………………………………………….. ……………………………………………… 3. What is a simple seasoned product ? ……………………………………………. ……………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” WHAT ARE THE FLAVORS IN MEAT PRODUCTS? “. 31
  • 32. Grammar jUST • We use just in statements to show that an action finished only a few minutes earlier. A: Have you finished your housework yet? B: Yes, I’ve just finished it. Exercise 1. Read the short dialogues and fill in yet, already, or just. 1. A: I’ve been feeling ill all week. B: Have you seen a doctor ………..? A: I’ve ………got back from the doctor’s. He says I’ve got the flu. 2. A: Has Janet returned to work ………? B: No. She’s still in hospital. 3. .A: I’ve still got a terrible headache. B: Would you like an aspirin ? A: I’ve …….taken one, but it hasn’t worked …… Lesson 10 Beef Beef is the meat of cattle, such as this Glan Cattle cow. Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle (cows). Beef muscle meat can be cut into steaks, roasts or specialty cuts, such as short ribs. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. The lungs and the udder are considered unfit for human consumption in the US. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies. Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime .The United States, Brazil, Japan and the People's Republic of China are the world's four largest consumers of beef. The world's largest exporters of beef are Australia, Brazil, Argentina and Canada. Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Nicaragua, Russia and Mexico. A study released in 2007 by the World Cancer Research Fund reported strong evidence that red meat and processed meats are causes of bowel cancer and recommends that 32
  • 33. people eat less than 500 grams (18 oz) of cooked red meat weekly, and as little processed meat as possible. The report also recommends that average consumption in populations should not exceed 300 grams (11 oz) per week, stating that this goal "corresponds to the level of consumption of red meat at which the risk of colorectal cancer can clearly be seen to rise." Lean beef, with its high selenium and B12 content, may actually lower the risk of colon cancer. The Harvard School of Public Health recommends that consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat. Like some other animal products (such as whole milk), red meat provides a rich source of the heart-healthy fat conjugated linoleic acid along with the saturated fat. Beef's high content of B6 and B12 may help lower homocysteine Vocabulary: Beef үхрийн мах bovine .adj. бухын cancer хавдар consumption хэрэглээ beef stock. үхрийн ясний шөл Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is beef ? ………………………………………… 2. What is used in some varieties of blood sausage.? …………………………………………………………. 3. What countries are the world's largest consumers of beef? ………………………………………………………………… 4. What countries are the world's largest exporters of beef ? ………………………………………………………………. 33
  • 34. 5. What are causes of bowel cancer”? ……………………………………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Beef”. Grammar FOR / SINCE • We use for to express duration. I’ve worked here for seven years. • We use since to state a starting point. I’ve worked here since 1996. Exercise 1. Fill in since or for. 1. ….the last two years 2. ……yesterday 3. ……six months 4. ……breakfast time 5. ……2008 6. ……I was six 7. ……last Monday 8. …..we moved house 9. …..two o’clock 10. ….four hour Exercise 2. Make up sentences using the present perfect simple and five of the phrases above. Lesson 11 Pork Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig. The pig is one of the oldest forms of livestock, having been domesticated as early as 5000 BC. Pork is eaten in various forms, including cooked (as roast pork), cured or smoked (ham, including the Italian prosciutto) or a combination of these methods (gammon, bacon or Pancetta). Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38 percent of meat 34
  • 35. production worldwide, although consumption varies widely from place to place According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006 (preliminary data). In gastronomy, pork is traditionally considered a white meat, but in nutritional studies, it is usually grouped with beef as red meat, and public perceptions have been changing Its myoglobin content is lower than beef, but much higher than chicken white meat. Pork is very high in thiamin. Pork products: Smoked pork ribs Pork may be cooked from fresh meat or cured over time. Cured meat products include ham and bacon. The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide. Fresh meat Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Processed pork Pork is particularly common as an ingredient of sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, fuet, Cumberland sausage and salami. Most brands of American hot dogs and breakfast sausage are made from pork. Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with salt (pickling) and/or smoking. Shoulders and legs are most commonly cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side (round from the loin and streaky from the belly). Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, and their consumption has increased with industrialisation. Non-western cuisines also use preserved meat products. For example, salted preserved pork or red roasted pork is used in Chinese and Asian cuisine. Bacon is defined as any of certain cuts of meat taken from the sides, belly or back that have been cured and/or smoked. In continental Europe, it is used primarily in cubes (lardons) as a cooking ingredient valued both as a source of fat and for its flavour Vocabulary: Branch салбар devoted зориулсан ingredient орц nutritional тэжээллэг Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is Pork? 35
  • 36. ……………………………………………… …………………………………………….. 2. What is a common ingredient of sausages. ……………………………………………….. ………………………………………………. 3. What is Charcuterie ? ………………………………………………… ………………………………………………. 4. What are made from pork? ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Pork”. Grammar Present Perfect Continuous ( Have / has been + verb- ing ) Use: • We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an action which started in the past and continues to the present to give emphasis to duration She has been living here for 20 years. • We also use to talk about a completed past action which has visible results in the present. I ‘m dirty because I’ve been working in the garden. Exercise 1. Complete the sentences below about yourself. 1. I’ve been living here for………………………. 2. I’ve been studying English since…………….. 36
  • 37. 3. I’ve been ………………..for/since…………….. Lesson 12 Lamb and mutton Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep. The meat of an animal in its first year is lamb; that of an older sheep is hogget and later mutton. The strict definitions for lamb, hogget and mutton vary considerably between countries. In New Zealand for example, they are defined as follows: Lamb — a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear Hogget — a young male sheep or maiden ewe having no more than two permanent incisors in wear Mutton — a female (ewe) or castrated male sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear. In Australia the definitions are extended to include ewes and rams, as well as being stricter on the definition for lamb which is: Lamb — 0 permanent incisors; female or castrate entire male ovine 0-12 months (note that the Australian definition requires 0 permanent incisors, whereas the New Zealand definition allows 0 incisors 'in wear. The younger the lamb is, the smaller the lamb will be, however, the meat will be more tender. Sheep mutton is meat from a sheep over two years old, and has a less tender flesh. In general, the darker the colour, the older the animal. Baby lamb meat will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red. The meat of a lamb is taken from the animal between one month and one year old, with a carcase weight of between 5.5 and 30 kilograms (12 and 65 lbs). This meat generally is more tender than that from older sheep and appears more often on tables in some Western countries. Hogget and mutton have a stronger flavour than lamb because they contain a higher concentration of species-characteristic fatty acids and are preferred by some. Mutton and hogget also tend to be tougher than lamb (because of connective tissue maturation) and are therefore better suited to casserole-style cooking. Vocabulary: Definition тодорхойлол incisor үүдэн шүд 37
  • 38. pale pink бүдэг ягаан tender зөөлөн concentration төвлөрүүлэл,өтгөүүлэлт бөөгнөрөл Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What are lamb and mutton ? ……………………………………… …………………………………………. 2. How are they defined in New Zealand ? …………………………………………….. …………………………………………… 3. How are they defined in Australia ? ……………………………………………….. ……………………………………………….. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Lamb and mutton” Grammar Past Perfect Simple ( had+ past participle ) Use: • To talk about a past action which happened before another past action He called Jane after he had finished dinner. (First he finished dinner, then he called Jane) • The past perfect simple is the past equivalent of the present perfect simple. He has never travelled abroad .(present perfect simple) He had never travelled abroad .(past perfect simple) 38
  • 39. Time expressions : already, by the time, never, as soon as, just, after, when, before etc. Exercise 1. Join the sentences using the words in brackets. Example: Ann called for a taxi. She packed her suitcase. (after) Ann called for a taxi after she had packed her suitcase. 1. We played card. We finished dinner. (after) ……………………………………………………… 2. I didn’t go to sleep . I finished the book.(until) ……………………………………………………….. 3. Tom spoke to Ann several times. He asked her out to lunch.(before) …………………………………………………………… 4. Paula went to bed. Her guests left. (as soon as). ……………………………………………………………. 5. The train left. We arrived at the station. (already, by the time). ………………………………………………………………… Lesson 13 Chicken Chickens may live for five to eleven years, depending on the breed. In commercial intensive farming, a meat chicken generally lives only six weeks before slaughter. A free 39
  • 40. range or organic meat chicken will usually be slaughtered at about 14 weeks. Hens of special laying breeds may produce as many as 300 eggs a year. After 12 months, the hen's egg-laying ability starts to decline, and commercial laying hens are then slaughtered and used in baby foods, pet foods, pies and other processed foods. The world's oldest chicken, according to the Guinness Book of World Records, died of heart failure when she was 16 years old. The male can be differentiated from the female by its comb. WWChicken eggs vary in color depending on the hen, typically ranging from bright white to shades of brown and even blue, green, and recently reported purple (found in South Asia) (Araucana varieties). Chicken is the meat derived from chicken. It is the most common type of poultry in the world, and is frequently prepared as food in a large number of ways. Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. It was one of the basic ingredients in the so-called white dish, a stew usually consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar . The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the US are Cornish and White Rock. Chickens raised specifically for meat are called broilers. In the United States, broilers are typically butchered at a young age. Modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Typically, the muscle tissue (breast, legs, thigh, etc), livers, hearts, and gizzard are processed for food. Chicken feet are commonly eaten, especially in French and Chinese cuisine. Vocabulary: derived үүсэх, гаргах, авах stew жигнэсэн мах emphasis онцгой ratio харьцаа Exotic сонин gizzard хоолой, багалзуур Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. How long does a meat chicken live ………………………………………….. ………………………………………….. 2. How many eggs do Hens produce a year? …………………………………………….. ……………………………………………… 3. What is chicken ? 40
  • 41. …………………………………………….. …………………………………………….. 4. What are called broilers ? …………………………………………. …………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Chicken”. Grammar Will Affirmative Interrogative Long form short form I will I’ll leave will I leave? leave you’ll leave will you leave? You will he’ll leave will he leave? leave she’ll leave will she leave/ He will leave it’ll leave will It leave? She will we’ll leave will we leave? leave you’ll leave will you leave? It will they’ll leave will they leave? leave We will leave You will leave They will 41
  • 42. leave 42
  • 43. Negative Long form short form I will not leave I won’t leave You will not You won’t leave leave He won’t leave He will not leave She won’t leave She will not leave It won’t leave It will not leave We won’t leave We will not leave You won’t leave You will not leave They won’t leave They will not leave Use : • To make predictions based on what we believe or think . We usually use will with I think , I believe , I expect, probably. There will be rain in UB tomorrow. • To make on the-spot decisions . A: The phone or ringing. B: I’ll answer it. Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps with will or won’t . A: Make sure you go to the bank before you go to the supermarket. B: I know, I ……. A: Don’t forget to buy all the vegetables on the shopping list. B: Don’t worry, I…. A: Oh, and don’t forget to get a newspaper on your way home. B: Okay, I …….. 43
  • 44. A: Make sure you call me if you need any help. B: I…………. Lesson 14 Pasteurization Pasteurization is a process which slows microbial growth in food. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April 20, 1862. The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring. Unlike sterilization, inventor Nicolas Appert, pasteurization is not intended to kill all pathogenic micro-organisms in the food or liquid. Instead, pasteurization aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurization product is refrigerated and consumed before its expiration date). Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and quality of the product. Certain food products are processed to achieve the state of commercial sterility. There are two main types of pasteurization used today: High Temperature/Short Time (HTST) and Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment. Ultra-high temperature (UHT or ultra- heat treated) is also used for milk treatment. In the HTST process, milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 71.7 °C (161 °F) for 15–20 seconds. UHT processing holds the milk at a temperature of 138 °C (280 °F) for a fraction of a second. ESL milk has a microbial filtration step and lower temperatures than HTST. Milk simply labeled "pasteurized" is usually treated with the HTST method, whereas milk labeled "ultra-pasteurized" or simply "UHT" has been treated with the UHT method. There are different standards for different dairy products, depending on the fat content and the intended usage. For example, the pasteurization standards for cream differ from the standards for fluid milk, and the standards for pasteurizing cheese are designed to preserve the phosphatase enzyme, which aids in cutting. The HTST pasteurization standard was designed to achieve a 5-log reduction, killing 99.999% of the number of viable micro-organisms in milk Vocabulary: sterilization ариутгал preserve хадгалах, дарах,нөөшлөх filtration шүүх, тунгаах a fraction хувь, ноогдол reduction бууралт 44
  • 45. Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is pasteurization ? …………………………………………… …………………………………………… 2. When was completed the first pasteurization test? ……………………………………………….. 3. Who did create pasteurization process? …………………………………………… ……………………………………………. 4. What does pasteurization aim? …………………………………………. ………………………………………… 5. How many types are there of pasteurization used today? ………………………………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Pasteurization”. Grammar Be going to Talking about plans and intentions Affirmative : I am /you are /he is etc going to buy a car? Negative : I’m not/you aren’t/he isn’t/etc going to buy a car? Interrogative: Am I /are you/is he etc going to buy a car? Short answer : Yes , I am/you are/he is etc. No, I’m not//you aren’t / he isn’t etc Use : We use be going to: 45
  • 46. • For plans and intentions. I’m going to join a gym next week • For predictions based on what we see or we know. Look at the dark clouds! It’s going to rain Exercise 1. Complete the short dialogues below with will, won’t, is going to, or am going to 1. A: Your appointment is at nine tomorrow morning . B: Don’t worry. I……………………. be late 2. A: I’m hungry. B: I ……………………… I make on omelet for you. 3. A: Your shirt is dirty. B: I know. I…………………………wash it later. 4. A: Why is Steve wearing his short. B: He ……………………play football with Bill. 5. A: Did you post those letter his morning? B: Oh, I forgot.! I ………………. post them tomorrow. Lesson 15 Milk Dairy milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . The exact components of raw milk varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic .There are two distinct types of milk consumption: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals, and a food product for humans of all ages derived from other animals. In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. Some cultures, historically or currently, continue to use breast milk to feed their children until they are 7 years old. In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. For millennia, cow milk has been processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese. The term milk is also used for whitish non- animal substitutes such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. Animal milk is first known to have been used as human food at the beginning of animal domestication. Cow milk was first used as human food in the Middle East. Goats and sheep were domesticated in the Middle East between 9000 and 8000 BC. Milk was first delivered in 46
  • 47. bottles on January 11, 1878. The day is now remembered as Milk Day and is celebrated annually. Goat milk can be used for other applications such as cheese and other dairy products. In addition to cows, the following animals provide milk used by humans for dairy products: • Buffalo • Camels • Donkeys • Goats • Horses • Reindeer • Sheep • Water buffalo • Yaks In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist. The largest producers of dairy products and milk today are India followed by the United States and China. Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butter fat globules within a water-based fluid .The fat- soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are found within the milk fat portion of the milk. Human milk contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sugar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams. • Cow milk contains, on average, 3.4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, 0.7% minerals and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. See also Nutritional value further on. Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals and whales can contain more than 50% fat. High fat content is not unique to aquatic animals, as guinea pig milk has an average fat content of 46%. Vocabulary: Liquid шингэн mammary glands сүүний булчирхай mammals сүүн тэжээлтэн to digest шингэх, боловсрох to consume хэрэглэх, зарцуулах soy milk шар буурцагны сүү infant нярай хүүхдийн breast хөх, мээм 47
  • 48. dairy products цагаан идээ Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is dairy milk? ---------------------------------- 2. What does milk contain ? ----------------------------------- 3. How many types are there of milk consumption ? -------------------------------------- 4. What are the major products of milk? ------------------------------------------------ 5. When was Cow milk used as human food ? ----------------------------------------- 6. When was milk delivered in bottles? ------------------------------------------- Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Milk”. Grammar Conditional 1 We use the first conditional to talk about real or very probable situations in the present or future If +present simple, will +bare infinitive. If you don’t eat , you will be hungry. If I study hard , I‘ll do well in the test When-If We use when to show that something will certainly happen. When Tom comes, I’ll cook dinner. We use If when we are not certain that something will happen. If Tom comes, I’ll cook dinner. Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 48
  • 49. 1. If he…………………………. (miss) his flight, he won’t be able to go to Madrid. 2. If you……………………….. (not/be) careful, you’ll hurt yourself. 3. If she gets a job, she ………….. (buy) a car. 4. If you drink some tea, you………………. (feel) better. 5. If he ………………………… (not/set) his alarm clock, he’ll be late for work. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences . 1. If Jackie studies hard,…………………………………….. 2. If you don’t hurry,…………………………………. 3. If I win Ђ 10,000,……………………………………….. 4. If they go to Paris, ……………………………………… 5. If Bat eats the all chocolate, .……………………………………. 6. If it stops raining, …………………………………………….. 7. If I work late tonight, …………………………………… 8. If you do the shopping ,…………………………….. Lesson 16 Cream Cream (including light whipping cream) is a dairy product that is composed of the higher- butter fat layer skimmed from the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. Cream produced by cows grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white colour, cream. Cream from cows fed indoors, on grain or grain-based pellets, is white. Minimum Additional Name Main uses milk fat definition Served as it is with scones, jam, stargazy Clotted cream 55% and heat treated pie, etc. Whips the easiest and thickest for puddings Double cream 48% and desserts, can be piped Whipping cream 35% Whips well but lighter, can be piped - just Whipped cream 35% and has been Decorations on cakes and gвteaux. whipped Sterilized cream 23% is sterilized 49
  • 50. Cream or single 18% is not sterilized Poured over puddings, used in coffee cream Sterilized half 12% is sterilized cream Half cream 12% is not sterilized Used in coffee, some cocktails Thickened cream: 35–36.5% fat, with added gelatine and/or other thickeners to give the cream a creamier texture, also possibly with stabilisers to aid the consistency of whipped cream (this would be the cream to use for whipped cream, not necessarily for cooking Single cream: Recipes calling for ‘single cream’ are referring to pure or thickened cream with about 35% fat. Double cream: 48–60% fat. Chart of 50 types of milk products and relationships, including cream (right-click image to enlarge). Butter is made by churning cream to separate the butterfat and buttermilk. This can be done by hand or by machine. Whipped cream is made by whisking or mixing air into cream with more than 30% fat, to turn the liquid cream into a soft solid. Nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide may also be used to make whipped cream. Sour cream, common in many countries including the U.S. and Australia, is cream (12 to 16% or more milk fat) that has been subjected to a bacterial culture that produces lactic acid (0.5%+), which sours and thickens it. Crиme fraоche (28% milk fat) slightly soured with bacterial culture, but not as sour or as thick as sour cream. Mexican crema (or cream espesa) is similar to crиme fraоche. Smetana is a heavy cream product (35-40% milk fat) Central and Eastern European sour cream. Clotted cream, common in the United Kingdom, is cream that has been slowly heated to dry and thicken it, producing a very high-fat (55%) product. This is similar to Indian malai. Cream is used as an ingredient in many foods, including ice cream, many sauces, soups, stews, puddings, and some custard bases, and is also used for cakes. Irish cream is an alcoholic liqueur which blends cream with whiskey and coffee. Cream is also used in curries such as masala dishes. Cream (usually light/single cream or half and half) is often added to coffee. Vocabulary: grain үр тариа ,hence энэ үеэс, эндээс, ийм учраас blend v. холих, хутгах stew v. жигнэх whip v. ороох decoration чимэглэл 50
  • 51. Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is cream ? ---------------------------------- 2. How many kind of cream do you know? ---------------------------------------- 3. How is cream used? -------------------------------------- 4. What colors does cream have ? ------------------------------------------- Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Cream”. Grammar Conditionals type 2 If…. + past simple + …would/could/might + bare infinitive • We use conditional type 2 to talk about unreal or highly unlikely situations in the present or future NOTE: We can use were in all person (after I /he/she/it). If I were the leader of my country , I would not allow hunters to kill endangered species. Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. If he lived in the countryside, he ……….(be) happier. 2. If we ……….. (ask) her, I’m sure she would stop doing that. 3. If people ………(not /drop) litter in city, our city would be much cleaner. 4. If she ………(walk) to work, she wouldn’t be so unfit. 5. If you ……..(take) your bicycle, you would get there faster. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences . 1. If I had enough money, ………………………… 2. If I worked fever hours,…………………………… 3. If I were the president of my country,…………….. 51
  • 52. 4. If I met my favourite film star,……………………….. 5. If I got lost in the mountains,…………………………. Lesson 17 Butter Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins. Most frequently made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat. Butter is an emulsion which remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32–35 °C (90–95 °F). It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its color is dependent on the animal's feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors. Commercial butter-making is a carefully-controlled operation. Commercial butter is about 80% butterfat and 15% water; traditionally-made butter may have as little as 65% fat and 30% water. Dairy products are often pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other microbes. Butter made from pasteurized fresh cream is called sweet cream butter. Production of sweet cream butter first became common in the 19th century, with the development of refrigeration and the mechanical cream separator. Butter made from fresh or cultured unpasteurized cream is called raw cream butter. Raw cream butter has a "cleaner" cream flavor, without the cooked-milk notes that pasteurization introduces. A French chemist claimed the prize with the invention of margarine in 1869. The first margarine was beef tallow flavored with milk and worked like butter; vegetable margarine followed after the development of hydrogenated oils around 1900. Vocabulary: spread. v. тарах, тархах,түрхэх, raw .adj. боловсруулаагүй claim .v. шаардах,нэхэмжлэх churn v. тос бүлэх, цохих hydrogen устөрөгч 52
  • 53. Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is butter ? --------------------------- 2. What does butter consist of? --------------------------------- 3. How can be butter manufactured? ---------------------------------------- 4. What colors does butter have ? ---------------------------------------- 5. How is butter used ? -------------------------- 6. When did margarine invent ? ----------------------------------- 7. What is dependent on the animal's feed? -------------------------------------------------- Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ” Butter”. Grammar The Passive ( To be + past participle ) Active Passive Present simple She cleans the house The house is cleaned. Past simple She cleaned the house The house was cleaned Present perfect simple She has cleaned the house The house has been cleaned Future simple She will clean the house The house will be cleaned Modal She must clean the house The house must be cleaned. Exercise 1. Rewrite these sentences in the passive. 1. Did a French chemist invent the margarine in 1869. …………………………………………………….. 2. The company will offer guided tours. …………………………………………………… 3. They are holding a festival next month. …………………………………………………… 4. He has washed the car. 53
  • 54. …………………………………………………… 5. Louis Pasteur created pasteurization process . …………………………………………………… Exercise 2. Rewrite these sentences in the active. 1. Some milk will be given to mum by Jane. ……………………………………………… 2. The room has been decorated by Ray . ………………………………………………. 3. The fence will be repaired by Jenny tomorrow. ……………………………………………… 4. The Eiffel Tower is admired for its unusual design. ……………………………………………….. 5. That note wasn’t written by Rosie. ……………………………………………….. Lesson 18 Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of lactose produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Soy yoghurt, a non-dairy yoghurt alternative, is made from soy milk. People have been making—and eating—yogurt for at least 4,500 years. Today it is a common food item throughout the world. It is a nutritional food with unique health benefits. It is nutritionally rich in protein, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. Yoghurt has nutritional benefits beyond those of milk. It also has medical uses, in particular for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions, and in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Yoghurt is believed to promote good gum health, possibly because of the probiotic effect of lactic acids present in yoghurt. To offset its natural sourness, yoghurt can be sold sweetened, flavored, or in containers with fruit or fruit jam on the bottom. If the fruit has been stirred into the yoghurt before purchase, it is commonly referred to as Swiss- style .Most yoghurts in the United States have added pectin or gelatin to artificially create thickness and creaminess at lower cost. Some specialty yoghurts, often called "cream line", have a layer of fermented fat at the top. Fruit jam is used instead of raw fruit pieces in fruit yoghurts to allow storage for weeks Sweeteners such as cane sugar are often present in large amounts in commercial yoghurt. Cream top yogurt is yoghurt made with unhomogenized milk. A layer of cream rises to the top, forming a rich yogurt cream with a taste and texture not unlike sour cream. Caspian Sea yoghurt is believed to have been introduced into Japan in 1986 by researchers returning from a trip to the Caucasus region 54
  • 55. in Georgia. Zabady is the yoghurt made in Egypt. It is essentially famous in Ramadan fasting as it is thought to prevent feeling thirst during fasting all day long. Raita is a yoghurt-based South Asian/Indian condiment, used as a side dish. Strained yoghurts are types of yoghurt which are strained through a cloth or paper filter, traditionally made of muslin. Strained yoghurt is also enjoyed in Greece. Labneh is a strained yoghurt used for sandwiches popular in Arab countries. Olive oil, cucumber slices, olives, and various green herbs may be added . Vocabulary: texture бүтэц stirred хольсон,хутгасан purchase, худалдан авах gum буйл unique ганц, онцгой foil ялгаа tangy сонин амт, хурц үнэр strained adj шүүсэн, тунгаасан herb өвс ногоо, ургамал soy шар буурцаг Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is yoghurt ? ………………………………………. ………………………………………… 2. What does yoghurt contain? 3. What does yoghurt have ? …………………………………………… …………………………………………… 4. What kind of yoghurt do you know? …………………………………………………. …………………………………………………. 55
  • 56. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ”Yoghurt ”. Grammar Infinitive / ing form +to infinitive -ing form infinitive without to Decide love make Want like let would like hate can would love don’t mind must begin look forward to may stop(stop briefly to do sth else) enjoy remember (not forget) can’t stand will refuse couldn’t help would agree stop(finish, give up) expect remember (recall) forget ( not remember) forget (recall) Exercise 1. Choose the correct form. 1. I would rather …….to music. a. listen b. listening 2. Let me ……a few words. a. to say b. say 56
  • 57. 3. I would like …a cup of tea. a. having b. to have 4. We like ….. coffee. a. to drink b. drinking 5. They enjoy ……farm. a. visit b. visiting Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 1. He made us ….( read) all the papers. 2. She can’t stand …….(listen) to rock music. 3. We decided …..(go) to farm. 4. Bat wants …..(send) his girl friend a birthday card. 5. I love …..(eat) yoghurt. Lesson 19 Kumis Kumis is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk. The drink remains important to the people of the Central Asian steppes, including the Turks, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Mongols, Yakuts and Uzbeks. It was also consumed by Hungarian tribes. Kumis is a dairy product similar to kefir, but is produced from a liquid starter culture, in contrast to the solid kefir "grains". Because mare's milk contains more sugars than the cow's or goat's milk fermented into kefir, kumis has a higher, though still mild, alcohol content. Even in the areas of the world where kumis is popular today, mare's milk remains a very limited commodity. Industrial-scale production of kumis therefore generally uses cow's milk, which is richer in fat and protein but lower in lactose than the milk from a horse. Before fermentation, the cow's milk is fortified in one of several ways. Sucrose may be added, to allow a comparable fermentation. Another technique adds modified whey in order to better approximate the composition of mare's milk. In Mongolian, the drink is called airag (Mongolian: айраг, or, in some areas, chigee). In Mongolia, the milking season for horses traditionally runs between mid-June and early October. During one season, a mare produces approximately 1,000 to 1,200 kilograms of milk, of which about half is left to the foals. Before fermentation, mare's milk has almost 40% more lactose than cow's milk. Kumis itself has a very low level of alcohol, comparable to small beer, the common drink of medieval Europe that also avoided the consumption of potentially contaminated water. Kumis can, however, be strengthened through freeze distillation, a technique Central Asian nomads are reported to have employed. In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it "Milk Champagne". W. Gilman Thompson's 1906 Practical Diatetics reports that kumis has been cited as beneficial for a range of chronic diseases, including tuberculosis, bronchitis, catarrh, and anemia. Gilman also says that a large part of the credit for the successes of the "kumis cure" is due not to the beverage, but to favorable summer climates at the resorts. Among 57
  • 58. notables to try the kumis cure were writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov. Chekhov, long-suffering from tuberculosis, checked into a kumis cure resort in 1901. Drinking four bottles a day for two weeks, he gained 12 pounds but no cure. Vocabulary: tribe овог, удам, угсаа scale хэмжээ approximately ойролцоогоор distillation, нэрэлт chronic disease архаг,ужиг өвчин gain жин нэмэх cure v. эмчлэх remain v. үлдэх, хоцрох resorts. сувилалын эмнэлэг Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is kumis ? ………………………………………. ………………………………………… 2. What does kumis contain ? …………………………………………. ………………………………………….. 3. What countries people do kumis use? ……………………………………………. …………………………………………….. 4. What is called ‘airag’ and chigee in Mongolia …………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………….. 5. When does the milking season for horses run in Mongolia? ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………… 6. What report and book did note about kumis? ………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text ”Kumis”. 58
  • 59. Exercise 3. Translate into English. 1. Айраг нь монгол болон төв азийн зарим орны хүмүүсийн дуртай ундаа юм. .............................................................................. ………………………………………………………… 2. Айраг нь цагаан идээний нэг төрөл . ........................................................................................ ……………………………………………………………….. 3. Айраг нь амин хүчлүүд болон олон төрлийн витаминийг агуулдаг. ................................................................................. ……………………………………………………….. 4. Ах бид хоёр айраг уух дуртай. .......................................................................... ………………………………………………………. Lesson 20 Leather Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattle hide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses. Together with wood, leather formed the basis of much ancient technology. The leather industry and the fur industry are distinct industries that are differentiated by the importance of their raw materials. In the leather industry the raw materials are by-products of the meat industry, with the meat having higher value than the skin. Taxidermy also makes use of the skin of animals, but generally 59
  • 60. the head and part of the back are used. Hides and skins are also used in the manufacture of glue and gelatin. Types of leather • Aniline leather, a leather treated with aniline as a dye • Artificial leather, a fabric of finish intended to substitute for leather • Bicast leather, a synthetic upholstery product • Boiled leather, a historical construction material • Bonded Leather, man-made material composed of leather fibers • Chamois leather, leather made from the skin of the mountain antelope or Chamois • Corinthian leather, a marketing term used by Chrysler in the 1970s • Morocco leather, a type of goatskin dyed red • Nappa leather, a full-grain leather • Ostrich leather, leather from an ostrich • Patent leather, leather with a high gloss and shiny finish • Pleather, a term for artificial leather • Poromeric imitation leather, a group of synthetic leather substitutes • Vegan leather, an artificial alternative to traditional leather Slink is leather made from the skin of unborn calves. It is particularly soft, and is valued for use in making gloves. Deerskin is one of the toughest leathers, partially due to adaptations to their thorny and thicket filled habitats. Deerskin has been prized in many societies including indigenous Americans. Most modern deer skin is no longer procured from the wild, with deer farms breeding the animals specifically for the purpose of their skins. Deerskin is used in jackets and overcoats, professional sporting equipment for martial arts such as kendo and bogu, as well as high-quality personal accessories like handbags and wallets. It commands a high price due to its relative rarity and proven durability. Nubuck is top-grain cattle hide leather that has been sanded or buffed on the grain side, or outside, to give a slight nap of short protein fibers, producing a velvet-like surface. There are two other descriptions of leather commonly used in specialty products, such as briefcases, wallets, and luggage. • Belting leather is a full-grain leather that was originally used in driving pulley belts and other machinery. It is often found on the surface of briefcases, portfolios, and wallets, and can be identified by its thick, firm feel and smooth finish. Belting leather is the only kind of leather used in luxury products that can retain its shape without the need for a separate frame; it is generally a heavy-weight of full-grain, vegetable- tanned leather. • Nappa leather, or Napa leather, is chrome-tanned and is extremely soft and supple and is commonly found in higher quality wallets, toiletry kits, and other personal leather goods. Vocabulary: 60
  • 61. putrescible муудсан versatile хувирамтгай martial arts цэргийн урлаг artificial adj. хиймэл heal v эмчлэх suede n. илэг durability бат бөх чанар velvet- тансар хилэн toilet хувцас kit цүнх embossed. хүрээлсэн retain хадгалах jurisdiction хууль supple уян хатан frame; бүтэц, тогтолцоо Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is leather ? ………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………. 2. What are the leather industry’s the raw materials? …………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………… 3. .What does Taxidermy make ? …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… 4. What are used in the manufacture of glue and gelatin? …………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………… 5. How many types of leather do you know ? …………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………… 61
  • 62. 6. What kind of leather is Deerskin? …………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………….. 7. What is Deerskin used? ……………………………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text “Leather” . Exercise 3. Translate into English. 1. Савхи нь малгай, бээлий ,бүс ,өмд гутал, зэргийг хийхэд өргөн хэрэглэгддэг. ...................................................................................................................... ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Монголчууд эрт дээр үеэс савхийг хэрхэн хийхийг мэддэг байжээ. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5. Орчин үед савхийг урлагийн бүтээл хийхэд өргөн ашиглаж байна. ....................................................................................................................... ……………………………………………………………………………………… Lesson 21 Fur Fur is a synonym for hair, used more commonly in reference to non-human animals, usually mammals; particularly those with extensive body hair coverage. The term is sometimes used to refer to the body hair of an animal as a complete coat, also known as the "pelage". Fur is also used to refer to animal pelts which have been processed into leather with the hair still attached. Animal fur, if layered, rather than grown as a single coat, may consist of short ground hair, long guard hair, and, in some cases, medium awn hair. Mammals with reduced amounts of fur are often called "naked", as in The Naked Ape, naked mole rat, and naked dogs. Fur usually consists of two main layers: 62
  • 63. • Ground hair or under fur or down hair — the bottom layer consisting of wool hairs which tend to be shorter, flattened, curly, and denser than the top layer. Its principal function is thermal insulation and thus thermoregulation. • Guard hair — the top layer consisting of longer, often coarser, straight shafts of hair that stick out through the under fur. This is usually the visible layer for most mammals and contains most of the pigmentation. It protects the under fur from outside factors, such as rain, and is thus often water-repellent. A third layer, the awn hair, may also exist. It is intermediate between the two others. In clothing, fur is leather with the hair retained for its insulating properties. Fur has long served as a source of clothing for humans, especially in colder climates. Modern cultures continue to wear natural fiber fur and fur trim and for many, such natural fibers are preferred alternatives to synthetic clothing from petrochemicals. Animal furs used in garments and trim may be dyed bright colors or to mimic exotic animal patterns, or shorn down to imitate the feel of a soft velvet fabric. The term "a fur" is often used to refer to a fur coat, wrap, or shawl. Common animal sources for fur clothing and fur trimmed accessories include fox, rabbit, mink, beavers, ermine, otters, sable, seals, cats, dogs, coyotes, chinchilla, and possum. The import and sale of seal products was banned in the U.S. in 1972 over conservation concerns about Canadian seals. The import, export and sales of domesticated cat and dog fur was also banned in the U.S. under the Dog and Cat Protection Act of 2000. The manufacturing of fur clothing involves obtaining animal pelts where the hair is left on the animal's processed skin. In contrast, making leather involves removing the hair from the hide or pelt and using only the skin. The use of wool involves shearing the animal's fleece from the living animal, so that the wool can be re grown but sheepskin shear ling is made by retaining the fleece to the leather and shearing it. Shear ling is used for boots, jackets and coats and is probably the most common type of skin worn. Fur is also used to make felt. A common felt is made from beaver fur and is used in high-end cowboy hats. Vocabulary: extensive өргөн, том layer үе, давхарга flatten v. тэгшлэх, хавтгайлах dense өтгөн,шигүү insulating adj. тусгаарласан trim гоёл чимэглэл shear хонь хяргах naked adj. нүцгэн 63
  • 64. Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is fur? ……………………………………………. 2. How many layers does fur consist of? …………………………………………….. …………………………………………….. 3. How does fur use? ………………………………………. Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text “Fur”. Exercise 3. Translate into English. 1. Дундад зууны үеэс ангийн арьс нь тансаг хэрэглээ болжээ. .................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. 2. Дулаан хадгалалт, дэгжин гоёмсог шинж ийг илтгэдэг нь ангийн арьсны үнэт чанар юм. ....................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................... 3. Монголчууд туулай, үнэг,булга, тарвага зэрэг амьтадын арьсаар төрөл бүрийн хувцас хийдэг. .......................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................... Lesson 22 Wool Wool is a fibrous protein derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles. The wool is taken from animals in the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals including: goats, llamas, and rabbits may also be called wool. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it has a different texture or handle, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters). Wool is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton fibers and some synthetics. Wool straight off a sheep, known as "grease wool" or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin, as well as dirt, dead skin, sweat residue, and vegetable matter. After shearing, the wool is separated into five main categories: fleece (which makes up the vast bulk), broken, pieces, bellies, and locks. The latter four are pressed into wool packs and sold separately. The quality of wool is determined by the following factors, fibre diameter, crimp, yield, colour, and staple strength. Fibre diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining quality and price. Merino wool is typically 3-5 inches in length and is very fine (between 12-24 microns). The finest and 64
  • 65. most valuable wool comes from Merino hoggets. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is typically more coarse, and has fibres that are 1.5 to 6 inches in length. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed while it is growing its fleece, resulting in a thin spot where the fleece is likely to break. Wool is also separated into grades based on the measurement of the wool's diameter in microns. These grades may vary depending on the breed or purpose of the wool. December 2006 the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres, so as to raise the profile of wool and other natural fibers. Global wool production is approximately 1.3 million tons per annum of which 60% goes into apparel. Australia is the leading producer of wool which is mostly from Merino sheep. New Zealand is the second largest producer of wool, but is the largest producer of crossbred wool. China is the third largest producer of wool. Breeds such as Lincoln, Romney, Tukidale, Drysdale and Elliotdale produce coarser fibers, and wool off these sheep is usually used for making carpets. In the United States, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado also have large commercial sheep flocks and their mainstay is the Rambouillet (or French Merino). Keeping with the times, organic wool is becoming more and more popular. This wool is very limited in supply and much of it comes from New Zealand and Australia. Organic wool is becoming easier to find in clothing and other products, though these products often carry a higher price Virgin wool is wool spun for the first time, as contrasted with shoddy. Shoddy or recycled wool is made by cutting or tearing apart existing wool fabric and re spinning the resulting fibers. As this process makes the wool fibers shorter, the remanufactured fabric is inferior to the original. Ragg is a sturdy wool fiber made into yarn and used in many rugged applications like gloves. Worsted is a strong, long-staple, combed wool yarn with a hard surface. Woollen is a soft, short-staple, carded wool yarn typically used for knitting. In traditional weaving, woollen weft yarn (for softn staple,ess and warmth) is frequently combined with a worsted warp yarn for strength on the loom. Vocabulary: derive үүсэх, гарах cell эс distinguish ялгарах,ялгагдах bellies гэдэс, ходоод lock туг үс occur болох, тохиолдох organic амьд 65
  • 66. sturdy хүчтэй, тэвчээртэй staple, бат , бөх тогтвортой warp мушгих, хорчийх loom. нэхмэлийн суурь машин Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 4. What is wool? -------------------------------- 5. What does wool have ? ------------------------------- 6. What color does wool have? --------------------------------- 7. What is grease wool ? ------------------------------- 8. How many categories is the wool separated into ? --------------------------------- 9. What is determined the quality of wool? ------------------------------------------- 10. What countries are the largest producer of wool ? ----------------------------------------------- 11. What kind of wool do you know? ------------------------------------------- Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text “ Wool”. Exercise 3. Translate into English. 1. Монголчууд эрт үеэс ноосоор эсгий хийн гэрээ бүтээж байна. ....................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... 2.Чийгийг шингээж, халуун хүйтнийг тусгаарладаг нь ноосны онцлог шинж юм. ................................................................................................................ .............................................................................................................. 3.Мярнуусан хонийг манай оронд ноосны чиглэлээр өсгөн үржүүлж байна. ............................................................................................................ ………………………………………………………………………………. Lesson 23 Cashmere wool 66
  • 67. Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from the Cashmere goat. The word cashmere derives from an old spelling of Kashmir. Cashmere wool is fine in texture, and it is also strong, light, and soft; when it is made into garments, they are extremely warm to wear. Cashmere is characterized by its soft fibers. It is noted as providing a natural light-weight insulation without bulk. Fibers are highly adaptable and are easily spun into fine or thick yarns, and light to heavy-weight fabrics. The original un dyed or natural colors of cashmere wool are various shades of grey, brown and white. The average fiber diameter may be subject to a coefficient of variation around the mean that shall not exceed 24 percent Cashmere wool fiber for clothing and other textile articles is obtained from the Cashmere domestic goat. The goat is a mammal belonging to the subfamily Caprinae of the family Bovidae; Cashmere goats produce a double fleece consisting of the fine, soft undercoat or under down of hair mingled with a straighter and much coarser outer coating of hair called guard hair. Cashmere is collected during the spring molting season when the goats naturally shed their winter coat. In some regions, the mixed mass of down and coarse hair is removed by hand with a coarse comb that pulls tufts of fiber from the animal as the comb is raked through the fleece. The collected fiber then has a higher yield of pure cashmere after the fiber has been washed and de haired. The long, coarse guard hair is then typically clipped from the animal and is often used for brushes, interlinings and other non-apparel uses. China has become the largest producer of raw cashmere and their clip is estimated at 10,000 metric tons per year (hair in). Mongolia produces somewhat more than 3,000 tons (hair in), while India, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, and Central Asian Republics produce significant but lesser amounts. The annual world clip is estimated to be between 15,000 and 20,000 tons (hair in). "Pure cashmere", resulting from removing animal grease, dirt and coarse hairs from the fleece, is estimated at about 6,500 tons. It is estimated that on average yearly production per goat is 150 grams. Pure cashmere can be dyed and spun into yarns and knitted into jumpers (sweaters), hats, gloves, socks and other clothing, or woven into fabrics then cut and assembled into garments such as outer coats, jackets, trousers (pants), pajamas, scarves, blankets, and other items. • Raw — fiber that has not been processed and is essentially straight from the animal • Processed — fiber that has been through the processes of de-hairing, washing, carding, and is ready either to spin or to knit/crochet/weave • Virgin — new fiber which has been made into yarns, fabrics or garments for the first time • Recycled — fibers reclaimed from scraps or fabrics that were previously woven or felted, and which may or may not have been previously used by the consumer. Vocabulary: garment. хувцас coefficient коэффициент, итгэлцүүр spin v. ээрэх 67
  • 68. rake v. хамах estimate v. үнэлэх, гаргах tuft багц,боодол,туг үс interline v. дотор хийх shorn adj. тайрсан,зассан coarse adj. түүхий, боловсруулаагүй previously adv. урьдчилан,эртнээс apparel хувцас, хунар yarn нэхмэлийн утас Exercise 1. Comprehension questions 1. What is Cashmere wool? ………………………………………………… ………………………………………………… 2. What are the main features of cashmere wool? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 3. What products are made from cashmere wool? ……………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………. 4. What country is the largest producer of raw cashmere? ………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………… 5. What kind of cashmere wool do you know? ……………………………………………………. …………………………………………………… Exercise 2. Translate into Mongolian text “ Cashemere”. Exercise 3. Translate into English. 1. Манай улс ноолууран бүтээгдхүүнээ гадаадын олон оронд экспортлодог. ........................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................... 68
  • 69. 2. Өнөөдөр ноолууран бүтээгдхүүн эдийн засагт чухал үүрэг гүйцэтгэж байна. ........................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................... 3. Говь, Буян, Алтай, Эвсэг зэрэг олон үйлдвэрүүд ноолууран бүтээгдхүүн үйлдвэрлэж байна. ............................................................................................................... .............................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................. PART TWO: Reading, Translation- 2 points New words - 1 point TEXT 1 Types of dairy products • Milk after optional homogenization, pasteurization, in several grades after standardization of the fat level, and possible addition of bacteria Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum o Crиme fraоche, slightly fermented cream Smetana, Central and Eastern European variety of sour cream Clotted cream, thick spoonable cream made by heating o Cultured buttermilk, fermented concentrated (water removed) milk using the same bacteria as sour cream o Kefir, fermented milk resembling buttermilk but based on different yeast and bacteria culture o Kumis/Airag, slightly fermented mares' milk popular in Central Asia o Milk powder (or powdered milk), produced by removing the water from milk Whole milk products Buttermilk products Skim milk Whey products Cream products High milk-fat & nutritional products (for infant formulas) Cultured and confectionery products o Condensed milk, milk which has been concentrated by evaporation, often with sugar added for longer life in an opened can o Evaporated milk, (less concentrated than condensed) milk without added sugar o Ricotta cheese, milk heated and reduced in volume, known in Indian cuisine as Khoa o Infant formula, dried milk powder with specific additives for feeding human infants 69
  • 70. o Baked milk, a variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia • Butter, mostly milk fat, produced by churning cream o Buttermilk, the liquid left over after producing butter from cream, often dried as livestock food o Ghee, clarified butter, by gentle heating of butter and removal of the solid matter o Anhydrous milkfat • Cheese, produced by coagulating milk, separating from whey and letting it ripen, generally with bacteria and sometimes also with certain molds o Curds, the soft curdled part of milk (or skim milk) used to make cheese (or casein) o Whey, the liquid drained from curds and used for further processing or as a livestock food o Cottage cheese o Quark o Cream cheese, produced by the addition of cream to milk and then curdled to form a rich curd or cheese made from skim milk with cream added to the curd o Fromage frais • Casein o Caseinates o Milk protein concentrates and isonates o Whey protein concentrates and isonates o Hydrolysates o Mineral concentrates • Yogurt, milk fermented by Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus sometimes with additional bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus o Ayran o Lassi • Clabber (food), milk naturally fermented top yogurt-like state • Gelato, slowly frozen milk and water, lesser fat than ice cream • Ice cream, slowly frozen cream and emulsifying additives o Ice milk o Frozen custard o Frozen yogurt, yogurt with emulsifiers that is frozen • Other o Viili o Kajmak o Filmjцlk o Piimд o Vla o Dulce de leche TEXT 2 Powdered milk 70
  • 71. Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation. Powdered milk and dairy products include such items as dry whole milk, non-fat dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey products and dry dairy blends. History and manufacture While Marco Polo wrote of Mongolian Tatar troops in the time of Kublai Kahn carrying sun- dried skimmed milk as "a kind of paste", the first usable commercial production of dried milk was invented by the Russian chemist M. Dirchoff in 1832. In 1855 T.S. Grimwade took a patent on a dried milk procedure, though a William Newton had patented a vacuum drying process as early as 1837. Today, powdered milk is usually made by spray drying nonfat skim milk, whole milk, buttermilk or whey. Pasteurized milk is first concentrated in an evaporator to about 50% milk solids. The resulting concentrated milk is sprayed into a heated chamber where the water almost instantly evaporates, leaving fine particles of powdered milk solids. Alternatively, the milk can be dried by drum drying. Milk is applied as a thin film to the surface of a heated drum, and the dried milk solids are then scraped off. Powdered milk made this way tends to have a cooked flavor, due to caramelization caused by greater heat exposure. Another process is freeze drying, which preserves many nutrients in milk, compared to drum drying. The drying method and the heat treatment of the milk as it is processed alters the properties of the milk powder (for example, solubility in cold water, flavor, bulk density). Uses Powdered milk is frequently used in the manufacture of infant formula, confectionery such as chocolate and caramel candy, and in recipes for baked goods where adding liquid milk would render the product too thin. Powdered milk is also widely used in various sweets such as the famous Indian milk balls known as Rasa-Gulla and popular Pakistani sweet delicacy (sprinkled with desiccated coconut) known as Chum chum (made with skim milk powder). Powdered milk is also a common item in UN food aid supplies, fallout shelters, warehouses, and wherever fresh milk is not a viable option. It is widely used in many developing countries because of reduced transport and storage costs (reduced bulk and weight, no refrigerated vehicles). As with other dry foods, it is considered nonperishable, and is favored by survivalists, hikers, and others requiring nonperishable, easy-to-prepare food. Reconstituting one cup of milk from powdered milk requires one cup of potable water and one-third cup of powdered milk. Powdered milk is also used in western blots as a blocking buffer to prevent nonspecific protein interactions, and is referred to as Blotto. Milk powders contain all twenty standard amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and are high in soluble vitamins and minerals. Market Fonterra, a New Zealand based multinational company, is the world's largest producer of milk powder controlling 40 percent of the global whole milkpowder. 71
  • 72. TEXT 3 Raw milk History Humans consumed raw milk before the industrial revolution. During the industrial revolution large populations congregated into urban areas detached from the agricultural lifestyle. Up until that point, individuals and families owned their own goats, cows, and other livestock and milked them on a daily basis. Pasteurization was first used in the United States in the 1890s after the discovery of germ theory to control the hazards of highly contagious bacterial diseases including bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis that was thought to be easily transmitted to humans through the drinking of raw milk. Initially after the scientific discovery of bacteria, no product testing was available to determine if a farmer's milk was safe or infected, so all milk was treated as potentially contagious. After the first test was developed, some farmers actively worked to prevent their infected animals from being killed and removed from food production, or would falsify the test results so that their animals would appear to be free of infection. When it was first used, pasteurization was thought to make raw milk from any source safer to consume. Farm sanitation has greatly improved and effective testing has been developed for bovine tuberculosis and other diseases, making other approaches to ensuring safety of milk more feasible; however pasteurization continues to be widely used in case infectious milk should enter the food supply. In 2008 scientists noticed that raw milk contains more bacteria than previously thought and identified Chryseobacterium oranimense as well as C. haifense and C. bovis, but the amount found in raw milk has not been proven harmful. Legal status Worldwide Regulation of the commercial distribution of packaged raw milk varies across the world. Some countries have complete bans, but many have partial bans that do not restrict the purchase of raw milk bought directly from the farmer. Raw milk is sometimes distributed through a cow share program, wherein the consumer owns a share in the dairy animal or the herd, and can be considered to be consuming milk from their own animal. Raw Milk is sometimes marketed for animal or pet consumption, or for other uses such as soap making, in places where sales for human consumption are prohibited. TEXT 4 Whey Whey collecting as newly made cheese drains. Whey or milk plasma is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained; it is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. Sweet whey is manufactured during 72
  • 73. the making of rennet types of hard cheese like Cheddar or Swiss cheese. Acid whey (also known as sour whey) is obtained during the making of acid types of cheese such as cottage cheese. Whey is a by-product of cheese production; it is one of the components which separates from milk after curdling, when rennet or an edible acidic substance is added. Whey is used to produce ricotta, brown cheeses, Messmцr/Prim and many other products for human consumption. It is also an additive in many processed foods, including breads, crackers and commercial pastry, and in animal feed. Whey proteins primarily consist of α-lactalbumin and lactoglobulin. Depending on the method of manufacture, whey may also contain glycomacropeptides (GMP). Whey protein (derived from whey) is often sold as a nutritional supplement. Such supplements are especially popular in the sport of bodybuilding. In Switzerland, where cheese production is an important industry, whey is used as the basis for a carbonated soft drink called Rivella. Liquid whey contains lactose, vitamins, and minerals along with traces of fat. Researchers at Lund University in Sweden discovered that whey appears to stimulate insulin release. Writing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, they also discovered that whey supplements can help regulate and reduce spikes in blood sugar levels among people with type 2 diabetes by increasing insulin secretion. However, like all products that result from the manufacture of cheese, whey can be a migraine trigger. The presence of whey in processed foods can be particularly surprising because it is commonly added to products that do not normally contain cheese derivatives when made at home. Whey protein is the name for a collection of globular proteins that can be isolated from massive whey. It is typically a mixture of globinstagers beta-lactoglobulin (~65%), alpha-lactalbumin (~25%), and serum albumin (~8%), which are soluble in their native culture forms, independent of pH. Whey has the highest Biological Value (BV) of any known protein. Whey protein has an even higher bioavailability than egg white protein, which is considered the "gold standard" of protein, and has a bioavailability rating of 100. Bioavailability refers to how quickly a substance will be digested and absorbed through the villi in the small intestine and thus into the blood stream. TEXT 5 Sausage A sausage is a food made from ground meat, both beef and pork. Also commonly included is ground pork fat (fatback), salt, herbs and spices. Typically the sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes synthetic. Some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may be removed afterwards. Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, drying, or smoking. History 73
  • 74. Sausage making in Hungary Sausages are a result of economical butchery. Traditionally, sausage-makers put to use tissues and organs which are perfectly edible and nutritious, but not particularly appealing - such as scraps, organ meats, blood, and fat - in a form that allows for preservation: typically, salted and stuffed into a tubular casing made from the cleaned and turned inside- out intestine of the animal, producing the characteristic cylindrical shape. Hence, sausages, puddings and salami are amongst the oldest of prepared foods, whether cooked and eaten immediately or dried to varying degrees. The first sausages were made by early humans, stuffing roasted intestines into stomachs. As early as 589 BC, a Chinese sausage lаchбng was mentioned consisting of goat and lamb meat. The Greek poet Homer, mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey, and Epicharmus wrote a comedy titled The Sausage. Evidence suggests that sausages were already popular both among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and most likely with the illiterate tribes occupying the larger part of Europe. Sausage in Italy has its roots in Lucania, now known as Basilicata. Philosophers such as Cicero and Martial stated a kind of sausage called lucanica, actually widespread in Italy, was introduced by Lucanian slaves during the Roman Empire. During the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, sausages were associated with the Lupercalia festival. Early in the 10th century in the Byzantine Empire, Leo VI the Wise outlawed the production of blood sausages following cases of food poisoning. Traditionally, sausage casings were made of the cleaned intestines, or stomachs in the case of haggis and other traditional puddings. Today, however, natural casings are often replaced by collagen, cellulose or even plastic casings, especially in the case of industrially manufactured sausages. Some forms of sausage, such as sliced sausage, are prepared without a casing. Additionally, luncheon meat and sausage meat are now available without casings in tin cans and jars. The most basic sausage consists of meat, cut into pieces or ground, and filled into a casing. The meat may be from any animal, but traditionally is pork, beef or veal. The meat to fat ratio is dependent upon the style and producer, but in the United States, fat content is legally limited to a maximum of 30%, 35% or 50%, by weight, depending on the style. The United States Department of Agriculture defines the content for various sausages and generally prohibits fillers and extenders.[ Most traditional styles of sausage from Europe and Asia use no bread-based filler and are 100% meat and fat excluding flavorings. In the UK and other countries with English cuisine traditions, bread and starch-based fillers account for up to 25% of ingredients. The filler used in many sausages helps them to keep their shape as they are cooked. As the meat contracts in the heat, so the filler expands and absorbs the moisture lost from the meat. The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsus, meaning salted. TEXT 6 Classification of the sausage Sausages classification is subject to regional differences of opinion. Various metrics such as types of ingredients, consistency, and preparation are used. In the English-speaking world, the following distinction between fresh, cooked, and dry sausages seems to be more or less accepted: 74
  • 75. • Cooked sausages are made with fresh meats, and then fully cooked. They are either eaten immediately after cooking or must be refrigerated. Examples include hot dogs, Braunschweiger and liver sausage. • Cooked smoked sausages are cooked and then smoked or smoke-cooked. They are eaten hot or cold, but need to be refrigerated. Examples include Gyulai kolbбsz, kielbasa and Mortadella. • Fresh sausages are made from meats that have not been previously cured. They must be refrigerated and thoroughly cooked before eating. Examples include Boerewors, Italian pork sausage and breakfast sausage. • Fresh smoked sausages are fresh sausages that are smoked. They should be refrigerated and cooked thoroughly before eating. Examples include Mettwurst and Teewurst. • Dry sausages are cured sausages that are fermented and dried. They are generally eaten cold and will keep for a long time. Examples include salami, Droл wors, Sucuk, Landjдger, and summer sausage. • Bulk sausage, or sometimes sausage meat, refers to raw, ground, spiced meat, usually sold without any casing. The distinct flavor of some sausages is due to fermentation by Lactobacillus, Pediococcus or Micrococcus (added as starter cultures) or natural flora during curing. Other countries, however, use different systems of classification. Germany, for instance, which boasts more than 1200 types of sausage, distinguishes raw, cooked and pre-cooked sausages. • Raw sausages are made with raw meat and are not cooked. They are preserved by lactic acid fermentation, and may be dried, brined or smoked. Most raw sausages will keep for a long time. Examples include mettwurst and salami. • Cooked sausages may include water and emulsifiers and are always cooked. They will not keep long. Examples include cervelat, Jagdwurst and WeiЯwurst. • Pre-cooked sausages are made with cooked meat, and may include raw organ meat. They may be heated after casing, and will keep only for a few days. Examples include Saumagen and Blutwurst. In Italy, the basic distinction is: • Raw sausage ('salsiccia") with a thin casing • Cured and aged sausage ("salsiccia stagionata" or "salsiccia secca") • Cooked sausage ("wuerstel") • Blood sausage ("Sanguinaccio" or "boudin") • Liver sausage ("salsiccia di fegato") • Salami (in Italy "salami" is the plural form of "salame" that is a big cured sausage, fermented and air-dried) • Cheese sausage ("Caselsiccia") with cheese inside The U.S. has a particular type called pickled sausages, commonly found in gas stations and small roadside delicatessens. These are usually smoked or boiled sausages of a highly processed hot dog or kielbasa style plunged into a boiling brine of vinegar, salt, spices and often a pink coloring, then canned in Mason jars. They are available in single 75
  • 76. blister packs or sold out of a jar. They are shelf stable, and are a frequently offered alternative to beef jerky, Slim Jims, and other kippered snacks. Certain countries classify sausage types according to the region in which the sausage was traditionally produced: • France: Montbйliard, Morteau, Strasbourg, Toulouse • Germany: Frankfurt am Main, Thuringia, Nuremberg, Pomerania • Austria: Vienna, ... • Italy: Merano (Meraner Wuerst), Lucania (luganega) • UK: Cumberland, Chiltern, Lincolnshire, Glamorgan • Slovenia: Kranjska (klobasa), after the Slovenian name for the province of Carniola • Spain: botifarra catalana, chorizo riojano, chorizo gallego, chorizo de Teror, longaniza de Aragуn, morcilla de Burgos, morcilla de Ronda, morcilla extremeсa, morcilla dulce canaria, llonganissa de Vic, fuet d'Olot, sobrassada mallorquina, botillo de Leуn, llonganissa de Valencia, farinato de Salamanca • Poland: kielbasa krakowska (Krakуw-style), toruńska (Toruń), żywiecka (Żywiec), bydgoska (Bydgoszcz), krotoszyńska (Krotoszyn), podwawelska (literally: "from under Wawel"), zielonogуrska (Zielona Gуra), rzeszowska (Rzeszуw), śląska (Silesia), swojska, wiejska, jałowcowa, zwyczajna, polska, krajańska, szynkowa, parуwkowa • Hungary: kolbбsz gyulai (after the town of Gyula), csabai (after the city of Bйkйscsaba), Debrecener (after the city of Debrecen). TEXT 7 Leather production processes The leather manufacturing process is divided into three fundamental sub-processes: preparatory stages, tanning and crusting. All true leathers will undergo these sub- processes. A further sub-process, surface coating can be added into the leather process sequence but not all leathers receive surface treatment. Since many types of leather exist, it is difficult to create a list of operations that all leathers must undergo. The preparatory stages are when the hide/skin is prepared for tanning. Preparatory stages may include: preservation, soaking, liming, unhairing, fleshing, splitting, reliming, deliming, bating, degreasing, frizing, bleaching, pickling and depickling. Tanning is the process which converts the protein of the raw hide or skin into a stable material which will not putrefy and is suitable for a wide variety of end applications. The principal difference between raw hides and tanned hides is that raw hides dry out to form a hard inflexible material that when re-wetted (or wetted back) putrefy, while tanned material dries out to a flexible form that does not become putrid when wetted back. There is a large number of different tanning methods and materials that can be used, the choice is ultimately dependent on the end application of the leather. The most commonly used tanning material is chromium, which leaves the leather once tanned a pale blue color (due to the chromium), this product is commonly called “wet blue”. The hides once they have 76
  • 77. finished pickling will typically be between pH of 2.8-3.2. At this point the hides would be loaded in a drum and immersed in a float containing the tanning liquor. Crusting is when the hide/skin is thinned, retanned and lubricated. Often, a coloring operation is included in the crusting sub-process. The chemicals added during crusting have to be fixed in place. The culmination of the crusting sub-process is the drying and softening operations. Crusting may include the following operations: wetting back, sammying, splitting, shaving, rechroming, neutralization, retanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, filling, stuffing, stripping, whitening, fixating, setting, drying, conditioning, milling, staking, and buffing. For some leathers a surface coating is applied. Tanners refer to this as finishing. Finishing operations may include: oiling, brushing, padding, impregnation, buffing, spraying, roller coating, curtain coating, polishing, plating, embossing, ironing, ironing/combing (for hair- on), glazing and tumbling.     77
  • 78. English Mongolian dictionary Agriculture газар тариалан, мал аж ахуй Livestock agriculture мал аж ахуй Animal амьтан, мал Animal at the grass бэлчээрт байгаа мал Barren үржил шимгүй тахалсан бэлчээр To be barren сувайрах Barrenness сувай үнээ, сувай гүү Beef үхрийн мах Breed үүлдэр Beef breed махны үүлдэр Dairy breed сүүний үүлдэр Fine wool breed нарийн ноосны үүлдэр Half fine wool хагас нарийн ноос Cart тэрэг чиргүүл Cattle үхэр сүрэг Cattle hide үхрийн шир Climate уур амьсгал Clip ноос хайчлах Clips ноосны хайч To clip of the first growth ноос хяргах Clipping урт ноос Curd n. ээдэм Curd v. бүрэлдэх, бүрэх Dairymaid саальчин Dam эх мал үржлийн мал Ecology байгалийн зохицол 80
  • 79. Enceinte  хээлтэй үнээ  Ewe эм хонь Ewe in lamb хээлтэй хонь Aged ewe хөгшин хонь Barren ewe сувай эм хонь Draft ewe заазласан хонь Farm аж ахуй Fleece v. ноослох, ноос хяргах Fleece n. хонины ноос Fleece of medium хагас бүдүүн ноос Close fleece нарийн ноос Coarse fleece бүдүүн ноос Flesh мах Flock n. хонь ямаан сүрэг Flock v. сүрэглэх Flocks and herds сүрэг мал Fold малын хашаа Goat ямаа эм ямаа Billy goat ухна Dairy goat сүүний ямаа Harvest ургац Hay хадлан хадсан өвс Herd сүрэг Herd of sheep сүрэг хонь Goat herd ямаан сүрэг Husbandry аж ахуй Beef husbandry махны аж ахуй Camel husbandry тэмээний аж ахуй 81
  • 80. Cattle husbandry үхрийн аж ахуй Dairy husbandry сүүний аж ахуй Goat husbandry ямааны аж ахуй Sheep husbandry хонины аж ахуй Poultry husbandry шувууны аж ахуй Hybrid эрлийзжүүлэх Improvement сайжруулах Kemp хялгастай ноолуур Lactation time сааль, саалийн цаг Lamb хурга Lambing хурганы ноос Lamb skin хурганы арьс Livestock мал сүрэг Oat овъёос Output бүтээгдэхүүн Outrun отрын бэлчээр Ox шар Sheep хонь Sheep in fleece ноостой хонь Sheep in lamp хээлтэй хонь Breeder sheep үржлийн хонь Fat tailed sheep өөхөн сүүлт хонь Native sheep нутгийн хонь Sheep fold хонины хороо Sheep herd хонины сүрэг Sheep run хонины бэлчээр Silage дарш Survival байгалийн шалгарал 82
  • 81. Адуу horse Адуун сүрэг stud of horses Адсага pelt Азрага stallion Азрага адуу stud of horses Айраг mare’s milk Амуу cereal Амины мал private animals Амьд alive Амьтан animal, beast Арвай barley Аргал dry dung Аргаль argali, wild sheep Угалз buck or male wild sheep Аргамж rope ,tether Арьс skin, fur Арьс өвчих to flay an animal Арьс элдэх to curry a tanned skin Ат camel gelding Атар virgin Атар газар virgin land Ачаа load Барих to catch Бог small livestock /sheep and goat/ Бод large livestock Бордоо fodder, manure, fertilizer Ботго baby camel, camel calf Бөх hump  83
  • 82. Бугуйл  lasso  Бугуйлдах to lasso Булчин muscle Буур camel stallion, bull camel Бэлчээр pasture Бяруу stir Бяслаг cheese Газар ground, earth, land Ган drought Гарц yield Сүүний гарц milk yield Ноосны гарц wool yield Говь Gobi Говь цөл desert Гулууз carcass Гунж three year old female camel Гүү mare Гүү саах to milk a mare Даага foal Дарш silage Дэл mane Дээс rope ,cord Жавар cold air, cold wind Жороо amble Зааз cull Зуд natural calamity Хуурай зуд disaster resulting from heat and drought 84
  • 83. Цасан зуд disaster resulting from excessive snow starvation of livestock resulting from lack of water in winter color of coat /an animal/ Зүс twin Ихэр  twin young livestock Ихэр төл triplets Гурван ихэр tent Майхан animal, beast Мал animal husbandry Мал аж ахуй to fatten animals on the remote pasture Мал оторлох of succulent grass animal census or counting Мал тооллого forage, fodder Малын тэжээл animal driving Мал туувар productivity of animals Малын ашиг шим flesh, meat Мах fresh meat Шинэ мах horse Морь to train a horse Морь уях autumn, fall Намар autumn quarter Намаржаа green grass vegetable Ногоо down, fluff Ноолуур wool, fleece Ноос sheepskin Нэхий to slaughter Нядлах 85
  • 84. Ой forest Өвс grass Ногоон өвс hay Өвөл winter Өвөлжих to winter Өвөлжөө wintering place Саах to milk  Саам  milk drawn from a mare Саравч  shed barn Сам comb Ямаа самнах  to comb a goat Сарлаг yak Сүрэг herd block Түүхий сүү raw milk Болсон сүү skimmed milk Хуурай сүү dried milk, powdered Сүүл tail Сэвс cub Сэрх cut buck Тал steppe, plain Тараг yoghurt Тариа grain, crop Ташуур whip Тогоо pot Тос oil, fat Төл young animal Төллөлт rearing of young animals Төллөсөн хээлтэгч breeding stock 86
  • 85. Бойжсон төл survivals Тугал calf Туувар driving Туурай hoof Тэжээл fodder, forage, nourishment Тэмээний бөх hump Тэмээний ноос camel wool Тэмээ camel Тээвэр transport  Угсаа  family line Угсаа үүлдэр breed, pedigree Удамшил  heredity Ургамал plant Бэлчээрийн ургамал pasture plant Таримал ургамал cultivated plant Ургамлын аймаг flora Ургамал vegetation Ус water Ус үерлэх to flood Утаа smoke Уул mountain, hill Ууц rump, sacrum Үс hair, fur Үхэр cattle, ox, cow Хавар spring Хаваржих to pass the spring Хавтгай wild camel Хадлан hay 87
  • 86. Хадлан бэлчээр meadow and pasture Хашаа yard, pen Хонь хяргах to shear, to clip a shear Хонь гаргах to slaughter a sheep Хорогдол loss  Зүй бус хорогдол natural loss of animals Хөөвөр molt, shed hair, down Хөрс soil, earth Худаг well Хужир salt marsh Хурга  lamb  Хуц  ram, Хэвэгч ruminant Хэнз born late Хэвтэр den, lair Хэвтэх  to lie down Хээл enceinte Хээл хаях  to miscarry Хээлийн хугацаа period of pregnancy Хээлтүүлэгч sire Хээлтэгч dam Хялгас the hair Цөцгий cream Цөцгийн тос butter Цэнгэг ус fresh water Шар сүү whey Шилбүүр crock Эвэр horn 88
  • 87. Эмээл saddle Эмээл тохох to saddle Эмээлийн мод saddle frame Эсгий felt Ямааны хялгас goat hair Ямааны ноолуур fine hair, cashmere Ямааны арьс goat skin 89
  • 88. 90

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