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presentation by Oyungoo E. What is the report?

presentation by Oyungoo E. What is the report?

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Report Report Presentation Transcript

  • REPORTreport means "a record ofascertained facts.J.IM09D018E.Oyungoo
  • MAIN TOPICS:1.What is the report?2.Features or characteristics of report3.Initial preparation4.Planning and research5.Report structure6.Style7.Checking
  • 1.WHAT IS THE REPORT?REPORT IS A SELF-EXPLANATORY STATEMENT OFFACTS RELATING TO A SPECIFIC SUBJECT ANDSERVES THE PURPOSE OF PROVIDING INFORMATIONFOR DECISION MAKING AND FOLLOW UP ACTIONS.
  • FIVE DIFFERENT FORMATS: -Table -Summary -Calendar -Chart -Timeline
  • REPORTS MAY INCLUDE:-THE RECORD OF A SEQUENCE OF EVENTS-INTERPRETATION OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THESE EVENTS ORFACTS-EVALUATION OF THE FACTS OR RESULTS OF RESEARCHPRESENTED-DISCUSSION OF THE OUTCOMES OF A DECISION OR COURSE OFACTION-CONCLUSIONS-RECOMMENDATIONS
  • REPORTS MUST ALWAYS BE: -accurate -concise -clear -well structured
  • REPORTS LET YOU: -Specify which records you want to see. -Order those records exactly as you want. -Design the layout and set colors to suit your purpose -Ask the user what information they seek
  • 2.FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF REPORT 1.Complete and Compact Document Report is a complete and compact written document giving updated information about a specific problem.
  • 2. SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OF FACTSREPORT IS A SYSTEMATIC PRESENTATION OFFACTS, FIGURES, CONCLUSIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS.
  • 3. PREPARED IN WRITINGWRITING REPORTS ARE USEFUL FOR REFERENCEPURPOSE.
  • 4. PROVIDES INFORMATION AND GUIDANCEREPORT IS A VALUABLE DOCUMENT WHICH GIVESINFORMATION AND GUIDANCE TO THEMANAGEMENT WHILE FRAMING FUTURE POLICIES.
  • 5. SELF-EXPLANATORY DOCUMENT IS A COMPREHENSIVE DOCUMENT AND COVERSALL ASPECTS OF THE SUBJECT MATTER OF STUDY
  • 6. ACTS AS A TOOL OF INTERNALCOMMUNICATIONREPORT IS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL OFCOMMUNICATION BETWEEN TOP EXECUTIVES ANDSUBORDINATE STAFF WORKING IN ANORGANIZATION
  • 7. ACTS AS PERMANENT RECORDA REPORT SERVES AS A PERMANENT RECORDRELATING TO CERTAIN BUSINESS MATTER. IT ISUSEFUL FOR FUTURE REFERENCE AND GUIDANCE.
  • 8. TIME CONSUMING AND COSTLY ACTIVITYREPORT WRITING IS A TIME CONSUMING, LENGTHYAND COSTLY ACTIVITY AS IT INVOLVES COLLECTIONOF FACTS, DRAWING CONCLUSION AND MAKINGRECOMMENDATIONS.
  • 3.INITIAL PREPARATIONAlways analyze your brief carefully, making sure thatyou fully understand the topic, question or case, thatyou know what the purpose of the report is, and who itis being written for. The clearer these things are inyour mind, the easier the report will be to write and themore effective it will be.
  • 4.PLANNING AND RESEARCHYou first need to decide your basic framework.With your main topic or question as a centralfocus, jot down your initial thoughts and start togroup these together. Start to divide key ideasfrom subsidiary information, and continually askyourself if everything is relevant; if it isn’t, thendelete it.
  • 5.REPORT STRUCTURE
  • 1.TITLE PAGE (ALWAYS INCLUDED)THIS SHOULD NORMALLY INCLUDE THE TITLE, YOUR NAMEAND THE NAME OF THE TUTOR TO WHOM IT IS BEINGSUBMITTED, DATE OF SUBMISSION, YOURCOURSE/DEPARTMENT, AND IF APPLICABLE, THE NAME OFTHE PERSON AND/OR ORGANIZATION WHO HASCOMMISSIONED THE REPORT.AVOID “FANCY” FONTS AND EFFECTS AND DON’T INCLUDEANY CLIPART.
  • 2.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (USUALLY JUST INLONG REPORTS)A LIST OF PEOPLE AND ORGANIZATIONS BOTH WITHIN
  • 3.CONTENTS PAGE (ALWAYS INCLUDED INREPORTS OF 4+ PAGES)A CLEAR, WELL-FORMATTED LIST OF ALL THE SECTIONS ANDSUB-SECTIONS OF THE REPORT. DON’T FORGET TO PUT THEPAGE NUMBERS! IF APPLICABLE, THERE SHOULD BE ASEPARATE LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, ILLUSTRATIONS AND/ORAPPENDICLES AFTER THE MAIN INDEX.MAKE SURE THAT THE HEADINGS IN THIS LIST CORRESPONDEXACTLY WITH THOSE IN YOUR MAIN BODY. IT IS BEST TO DOYOUR LIST OF CONTENTS RIGHT AT THE END.
  • 4.TERMS OF REFERENCE (SOMETIMESINCLUDED)A DEFINITION OF THE TASK; YOUR SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE AND PURPOSEOF WRITING.EVEN IF YOU DONT INCLUDE THIS AS A HEADING, IT IS A VITALPROCESS TO GO THROUGH IN YOUR PLANNING .
  • 5.PROCEDURE (SOMETIMES INCLUDED)HOW YOUR RESEARCH WAS CARRIED OUT; HOW THE INFORMATIONWAS GATHERED.
  • 6.MATERIALS AND METHODS (INCLUDED IFAPPLICABLE)SIMILAR TO PROCEDURE, BUT MORE APPROPRIATE TO SCIENTIFIC ORENGINEERING REPORT WRITING.
  • 7.SUMMARY (USUALLY INCLUDED IN LONGERREPORTS; MAY BE CALLED EXECUTIVESUMMARY, ABSTRACT OR SYNOPSIS)THIS IS A VERY BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE REPORT TO GIVE THEPOTENTIAL READER A GENERAL IDEA OF WHAT IT’S ABOUT. ASTATEMENT OF:-OVERALL AIMS AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (UNLESS INCLUDEDIN TERMS OF REFERENCE)-METHOD/PROCEDURE USED (UNLESS INCLUDED IN SEPARATESECTION)-KEY FINDINGS-MAIN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 8.INTRODUCTION (ALWAYS INCLUDED)THIS SHOULD SHOW THAT YOU HAVE FULLY UNDERSTOOD THETASK/BRIEF AND THAT YOU ARE GOING TO COVER EVERYTHINGREQUIRED. INDICATE THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT. YOUSHOULD INCLUDE JUST A LITTLE BACKGROUND/CONTEXT ANDINDICATE THE REASONS FOR WRITING THE REPORT. YOU MAYINCLUDE YOUR TERMS OF REFERENCE AND PROCEDURE/RESEARCHMETHODS IF NOT COVERED ELSEWHERE.YOUR INTRODUCTION WILL OFTEN GIVE AN INDICATION OF THECONCLUSION TO THE REPORT.
  • 9.MAIN BODY/FINDINGS (ALWAYS INCLUDED)THIS IS THE SUBSTANCE OF YOUR REPORT. THE STRUCTURE WILLVARY ACCORDING TO THE NATURE OF THE MATERIAL BEINGPRESENTED, WITH HEADINGS AND SUB-HEADINGS USED TO CLEARLY ).INDICATE THE DIFFERENT SECTIONS (UNLIKE AN ESSAY
  • 10.RESULTS (POSSIBLY INCLUDED INSCIENTIFIC/ENGINEERING REPORTS)THIS SECTION RECORDS YOUR OBSERVATIONS (IN THE PAST TENSE)AND WOULD NORMALLY INCLUDE STATISTICS, TABLES OR GRAPHS
  • 11.CONCLUSION (ALWAYS INCLUDED)YOUR CONCLUSION SHOULD DRAW OUT THE IMPLICATIONS OF YOURFINDINGS, WITH DEDUCTIONS BASED ON THE FACTS DESCRIBED INYOUR MAIN BODY. DON’T INCLUDE ANY NEW MATERIAL HERE.
  • 12.RECOMMENDATIONS (SOMETIMESINCLUDED)THESE SHOULD FOLLOW ON LOGICALLY FROM YOUR CONCLUSIONAND BE SPECIFIC, MEASURABLE AND ACHIEVABLE. THEY SHOULDPROPOSE HOW THE SITUATION/PROBLEM COULD BE IMPROVED BYSUGGESTING ACTION TO BE TAKEN.
  • 13.APPENDICLES (SOMETIMES INCLUDED)AN APPENDIX (PLURAL=APPENDICLES) IS DETAILED DOCUMENTATIONOF POINTS YOU OUTLINE IN YOUR FINDINGS, FOR EXAMPLE,TECHNICAL DATA, QUESTIONNAIRES, LETTERS SENT, TABLES,SKETCHES, CHARTS, LEAFLETS ETC.
  • 14.REFERENCES (ALWAYS INCLUDED)THIS IS A LIST GIVING THE FULL DETAILS OF ALL THE SOURCES TOWHICH YOU HAVE MADE REFERENCE WITHIN YOUR TEXT.
  • 15.BIBLIOGRAPHY (SOMETIMES INCLUDED)THIS IS EITHER A SEPARATE LIST OF SOURCES WHICH YOU HAVEUSED DURING YOUR RESEARCH, BUT HAVE NOT ACTUALLY MADEREFERENCE TO IN YOUR WRITING, OR THIS LIST TOGETHER WITHYOUR LIST OF REFERENCES .
  • 16.GLOSSARY (OCCASIONALLY INCLUDED)INCLUDE A GLOSSARY IF THE REPORT INCLUDES A LOT OFSPECIALIZED VOCABULARY OR ACRONYMS WHICH MAY NOT BEFAMILIAR TO THE READER .
  • 6.STYLEAlways use clear and concise English, avoidingjargon and colloquial language.Write in fairly short sentences.Make sure you develop each paragraphsufficiently (usually a minimum of 5/6 sentences).Most of your report should be impersonal,although it may be appropriate in yourconclusion or recommendations to include morepersonal language.Be extra careful with verb tenses.
  • 7.CHECK:-GENERAL LAYOUT-TEXT ORGANIZATION-COHERENCE-GRAMMAR, SPELLING AND PUNCTUATION-REFERENCING-STYLE
  • AND FINALLY OVERALL, DOES THE REPORT FULFILLITS PURPOSE? DOES IT DO WHAT YOU’RE BEINGASKED TO DO AND WHAT YOU SAY YOU’RE GOINGTO DO IN YOUR INTRODUCTION? ARE YOUPLEASED WITH IT? IF YOU CAN’T CONFIDENTLYANSWER “YES” TO THESE QUESTIONS, THEN YOUMAY NEED TO DO SOME MAJOR EDITING ANDREWRITING.
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION.GOOD LUCK!