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IN-TEXT CITATION: In her article about using humor in library instruction, Billie Walker (2006) notes, “One of the challenges facing the teaching librarian is in reaching students, particularly when they are tired and unmotivated” (p. 123) .
Any words, ideas, or artwork taken from another person
Film director Guy Ritchie states, “My marriage to Madonna is fine” (Huver, 2008).
The authors cite Murray, who argues that teacher enthusiasm is the strongest predictor of instructional outcomes as well as a key factor in motivating students to pursue further learning (as cited in Jacobson and Xu, 2002, p. 428).
In your essay, you include a paragraph of information that you found in a book. You do not cite the information because you changed the order of the sentences, changed some of the words, and added your own sentences.
You combine paragraphs of information from several different encyclopedias. You do not cite this information, because you were told that information in encyclopedias is considered “common knowledge” and does not need to be cited.
Your professor tells you that you may work on an assignment with a partner. You and your classmate study together, compare your notes from the class, and offer each other advice on your assignments. You both turn in separate assignments that are different from the other.
In an essay for English class, you quote an expert on the short story you are studying. You give a citation for the quoted information, but then you write your own interpretation of what you think the expert is saying.