Self Awareness and Personality
The most effective leaders are those who
are most self-aware. Why?
• They understand their own personality and
its effect on others.
• They can use that to motivate & influence
Important to remember:
is NOT the same as
Personality & Behaviour
• Left-handed people can learn to use their right hands,
but they’re still lefties.
• The hand you prefer is personality; the hand you use is
Personality & Behaviour
• Personality is who you are. Behaviour is what you do.
• Personality is how you prefer to behave when there are
• You can change behaviour, but not personality
• You can learn to behave in unconscious ways that seem
like personality, but really aren’t (eg, sociable introverts)
Big 5 Personality Model
1. Negative Emotionality (or Emotional Reactions)
3. Openness to Experience
E: Extraversion (Intrapersonal Patterns)
Disposition to get energy from social contact
and to be dominant in groups
Reserved, perceived as serious,
prefer working alone, avoid
Outgoing, sociable, talkative,
+ Thoughtful, thorough,
non-disruptive, rich inner
- Not enough contact with
others, small networks
+ High communicators,
- Don’t listen, don’t have
Consider your profile in terms of
Tasks and Roles
What does your profile suggest you prefer in types of tasks
(eg: creative vs controlled)?
What roles does it suggest you like to adopt in teams?
Organisations and Institutions
What kinds of organisations do you feel comfortable in?
(large corporation, small family firms)
What might you do to compensate for some of your profile features?
What do you feel about authority (leader, follower, adaptable?)
Women Transforming Leadership
Women on Boards
Women on boards leads to better performance
Women as Leaders
Overall Leadership Effectiveness by
Gender and Position
1. Top Mgt, Executive, Senior Team Members 57.7 67.7
2. Reports to Top Mgt, Supervisors Middle Mgrs 48.9 56.2
3. Middle Managers 49.9 52.7
4. Supervisors, Frontline Mgrs 52.5 52.6
5. Individual Contributor 52.7 53.9
Women outperform men at all levels
Zenger & Folkman, 2011: 7,280 leaders (64% men) using 360 feedback
Women as Leaders
1. Takes initiative 48 56
2. Practices self-development 48 55
3. Displays high integrity and honesty 48 55
4. Drives for results 48 54
5. Develops others 48 54
6. Inspires and motivates others 49 54
7. Builds relationship 49 54
8. Collaboration and teamwork 49 53
9. Establishes stretch goals 49 53
10. Champions changes 49 53
11. Solves problems and analyses issues 50 52
12. Communicates powerfully and prolifically 50 52
13. Connects the group to the outside world 50 51
14. Innovates 50 51
15. Technical or professional expertise 50 51
16. Develops strategic perspective 51 49
Zenger & Folkman, 2011
If the UK had the same level of female
entrepreneurship as the US...
....600,000 additional female-owned businesses
would mean an additional £42 billion for the UK
Women as Entrepreneurs
Women and careers
Barriers that do seem to be real:
• The Peacock Problem
Women wait to be picked, while men push
• The Imposter Syndrome
Women more often lack belief in their own
abilities (50%W vs 70%M)
• The Voltaire effect
Le mieux est l'ennemi du bien
Institute of Leadership and Management,
Ambition and Gender at Work, 2011
Women as Negotiators
Myth: women aren’t competitive or assertive enough to
excel in negotiation
Fact: research shows almost no difference between W
and M in negotiation style.
Difference is in the target: M tend to aim higher, and
to be motivated by challenge.
Myth: wage gaps exist because W don’t negotiate well
Fact: W tend to negotiate on more than just money:
time, opportunity, other benefits.
Women BEFORE negotiating
• Get out of your own way: don’t emphasize weakness
• Make your value visible: to yourself and others
• Do your homework: understand what’s appropriate
• Know what you want: set an appropriate target
• Expect challenges: it’s a game; play it
• Engage the other person: men find this harder
MAPS framework detail
What you believe you can do What you want to do
Your view of capabilities and performance,
especially relating to what you want to do
Things you care most about: interests, desires,
career, aspirations, values
How others see you What the organization expects of you
How appropriate others see your abilities and
performance, including interpretations and
assumptions about observations
Expected performance and behaviour,
given roles and responsibilities.
Expected contributions to organisation’s
roles and values.
Information for MAPS framework
Career development discussions
Roles and responsibilities
Organisational culture & strategy
Questions for MAPS framework
How do you see your performance and abilities?
What do you do well?
Where can you offer your expertise to others?
What can you improve?
When do you turns to others for assistance?
What do you care most about?
What is really important to you?
What gives you the greatest sense of
satisfaction and reward at work?
What are the activities and challenges that truly
excite you at work?
What do you want to learn at work?
What have you heard from others about your
What is your reputation among colleagues at
When to others turn to you as a resource?
How well do you perform in areas critical to
What standards are you expected to meet?
What is in your personal performance contract?
What business changes would be hard for you?
What abilities must you develop to improve?
What are the success factors in the role you
I have always wanted to run a business unit, but I realise I need to
learn a lot more about managing the financials.
Mission – Abilities
I’m pretty good at working on my own, but my boss reorganized
us into teams and I need to learn how to work more
Abilities – Standards
I thought I was a good presenter, but I started to sense that I
would sometimes loose my audience. Some people have said
that my logic is hard to follow.
Abilities – Perceptions
I want to move into a supervisory position, but other people aren’t
sure that I’m qualified.
Mission – Perceptions
Dr Pegram Harrison
Fellow in Entrepreneurship, University of Oxford
Saïd Business School
No 1 in the UK for Executive Education – Financial Times 2012