Welcome to the Anthropocene: the geology of humanity
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Welcome to the Anthropocene: the geology of humanity

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ICT and Life Sciences Forum lecture, 6 December, 2012, University of Melbourne. ...

ICT and Life Sciences Forum lecture, 6 December, 2012, University of Melbourne.
Short introduction to the concept of the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene concept proposes Earth is moving out of its current geological epoch and into a new epoch dominated by humankind. ICT, in particular social networking may be a "keystone innovation" on the path to global sustainability.

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Welcome to the Anthropocene: the geology of humanity Welcome to the Anthropocene: the geology of humanity Presentation Transcript

  • WELCOME TO THE ANTHROPOCENE The geolog y of humanity ICT for Life Sciences Forum MELBOURNE, 6 DECEMBER 2012 OWEN GAFFNEY Adapted for the web 7 December 2012 Director of Communications International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Image: Globaia2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • ANTHROPOCENE •  Earth is moving out of its current geological epoch, the Holocene •  Humanity is largely responsible for this exit •  Humanity has become a global geological force – since the 1950s •  Adapt our worldviews accordinglyThe Anthropocene: conceptual and historical perspectives. Phil Trans A Steffen et al 20112012 © Owen Gaffney Image: NASA, released 5 Dec 2012
  • Insert data visualization from Anthropocene.info Welcome to the Anthropocene http://vimeo.com/390489982012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: Globaia/IGBP
  • www.anthropocene.info The world’s first website dedicated to the concept of the Anthropocene2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: Globaia/IGBP/CSIRO/Stockholm Resilience Centre
  • www.anthropocene.info2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: Globaia/IGBP/CSIRO/Stockholm Resilience Centre
  • The Great Acceleration2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Population US  Bureau  of  the  Census  (2000)  Interna5onal  database   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Total real GDP Nordhaus  (1997)  The  economics  of  new  goods.  University  of  Chicago  Press   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Foreign direct investment World  Bank  (2002)  data  and  sta5s5cs   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Damming of rivers World  Commission  on  Dams  (2000)   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Water use Shiklomanov  (1990)  Global  Water  Resources   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Fertiliser consumption Interna5onal  Fer5lizer  Industry  Associa5on  (2002)   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Urban population The  State  of  the  World’s  Ci5es  (2001)   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Paper consumption Pulp  and  paper  interna5onal  (1993)   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Motor vehicles Global  environmental  outlook  (2000)   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Telephones Canning  (2001)  A  database  of  world  infrastructure  stocks,  1950-­‐95  World  Bank   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • International tourism World  Tourism  Organiza5on  (2001)  Tourism  industry  trends   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Fisheries exploitation Percentage of global fisheries either fully exploited, overfished or collapsed. Source: FAOSTAT (2002) Statistical databases2012 © Owen Gaffney IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
  • Shrimp farm production IAnnual shrimp production as a proxy for coastal zone alteration. Sources: WRI (2003) A guide to world resources, 2002-20042012 © Owen Gaffney IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
  • Domesticated land Amount of land converted to pasture and cropland. Source: Klein Goldewijk and Battjes (1997) National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). Bilthoven, Netherlands2012 © Owen Gaffney IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
  • Planetary response2012 © Owen Gaffney Image: NASA, released 5 Dec 2012
  • Atmospheric CO2 concentration Etheridge  et  al.  Geophys  Res  101:  4115-­‐4128   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Atmospheric N2O concentration Machida  et  al  Geophys  Res  Le  22:2921-­‐2925   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Atmospheric CH4 concentration Blunier  et  al  J  Geophy  Res  20:  2219-­‐2222   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Northern hemisphere average surface temperature Mann  et  al  Geophys  Res  Le  26(6):  759-­‐762   IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Ozone depletion percentage total column ozone loss over Antarctica, using the average annual total column ozone, 330, as a base. Image: J.D. Shanklin, British Antarctic Survey2012 © Owen Gaffney IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
  • Tropical rainforest and woodland loss Loss of tropical rainforest and woodland, as estimated for tropical Africa, Latin America and South and Southeast Asia. Sources: Richards (1990) In: The Earth as transformed by human action, Cambridge2012 © Owen Gaffney University Press IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
  • Natural climatic disasters Decadal frequency of great floods (one-in-100-year events) after 1860 for basins larger than 200 000 km2 with observations that span at least 30 years. Source: Milly et al. (2002) Nature 415:514-517 IGBP synthesis:2012 © Owen Gaffney Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
  • Coastal zone nitrogen flux Model-calculated partitioning of the human-induced nitrogen perturbation fluxes in the global coastal margin for the period since 1850. Source: Mackenzie et al. (2002) Chem. Geology 190:13-322012 © Owen Gaffney IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 2004
  • Biodiversity loss Mathematically calculated rate of extinction. Source: Wilson (1992) The diversity of life, the Penguin Press. IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Great acceleration IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Great Acceleration IGBP synthesis: Global Change and the Earth System, Steffen et al 20042012 © Owen Gaffney
  • “Our  foot  is  stuck     on  the  ACCELERATOR    and  we  are  heading   towards  an  ABYSS.”            UN  Secretary  General   Ban  Ki-­‐Moon,  2009                    2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • This is our life support system Water Atmosphere2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: Adam Nieman
  • Does Earth have a pulse?2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: Tomas Oneborg / SvD / SCANPIX
  • Modern humans appear in Africa Carbon dioxideTemperature Methane Adapted by IGBP from: Loulergue, L.,et al Orbittal and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years, Nature, 2008.2012 © Owen Gaffney Lüthi, D. et al High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present Nature, 2008.
  • Beyond natural boundaries Adapted by IGBP from: Loulergue, L.,et al Orbittal and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years, Nature, 2008.2012 © Owen Gaffney Lüthi, D. et al High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present Nature, 2008.
  • World Bank Report, November 20122012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 2011-2012 Fossil and Cement Emissions•  Projection for, 58% over 1990 •  Uncertainty is ±5% for one standard deviation (IPCC “likely” range) •  Source: Peters et al. 2012a; Le Quéré et al. 2012; CDIAC Data; Global Carbon Project 20122012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 2012 Global Carbon Budget 30 RCP8.5 Historical 4.0−6.1°C 2012 Estimate RCP8.5 RCP4.5 Fossil-fuel, cement production, and gas flaring emissions (PgC/yr) 25 RCP6 RCP3-PD Historical uncertainty Earlier scenarios 20 15 RCP6 2.6−3.7°C 10 5 RCP4.5 2.0−3.0°C RCP3-PD: 1.3−1.9°C 0 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100Peters GP, Global Carbon Project 2012, Nature Climate Change2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Dams built 1800-20092012 © Owen Gaffney James Syvitski, CSDMS
  • 2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: NASA LandSat
  • 2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: NASA LandSat
  • Pearl River Delta, China 24 OF 33 MAJOR DELTAS ARE SINKING 500 MILLION PEOPLE LIVE ON DELTAS 85% HIT BY SEVERE FLOODING RECENTLY Parts of Jakarta have sunk 4 metres since 19742012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: NASA LandSat Syvitski 2009, Nature Geoscience
  • Dubai2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: NASA LandSat
  • Dubai2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: NASA LandSat
  • Las Vegas2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: NASA LandSat
  • Las Vegas2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit: NASA LandSat
  • “WE WILL BUILD MORE URBAN AREAS IN THE 1ST 3 DECADES OF THE 21ST CENTURY THAN ALL OF HISTORY COMBINED.” PROFESSOR KAREN SETO, YALE2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Deforestation in the Bolivian rainforest Credit: NASA/USGS2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • We use an area the size of South America to grow our crops And an area the size of Africa for our livestock.2012 © Owen Gaffney Ellis 2010
  • 90%  of  total   mammalian  biomass   …  up  from   is  made  up  of   0.1%  10,000   humans  and   years  ago…   domesNcated     animals.  2012 © Owen Gaffney Science, 7 Oct 2011
  • 2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Paul Crutzen Nobel laureate Former IGBP Vice Chair Geo log y of ma Pau F l J. C ru nkin or th tze n of h e past um thr d pog have es ans on ee centu enic cala clim em ted. the glo ries, th refe natu ate m issions Becaus bal env e effec in ring r a o ir com ral beh y dep f carbo e of thes onme ts th 1926, to the term e. It se aviour art sig n dioxid e anthr t dir incre V. I. “anthro n e The con cep way ‘Anth ems for ma nific antl e, glo o- mu ectio asing Vern p ads ozoic Anth ropo s r ap b n in im sup huma opocen propria ny mil y fro al co st pro which pact o ky ack era”. A p n m ns ce perio lemen -domine’ to the te to a lennia f no c en th n The ting hav ciousn ed, nam e proc mankin wledge d A Anth d of ated prese ssign to in e e hav nthropo th the t ,g e nt, whe e latter ne cou 10–12 ne — al epoc y ‘w rnadsky gs.” T greate ught, th in th ropoce e pas Holoc eologic in man e Ve round ater an d tho wards f evoluti he sur g gre ss an ely to sses o d: “T d in d incr on cen e sta ert tury ed in th could cen e ld th o r a eas , wh b shown analy part o be sa millen e war h, ro rld of used th eilhard influen nd fo ing in p olar en a e late e e said ed ses f the id to nia. m le o thou e ter de ce o rms ice naly ighte to con centr the be of air eighte have s The own f hum ght’ m ‘n Cha n th grow sho ses enth — o rd eir in meth atio ginn trapp enth tarted T futu a re an n brain to ma öspher in and carb g glob wed th of air tr with ane. T ns of ing of ed in centur num he rap d env -pow rk the e’ — th on d al c onc e be app h in 1 James is date carbo growin polar ic y, Ea bers id e iron e ioxid ginn ed 784 Watt a n e rth a xp men r in sh growin e ozo e an entrati ing M . ’s de lso hap diox g globa Dur ’s res nd per ansion t. apin g its g n g e n e - de s t dm o etha ns of of envir ankin sign p id l onm d’s g of th ens to c e and pop ing the ources capita of ma s If it have b oying r ne. 187 e ste oinc ulati past h e nkin e p 3 en row am e ide than on thr as co xploit d in chemhad tu en stud roperti Stop , when t was r ing in ngin lion 6 billio has inc ee centu ntinue ation r wo ically ned o ied sin es of e whic pani sp the Ita cogniz fluence e ing in this n and is reased ries, th d apac f ro uld by like b ut that ce the the ha o com h in p oke ab lian g ed as lo on th c Abo attle po century expecte tenfold e huma e. of nd ph then h romin chlorin id-19 lo- u m pare o ou eo n e e 7 d to wer an t a “ne logist g ago a is ut 30 pulati . The d to r to m n by the An enome ave be , the o e beha 0s. the d un w tell Anton s d exploit –50% o on has metha each 10 ore w ta no en z ve grea ivers uric io isap ed b f th rise n e-p bil- not isdom rctic sp n, no a glo one ho d diox pear a y hum e plan n to 1 rodu de v , b ter a forc lity ma force elop this ca ring. M t just al, yea le es o f ea be y exti ide an t a fast ans. Tr et’s lan .4 billio c- m Unless . tast o a rop re by lu n even - r n o e rth,” sion ction. d stron pace, pical r d surfa n. de teorite there is hic situ ck tha t r a c half have be Dam b gly in eleasin infores e en mic — impac a glob atio n didn man of a ll a com uild e co ing crea sing g ca r bo ts viro nm man t, a w al cata da kin or st of th kind. F ccessib mmon and riv specie n en unting ental fo d wil ld war rophe — le l ocea e primisheries fresh place. M er dive s m gineers task lie rce for remain or a p a e m con n regio ary p remov water is ore tha r- th ntally to guid s ahead any m a m an- ti r e e e a 16-fo nental ns and oducti more used b n re era o sustain societ for scie illennia jor o th q a y caus ld du shelf. 35% in n in u an 25 y sc uire ap f the ble ma towar ntists . A % ale An ds an sulp ing 160 ring thEnergy the te pwellin p acce s, and ropriate thropo agemen enviro d n hur milli e tw use mpe g pted may cene t du n- than dio on e ha ra jec , w hu m . r Mor twice thxide em tonne ntieth s grow te th ts, for large-s ell invo an beha This ing is in c w agric e nitr e sum ission s of atm centur n tre stage stance ale geo lve inte viour a ill o s r terr ulture gen fe of its n per y ospher y, Pa ading o , howe to ‘op -engine nation t all e e ti ucti strial than is rtilizer atural e ar, mo ic Ch l J. Crut n terra ver, w mize’ ering p ally u o e i e c biom n by cosyste fixed is ap mission re Ge emistry, en is at t ncognit are s limate ro- z th till . Foss ass als e bur ms; nit natura plied s. Oc rmany, a O Box 3 e Max P a. P h il-fu ning lly in larg At c a us oo ric in eano nd t he 060, lanc ely v ed s el burn errides of fos oxide p all grap D k San D hy, U Scripps -55020 Institut trati ub s ing natu sil fu rod- Cali iego, 95 nive Inst Mai e fo r ■ diox ons of tantial and forn 0 rs it u nz a r al e el a n ia 92 0 Gillm ity of Ca tion of , 100 ide by ‘greenh increas gricult mission d F 093- a 7452 n Drive fornia, li % — 30% ou es in ure s. URT , US , La the past reach and m se’ gase the co have H Jolla Mars ER RE A. , 400 ing etha s — ncen h, G ADIN S Ea . P. G cau o far, millenn their h ne by m carbo - C rth as M Man and s th ig tion ed by o ese e ia, with hest le ore tha n C mbridge dified by Nature (1 a o ff acid . The co nly 25 ects h more to vels ov n (R tzen, P. , Massach Human A 864). (Re ru % a e and precip nseque of th ve larg follow r S oyal Swe . & Stoermusetts, 1 ction (Belk printed a J the climate itation nces ar e world ely bee . C ckholm dish Acad er, E. F. 65)). to 9 nap sT la , Pres he tal P test es warmin photo e, amon popula n D rk, W. C. 2000). emy of S IGBP New la , s, Earth l oan e tim g. H chem g oth - evelo &M cien ces, sletter 4 a (Cam pment unn, R. n C tes by th ence, ical ‘s ers, 1 centu will w lim a m b of Vern ridge U the Bio (eds) S E. ry arm ate C e Interg ccordin og’ niv. u M . by 1 hang over g to a ann dski, V. Pres sphere C stainab the any to .4–5 e n ota I. T s, C h. le .8 °C (IPCC men- (Spri ted vers he Bios ambrid 1 toxic environ xic sub NAT URE ), th nge ion fr phere ge, | VOL du r Turn r, (tran 1986). 415 da m at a ment, stance ing e er, B New Yo om the slate | 3 JA NUA agin ll but even s are this Acti . rk on (C L. et al. , 1998). riginal o d and o RY 2 fluo ge ne so rele McN amb Th f 19 002 | ww ‘ozo rocarbo ffects, verthele me tha ased in e Envir ill, J. R. ridg e Earth e Un 26) fo to iv. P as Tran Thin ne hole ns tha r exam ss have t are n w.n So ature o ot (W. W nmenta methin ress, C sforme .com gs co ’ (and t cau ple s the everely . l g amb d uld w s Hou Norton History New Un ridg by Hum hav hich a ed the2012 © Owen Gaffney chlo ghto , Ne of th der e an e be n, wY eT the , 1990 com re now Antar ro- C he Scienti J. T. et al. ork, 200 wentieth Sun: An ). T ©2 e mu regu cti am fic (e 0). -Cen ch w lated c Berg bridge, 2 Basis (C ds) Clima 002 Mac tury mil la o ). e 0 am te Wor
  • 2000. IGBP Scientific Committee meeting, Cuernavaca, Mexico “Stop  using  the  word  Holocene.   We’re  not  in  the  Holocene  any   more.  We’re  in  the…the…   ...ANTHROPOCENE” “It  was  quiet  in  the  room  for  a  while.”  2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 1992: New York Times journalist Andrew Revkin’s book - Global Change mentions the Anthrocene “We  are  entering  an  age  that  might   someday  be  referred  to  as,  say,  the   Anthrocene  [sic].  AYer  all,  it  is  a   geological  age  of  our  own  making.”2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 1989: U.S writer and activist Bill McKibben publishes the End of Nature2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 1980s: U.S. biologist Eugene Stoermer’s (1934-2012) lectures mention the Anthropocene2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Sixties space exploration and the 1972 United Nations summit on the environment gave people a new perspectiveNASA Earth rise2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Vladimir Verdansky (1963-1945) •  Life is a geological force •  Noösphere – the world of thought driving environmental change Image; Memorial Office Museum of Academician VI Verdansky Moscow.2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882) Man  and  Nature  (1864)     The  Earth  as  Modified  by   Human  AcNon:  Man  and   Nature.  (1874)   George P. Marsh, photographed by Mathew B. Brady between 1855 and 1865. Brady-Handy Collection (Library of Congress). [call number: BH8201-4981; reproduction number: LC- BH8201-4981 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Edward Seuss (1831-1914) Developed the concept of the biosphere. Image: Eigenes Foto einer Originallithographie in eigenem Besitz2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Antonio Stoppani (1824-1891) Humanity is a “new telluric force, which in power and universality may be compared to the greater forces of earth.” Corso di geologia 1873. ‘Anthropozoic era’ Image: Paleontologica Lombarda2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • When did the Anthropocene start? Start of large-scale hunting? Dawn of agriculture? Industrial revolution? 1950? Fire Hunting Agriculture Industrial revolution Digital age2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Who decides?2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 2012 © Owen Gaffney Credit 1996 macrae@geo.ucalgary.ca
  • But the rest of the world is not waiting…2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Credit: BBC2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • “The concept of the ANTHROPOCENE heralds a profound shift in PERCEPTION of our place in the WORLD.” Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom (1933-2012) Planet Under Pressure Photo credit: Chris Meyer2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Centuries from now,the defining event of the20th century may not be theGreat Wars, the battle of ideologies,or even the Industrial Revolution per se.It may well be the ascendency of asingle species to become thedominant geological force –in a single human lifetime.2012 © Owen Gaffney Image: NASA, released 5 Dec 2012
  • …Where are we going?The role of ICT in changing the narrative2012 © Owen Gaffney Image: NASA, released 5 Dec 2012
  • The industrialization of friendship The globalization of small talk2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • 2011 Global connectivity has moved into hyperdrive2.3 billion internet users (30% of population)6 billion mobile phone subscriptionsBy 2015, 60% of world population will be online Data: ITU Measuring the Information Society (2012) Pic credit: Paul Butler, visualizing friendship2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Image: Steve Song. Copyright CC-BY2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Within a decade A L L but the most marginalised in societies will be C O N N E C T E D in new and p r ofou nd w ays. Pic credit: Paul Butler, visualizing friendship2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Arab Spring “The regimes thought the youth were divorced from politics. They didn’t notice that young people were connected among themselves.” Syrian activist “Khaled”, Financial Times, Dec 2011.2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Arab Spring Defining features •  Complex causes but social media has defining role •  Heightened awareness of equality and fairness •  Social media exposes extent of distrust2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Occupy movement Defining features •  Social media has defining role •  Demanding openness and transparency •  Heightened awareness of equality and fairness2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • “Discontinuities are… precisely what you would expect if you consider today’s societies from a complex-systems perspective.” “Social media…have the potential to facilitate qualitatively new collective behaviours.” Ball P. Nature 21 December 20112012 © Owen Gaffney
  • “Isolated, anonymous individuals overharvest common-pool resources.” BUT… Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom (1933-2012) Photo credit: Chris Meyer2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • “Simply allowing COMMUNICATION, or “CHEAP TALK,” enables participants to reduce overharvesting. ” Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom (1933-2012) Photo credit: Chris Meyer2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • •  Reliable knowledge •  Individuals like to see how sustainability benefits whole group •  Trust others to keep promises Nobel Laureate Elinor Ostrom (1933-2012) Photo credit: Chris Meyer2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Social networking is a keystone innovation2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • “There is a direct link from more precise gossip at the watercooler to better decisions.” Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman Thinking, fast and slow, 2011 With social networking we have a global watercooler Photo: Jon Roemer2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Sustainable Development Goals: Include ICT access for all2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • Conclusions •  In one lifetime humanity has become a global geological force – the Great Acceleration •  Earth is moving out of its current geological epoch, the Holocene – the Anthropocene •  Action on global sustainability essential •  Change in WORLDVIEW required. Could social media be a keystone innovation?2012 © Owen Gaffney Image: NASA, released 5 Dec 2012
  • D   N   A Like  DNA, the word ANTHROPOCENE is destined to leap from the world of science into the GLOBAL LEXICON2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • www.anthropocene.info www.anthropocenejournal.com www.igbp.net2012 © Owen Gaffney
  • WELCOME TO THE ANTHROPOCENEThe geology of humanityMELBOURNE, December 2012 Thank you! @owengaffney #anthropocene WEB www.anthropocene.info www.anthropocenejournal.com www.igbp.net EMAIL Owen.gaffney@igbp.kva.se2012 © Owen Gaffney