Origins of color and pigments june 2007


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  • Welcome This class is an accredited CEU if needed I will have certificates available at the end of the presentation This presentation is also available on the Benjamin Moore web site if you wished to share the communication
  • the North American Design team for Benjamin Moore has been following the evolving trend of using natural materials and implementing customized designs. Interest in materials that are sustainable, organic, natural, original, and handcrafted are influencing product designers today. What does that mean in terms of color? Well as a paint company what do we have that fits this bill. After all we are a chemical company. So we decided to explore the history of color and… pigment specifically…what we found was overwhelming. We found that the history of color is deeply rooted to that of art and design, to economies, society and culture and dates back to prehistoric man some 40,000 years ago. Let me asked first how many use color the historic color palette? Have we ever wondered how they came to be or why we feel the way we do about the colors? I want to share a journey with you today that takes a brief look at 40,000 years of history of color and present samples of both ancient and current color pigments. At the end I would like to highlight the current R & D of today’s paint products and the forecasted color palette l
  • Terminology Pigments are organic or inorganic particles of suspended colored material which are insoluble in the application medium. Dyes are colored compounds soluble in liquid which penetrate and stain a surface. Lake is a generic label for any dye based pigment. Colorants are pigments suspended in a vehicle. Resins/Binders are the glue which holds the pigment particles together and provide the film integrity and adhesion. Solvents are used to aid in the spreading and application of the pigment and resin.
  • Trends Today the craftsmanship of the artist to create his/her materials is rare given the convenience of prepackaged media. What has remained true is the continued search for color and its meaning. Shifts in society, economy and cultures move color in design and popularity. Tracking these shifts and understanding their importance is how a color forecast is generated. A renaissance for natural materials, a return to human craftsmanship and efforts toward conservation are the current trends of today. Reflecting these trends, today’s palette is one of sophisticated and complex hues offering unlimited and endless possibilities.
  • Origins of color and pigments june 2007

    1. 1. Origins of Color and Pigments presented by Bob Upton
    2. 2. <ul><li>Benjamin Moore Paints </li></ul><ul><li>101 Paragon Drive </li></ul><ul><li>Montvale, NJ 07645 </li></ul><ul><li>Course Number: BEN007 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Units: 1.00 </li></ul>Origins of Color and Pigments This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional registration. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material or construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods and services should be directed to the program instructor.
    3. 3. learning objectives <ul><ul><li>To explore the history and origins of color pigments, and extrapolate how they have evolved into today’s colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To formulate the impact of economy, culture and society on individual colors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To theorize the connection between colors and trends </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. the journey begins <ul><li>Early use and creation of pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery, wealth, power, religion, trade and science </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of modern technology </li></ul>
    5. 5. terminology <ul><ul><li>Pigments are organic or inorganic particles of suspended colored material which are insoluble in the application medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyes are colored compounds soluble in liquid which penetrate and stain a surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorants are pigments suspended in a vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resins / binders are the glue which holds the pigment particles together and provide the film integrity and adhesion </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Organic and Inorganic </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals and clays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic chemistry </li></ul></ul>categories of pigments
    7. 7. organic pigments <ul><li>Plant, animal and modern synthetic sources </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madder red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cochineal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phthalo blue </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. inorganic pigments <ul><li>Are insoluble compounds, made of minerals and clays </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ochre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sienna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Titanium Dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Oxide </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. earth’s pigments <ul><li>Nature has given a basic palette </li></ul><ul><li>Red and Yellow Ochre, Black, and Calcite White </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered on cave walls dating back over 15,000 years </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW : Early man used a hollow tube to blow paint onto the walls.
    10. 10. is white a color? <ul><li>First known white pigment was chalk </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of calcium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: Zinc oxide melted with copper, forms brass.
    11. 11. today’s white <ul><li>Titanium dioxide – the preeminent source of white pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hide and opacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tint strength </li></ul></ul>DID YOU KNOW : Titanium white is used in such common items as toothpaste and candy.
    12. 12. creating blueprints with black <ul><li>Black pigment is created by fire </li></ul><ul><li>Burning of natural materials (wood, bones, plant oils) </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s black is from the burning of natural gas </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: 92% of carbon black pigment is used as filler for rubber.
    13. 13. the oldest colors of earth <ul><li>Red and yellow ochre </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum of ochres ranges from brown and yellow to red and violet </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: Early man traveled the earth to find red ochre / hematite for use in burial ceremonies.
    14. 14. <ul><li>Vermillion, a brilliant red, was used in Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol of wealth and prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Comparable to the red carpets of Hollywood </li></ul>life, love and power DID YOU KNOW: Natural cinnabar mined in China is the original Chinese Red pigment.
    15. 15. red to dye for <ul><li>Madder root was at the center of European textile dying providing reds coveted by the wealthy class </li></ul><ul><li>The richest source of red until discovery of the New World </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: Venice controlled the bulk of the imports from the East which included kermes, giving the dyers of Venice a monopoly in producing the much desired red cloth.
    16. 16. <ul><li>The Spanish struck “red gold” with arrival to Mexico in 1519 </li></ul><ul><li>Made by the Aztecs from the cochineal insects </li></ul><ul><li>Today, cochineal dye is used in food and cosmetics </li></ul>cochineal trade DID YOU KNOW: The wild cochineal insect is one-third the size of a ladybug and 70,000 insects were needed to make one pound of dye.
    17. 17. blue jeans <ul><li>Blue dye source was from Woad and Indigo plants </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of blue expanded in the 11 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion, politics, and social structure </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: The word jean comes from the Italian word “genoese” which means “from Genoa”. This is the same city from where Levi Strauss would source the original canvas used for his famous blue jeans.
    18. 18. blue “from beyond the seas” <ul><li>Lapis Lazuli aka “natural ultramarine” richest blue known to the ancient world </li></ul><ul><li>Ultramarine = gold </li></ul><ul><li>Most rare source of blue colorfast pigment until 19 th century </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: The best Lapis Lazuli is mined in the Hindukush Mountains of Afghanistan.
    19. 19. the search for ultramarine <ul><li>Chemists tried to create the alternatives cobalt blue and Prussian blue </li></ul><ul><li>Neither cobalt blue or Prussian blue could match natural ultramarine </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: The word cobalt originates from the German word “Kobalt” which means “goblin”.
    20. 20. synthetic ultramarine <ul><li>“ A very good year”: 1828 </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic creation of ultramarine pigment </li></ul><ul><li>The first affordable source of this brilliant blue </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: The Mayans and Ancient Egyptians created synthetic colorfast blues, Mayan blue and Egyptian blue, respectively.
    21. 21. today’s phthalocyanines <ul><li>Phthalo blue, synthetic pigment valued for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light fastness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tint strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covering power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to alkaline and acidic materials </li></ul></ul>DID YOU KNOW: At the heart of the chemistry of the Phthalo pigments lies copper, linking them to the earliest blues and greens of antiquity.
    22. 22. nature’s neutral <ul><li>Malachite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest source for green pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural carbonate of copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to azurite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable pigment used until 18 th century </li></ul></ul>DID YOU KNOW: Malachite was used by Egyptian women for eye shadow.
    23. 23. green earth <ul><li>Also known as “Terra Verte” </li></ul><ul><li>Underpainting of flesh tones in medieval paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Made from green clays </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hiding properties </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: The color green is the most restful to the human eye.
    24. 24. yellow, Asia’s purple <ul><li>Naples yellow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic reddish yellow pigment, dating back as far as 2500 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent opacity and stability </li></ul></ul>DID YOU KNOW: In China, yellow is viewed as the color of emperors. Additionally, yellow is known as the color of royalty in many Polynesian cultures.
    25. 25. why is there a cow in the picture? <ul><li>Indian yellow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imported by the Dutch from India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine of cows fed mango leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production stopped in early 20 th century </li></ul></ul>DID YOU KNOW: Yellow is the color of intelligence, optimism, and memory.
    26. 26. the least glamorous of pigments <ul><li>Umber and Sienna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay deposits in Italian cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created shadows in Renaissance paintings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The new black” </li></ul></ul>DID YOU KNOW: Many paint colors are toned with umber pigment along with black.
    27. 27. the color of royalty <ul><li>Original purple created by the Phoenicians in 1600 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrian purple, Royal purple, or Purple of the Ancients </li></ul><ul><li>Purple’s recipe was lost with Constantinople </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: It took over 10,000 mollusks to create one gram of dye.
    28. 28. the mauve period <ul><li>William Henry Perkin discovered “mauvine” in 1859 </li></ul><ul><li>Start of the synthetic organic pigment industry i.e. “alizarin crimson / quinine” </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic dyes and pigments gives rise to new industries </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: There are over 4,000 synthetic organic dyes and 336 pigments on the market today.
    29. 29. the story of orange <ul><li>Gardenia plant and annatto seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Cadmium orange was the first “true orange” pigment: 1846 </li></ul>DID YOU KNOW: The formulation for the warm orange color of the famous Stradivari Violin is still a mystery.
    30. 30. pigments of today <ul><li>The next generation of paints </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for lower VOC’s, eco-friendly coatings, and unlimited color selection </li></ul>
    31. 31. properties and benefits of quality pigments <ul><li>Tint Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Light fastness </li></ul><ul><li>Hiding Power </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasion Resistance </li></ul>
    32. 32. trends <ul><ul><li>Do trends lead technology or does technology lead trends? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural materials, a return to human craftsmanship and conservation are current market examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts in society, economy and cultures influences color direction in design markets </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. thank you for attending!