Origins of color and pigments june 2007Presentation Transcript
www.benjaminmoore.com Origins of Color and Pigments presented by Bob Upton
Benjamin Moore Paints
101 Paragon Drive
Montvale, NJ 07645
Course Number: BEN007
Learning Units: 1.00
Origins of Color and Pigments This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional registration. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material or construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods and services should be directed to the program instructor.
To explore the history and origins of color pigments, and extrapolate how they have evolved into today’s colors
To formulate the impact of economy, culture and society on individual colors
To theorize the connection between colors and trends
the journey begins
Early use and creation of pigments
Discovery, wealth, power, religion, trade and science
Impact of modern technology
Pigments are organic or inorganic particles of suspended colored material which are insoluble in the application medium
Dyes are colored compounds soluble in liquid which penetrate and stain a surface
Colorants are pigments suspended in a vehicle
Resins / binders are the glue which holds the pigment particles together and provide the film integrity and adhesion
Organic and Inorganic
Plants and animals
Minerals and clays
categories of pigments
Plant, animal and modern synthetic sources
Are insoluble compounds, made of minerals and clays
Nature has given a basic palette
Red and Yellow Ochre, Black, and Calcite White
Discovered on cave walls dating back over 15,000 years
DID YOU KNOW : Early man used a hollow tube to blow paint onto the walls.
is white a color?
First known white pigment was chalk
Composed of calcium carbonate
Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide
DID YOU KNOW: Zinc oxide melted with copper, forms brass.
Titanium dioxide – the preeminent source of white pigment
Hide and opacity
DID YOU KNOW : Titanium white is used in such common items as toothpaste and candy.
creating blueprints with black
Black pigment is created by fire
Burning of natural materials (wood, bones, plant oils)
Today’s black is from the burning of natural gas
DID YOU KNOW: 92% of carbon black pigment is used as filler for rubber.
the oldest colors of earth
Red and yellow ochre
Spectrum of ochres ranges from brown and yellow to red and violet
DID YOU KNOW: Early man traveled the earth to find red ochre / hematite for use in burial ceremonies.
Vermillion, a brilliant red, was used in Pompeii
Symbol of wealth and prestige
Comparable to the red carpets of Hollywood
life, love and power DID YOU KNOW: Natural cinnabar mined in China is the original Chinese Red pigment.
red to dye for
Madder root was at the center of European textile dying providing reds coveted by the wealthy class
The richest source of red until discovery of the New World
DID YOU KNOW: Venice controlled the bulk of the imports from the East which included kermes, giving the dyers of Venice a monopoly in producing the much desired red cloth.
The Spanish struck “red gold” with arrival to Mexico in 1519
Made by the Aztecs from the cochineal insects
Today, cochineal dye is used in food and cosmetics
cochineal trade DID YOU KNOW: The wild cochineal insect is one-third the size of a ladybug and 70,000 insects were needed to make one pound of dye.
Blue dye source was from Woad and Indigo plants
The importance of blue expanded in the 11 th century
Fashion, politics, and social structure
DID YOU KNOW: The word jean comes from the Italian word “genoese” which means “from Genoa”. This is the same city from where Levi Strauss would source the original canvas used for his famous blue jeans.
blue “from beyond the seas”
Lapis Lazuli aka “natural ultramarine” richest blue known to the ancient world
Ultramarine = gold
Most rare source of blue colorfast pigment until 19 th century
DID YOU KNOW: The best Lapis Lazuli is mined in the Hindukush Mountains of Afghanistan.
the search for ultramarine
Chemists tried to create the alternatives cobalt blue and Prussian blue
Neither cobalt blue or Prussian blue could match natural ultramarine
DID YOU KNOW: The word cobalt originates from the German word “Kobalt” which means “goblin”.
“ A very good year”: 1828
Synthetic creation of ultramarine pigment
The first affordable source of this brilliant blue
DID YOU KNOW: The Mayans and Ancient Egyptians created synthetic colorfast blues, Mayan blue and Egyptian blue, respectively.
Phthalo blue, synthetic pigment valued for
Resistance to alkaline and acidic materials
DID YOU KNOW: At the heart of the chemistry of the Phthalo pigments lies copper, linking them to the earliest blues and greens of antiquity.
Oldest source for green pigment
Natural carbonate of copper
Related to azurite
Stable pigment used until 18 th century
DID YOU KNOW: Malachite was used by Egyptian women for eye shadow.
Also known as “Terra Verte”
Underpainting of flesh tones in medieval paintings
Made from green clays
Poor hiding properties
DID YOU KNOW: The color green is the most restful to the human eye.
yellow, Asia’s purple
Synthetic reddish yellow pigment, dating back as far as 2500 years
Excellent opacity and stability
DID YOU KNOW: In China, yellow is viewed as the color of emperors. Additionally, yellow is known as the color of royalty in many Polynesian cultures.
why is there a cow in the picture?
Imported by the Dutch from India
Urine of cows fed mango leaves
Production stopped in early 20 th century
DID YOU KNOW: Yellow is the color of intelligence, optimism, and memory.
the least glamorous of pigments
Umber and Sienna
Clay deposits in Italian cities
Created shadows in Renaissance paintings
“ The new black”
DID YOU KNOW: Many paint colors are toned with umber pigment along with black.
the color of royalty
Original purple created by the Phoenicians in 1600 B.C.
Tyrian purple, Royal purple, or Purple of the Ancients
Purple’s recipe was lost with Constantinople
DID YOU KNOW: It took over 10,000 mollusks to create one gram of dye.
the mauve period
William Henry Perkin discovered “mauvine” in 1859
Start of the synthetic organic pigment industry i.e. “alizarin crimson / quinine”
Synthetic dyes and pigments gives rise to new industries
DID YOU KNOW: There are over 4,000 synthetic organic dyes and 336 pigments on the market today.
the story of orange
Gardenia plant and annatto seeds
Cadmium orange was the first “true orange” pigment: 1846
DID YOU KNOW: The formulation for the warm orange color of the famous Stradivari Violin is still a mystery.
pigments of today
The next generation of paints
Demand for lower VOC’s, eco-friendly coatings, and unlimited color selection
properties and benefits of quality pigments
Do trends lead technology or does technology lead trends?
Natural materials, a return to human craftsmanship and conservation are current market examples
Shifts in society, economy and cultures influences color direction in design markets