Historical Synopsis• The TurkishRepublic wasestablished in1923. Under theleadership ofMustafa KemalPasha known asATATURK, thenew Turkish statewas established.
• Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasiancountry. Asian Turkey (made up largely ofAnatolia), which includes 97% of thecountry, is separated from EuropeanTurkey by the Bosphorus, the Seaof Marmara, and the Dardanelles (whichtogether form a water link between theBlack Sea and the Mediterranean Sea).
• When Turkey was established, it was vitalfor it to emerge fresh from the ashes ofthe old Ottoman Empire with a newidentity.• The Caliphate was abolished; a secularand democratic state was founded.
• Islamic lawreplaced with lawmostly borrowedfrom West, the“fez” replacedwith the “hat”,traditionalgarments withsuit and tie.
• Modernization of the country wasassociated with Westernization.• Therefore the project of modernization hadimportant into Turkey the idea ofModernity and the idea of Westernizationwithout any differentiation being madebetween them.
• As regards graphic design, the mostdrastic transformation was experienced in1928 when the Arabic script was replacedwith the Roman alphabet.
• Ataturk is thefirst teacher ofthe TurkishRepublic.
• As a result graphic practice would changeirreversibly.• The new alphabet had dual mission ofintroducing itself as much as introducingthe project of modernization
• This modernization project within whichGerman influences were prominent.• The well acknowleged graphic designer –or, using expression of time, thecommercial artist, Ihap Hulusi Gorey(1896-1986) – was instrumental in theintroduction of German graphic design.
• Ihap HulusiGorey is themost importantname on theTurkish graphicdesign sceneuntil the late1950s.
• In 1960, 1970 and 1980 Turkeyexperienced three Coups d’état (militarycoup). Although each of them had its ownsocial, political and economicconsequences, including graphic design.
• An intense and qualified application ofgraphic arts in every branch took placeafter the 1960’s.• In the late 1950’s two designers, who wouldbe amongst the leading names later, werealready practicing: Mengu Ertel andYurdaer Altintas, both of whom hadgraduated from the Istanbul State Academyof Fine Arts.
• Mengu Ertel isone of the mostimportantTurkish graphicdesigner
• Yurdaer Altintas• He was born in1935.• He has manygraphic designaward
Graphic Design Education inTurkey• Graphic Design Education was introducedat the Istanbul State Academy of Fine Artsin 1927.Later, in 1957, the State School ofApplied Fine Arts was established. Bothschools benefited from German expertise.
• The proliferation of political posters,leaflets and publications played asignificant role in the rise of graphicdesign.
• “Enough isenough! Nationspeaks!”• This is theDemocrat Partycampaign’sslogan andpolitical poster.
• In the 70’s graphic practise in Turkeybegan to change. The establishment ofthe higher school of Applied Industrial Artsand its policy of employing professionaland practising graphic designers also hadan important impact on the rise of theprofession
• Contemporary graphic design in Turkeyappears to be already part of globalculture.• The Turkish Society of Graphic Artists wasestablished in 1698.
• This association organizes annualexhibitions, publishes catalogues, awarddesigns in categories such as poster,book cover, logo, promotional material,letterhead, press campaign, website andso on.
• There are designers exhibiting and gettingpublished abroad and receiving overseasawards.
• The last three decades have witnessedthe rise of advertising agencies and thecommercialization of graphic design, atendency against which a few independentdesigners have produced high qualitywork exploring the boundaries of thediscipline.
Historical Process of TurkishGraphic Design• 1. Realistic and Representative• The visual image is realistically renderedand depicts what the text says. The imageis subordinated to text.
• 2. Symbolic and Illustrative• Images are mostly symbolicrepresentation and in many cases theymay stand on their own, with their ownmerits and independently of text.
• 3. Abstract and Integrative• The major characteristic of this newgeneration of work is identified byemancipation from theillustration/typography duality that haddominated the previous period.
• Designers here begin to use varioustechniques and media convey themessage. The unity between image,message and typography becomeshighlighted.