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Windows

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http://courses-in-university.blogspot.com/

http://courses-in-university.blogspot.com/

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Contents
    • A window’s characteristics
    • A window’s components
    • A window’s presentation style
    • The types of windows available
    • Organizing window system functions
    • A window’s operations
  • 3. Window
    • A window is an area of the screen, usually rectangular in shape, defined by a border that contains a particular view of some area of the computer or some portion of a person’s dialog with the computer.
    • A window may be small, containing a short message or a single field, or it may be large, consuming most or all of the available display space.
    • A display may contain one, two, or more windows within its boundaries.
  • 4. Window’s characteristics
    • A name or title, allowing it to be identical.
    • A size in height and width (which can vary).
    • A state, accessible or active, or not accessible.
    • Visibility – the portion that can be seen.
    • A location, relative to the display boundary.
    • Presentation, that is, its arrangement in relation to other windows (tiled, overlapping, and cascading).
    • Management capabilities, methods for manipulation of the window on the screen.
    • Its highlight, that is, the part that is selected.
    • The function, task, or application to which it is dedicated.
  • 5. Components of a window
    • A typical window may be composed of many elements.
    • Some appear on all windows; others only on certain kinds of windows, or under certain conditions.
    • For consistency purposes, these elements should always be located in the same position within a window.
    • We can distinguish between three basic types of windows:
      • primary windows
      • secondary windows
      • dialog boxes
  • 6. Components of a window (continued)
    • Frame
    • Title bar (Alt+Spacebar for menu)
    • Title bar icon
    • Window sizing buttons
    • “ What’s this?” button
    • Menu bar
    • Status bar
    • Scroll bar
    • Toolbar
    • Split
    • Size grip
    • Work area
  • 7. Components Primary Secondary Dialog Box Frame/Border X X X Title bar text X X X Title bar icon X Title bar buttons X X X Close X X X Minimize/Maxi-mize/Restore X “ What’s this?” X X Menu bar X Status bar X Scroll bar X Size grip X
  • 8. Window presentation styles
    • The presentation style of a window refers to its spatial relationship to other windows.
    • There are two basic styles, commonly called tiled or overlapping.
    • In early windowing days, most systems commonly used one or the other style exclusively, seldom using both at the same time.
    • Now, the user is usually permitted to select the style to be presented on the display.
  • 9. Tiled windows
    • Advantages:
      • Open windows are always and completely visible.
      • They are perceived less complex than overlapping windows.
      • They are easier for novice people to learn and use.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Only a limited number can be displayed.
      • As the number of windows increases, each window can get very small.
      • They are perceived as crowded and more visually complex.
  • 10. Overlapping windows
    • Advantages:
      • Visually, their look is three-dimensional.
      • Greater control allows the user to organize the windows to meet his or her needs.
      • Can maintain larger sizes and consistent positions.
      • Less pressure to close windows no longer needed.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Operationally much more complex than tiled ones.
      • Can be lost behind other windows.
      • That overlapping windows represent three-dimensional space is not always realized by users.
  • 11. Cascading Windows
    • A special type of overlapping window has the windows automatically arranged in a regular progression.
    • Each window is slightly offset from others.
    • Advantages of this approach are:
      • No window is ever completely hidden.
      • Bringing any window to the front is easier.
      • It provides simplicity in visual presentation and cleanness.
  • 12. Picking a presentation style
    • Use tiled windows for:
      • Single-task activities
      • Data that needs to be seen simultaneously
      • Tasks requiring little window manipulation
      • Novice or inexperienced users
    • Use overlapping windows for:
      • Switching between tasks
      • Tasks requiring a greater amount of window manipulation
      • Expert or experienced users
      • Unpredictable display contents
  • 13. Types of windows
    • People’s tasks must be structured into a series of windows.
    • The type of window used will depend on the nature and flow of the task.
    • Defining standard window types is difficult across platforms because of the varying terminology and definitions used by different windowing systems.
    • The Microsoft Windows windowing schema includes: primary window, secondary window, and dialog box.
  • 14. Primary window
    • Represents an independent function or application.
    • Present constantly used components and controls:
      • menu bars that are used frequently, used by primary or secondary windows.
      • controls used by dependent windows.
    • Use for presenting information that is continually updated (e.g., data and time).
    • Providing context for dependent windows.
    • Do not:
      • Divide an independent function into two or more primary windows.
      • Present unrelated functions in one primary window.
  • 15. Secondary window
    • Performing subordinate, supplemental, or auxiliary actions that are:
      • Extended or more complex in nature
      • Related to objects in the primary window
    • Presenting frequently or occasionally used window components.
  • 16. Dialog boxes
    • Dialog boxes are used to extend and complete an interaction within a limited context.
    • Dialog boxes are always displayed from another window.
    • Use dialog boxes for:
      • presenting brief messages
      • presenting specific, transient actions
      • performing actions that:
        • take a short time to complete
        • are not frequently changed
    • Command buttons include: OK, Cancel, others as necessary.
  • 17. Message boxes
    • Use for displaying a message about a particular situation or condition.
    • Command buttons include: OK, Cancel, Help, Yes, No, Stop, buttons to correct the action that caused the message box to be displayed.
    • Enable the title bar close box only if the message includes a cancel button.
    • Designate the most frequent or least destructive option as the default command button.
  • 18. Window management
    • There are several window management schemas (not the only schemas but most frequently used):
      • Single-document interface (SDI)
      • Multiple-document interface (MDI)
      • Workbooks
    • To choose the right schema you should consider a number of design factors:
      • Intended users and their skill level
      • Application and its objects or tasks
      • Most effective use of display space
  • 19. SDI
    • It is a single primary window with a set of secondary windows.
    • Proper usage:
      • Where object and window have a simple, one-to-one relationship.
      • Where the object’s primary presentation or use is as a single unit (e.g., a document or a folder) even when the object contains different types.
    • Advantages: most common usage, window manipulation is easier and less confusing, and data-centered approach.
    • Disadvantage: information is displayed or edited in separate windows.
  • 20. MDI
    • Contains a single primary (parent) window and a set of child windows (each one could also be a primary window).
    • The primary window provides a visual and operational framework for its child windows.
    • Each child window is constrained to appear only within the parent window. The child windows share the parent window’s operational elements.
    • Proper usage:
      • To present multiple occurrences of an object
      • To compare data within two or more windows
      • To present multiple parts of the application
  • 21. MDI (continued)
    • Advantages:
      • Very space-efficient interface (child windows share the parent window’s interface components, e.g., menus, toolbars, and status bar).
      • Useful for managing a set of objects.
    • Disadvantages:
      • Reinforces an application as the primary focus.
      • More challenging for novice users (relationship between files and their windows is abstract).
  • 22. Workbooks
    • A window or task management technique that consists of a set of views like a tabbed notebook.
    • It is based upon the metaphor of a book or notebook.
    • Views of objects are presented as sections within the workbook’s primary windows; child windows do not exist.
    • Each section represent a view of data.
    • Tabs can be included and used to navigate between sections.
    • Otherwise, its characteristics and behavior are similar to those of the MDI with all child windows maximized.
  • 23. Workbooks
    • Proper usage:
      • To manage a set of views of an object.
      • To optimize quick navigation of multiple views.
      • For content where the order of the sections is significant.
    • Advantages:
      • Provides a grouping and focus for a set of activities within the environment of the desktop.
      • Provides the greater simplicity of the SDI and by eliminating child window management.
      • Preserves some man-t capabilities of the MDI.
    • Disadvantage: cannot present simultaneous views
  • 24. Window organization
    • Organize windows to support the most common tasks in the most efficient sequence of steps.
    • Use primary windows to:
      • Begin an interaction and provide a top-level context for dependent windows.
      • Perform a major interaction.
    • Use secondary windows to:
      • Extend the interaction.
      • Obtain or display supplemental information related to the primary window.
    • Use dialog boxes for:
      • Infrequently used or needed information.
      • “ Nice-to-know” information.
  • 25. Number of windows
    • Minimize the number of windows needed to accomplish an objective!
    • Users don’t work with windows for the joy, but to get their work done.
    • Environment is simply a means to accomplish an objective, and therefore should facilitate the process.
    • Multiple windows on a display can be confusing, and can increase the load on the human visual system.
    • The mean number of windows maintained for experienced users is 3.7.
    • More realistically, try not to display more than 2 or 3 windows at one time.
  • 26. Active window
    • A window should be made active with as few steps as possible.
    • Visually differentiate the active window from other windows (by e.g., contrasting window title bar, border, or background color).
    • Single vs. multiple open windows.
  • 27. Opening a window
    • Provide an iconic representation or textual list of available windows.
    • When opening a window:
      • Position it in the most forward plane of the screen.
      • Adapt the window to the size of the monitor.
      • Designate it as the active window.
      • Ensure that its title bar is visible.
    • When a primary window is opened position it on top.
    • When a secondary window is open position it on top of its associated primary window.
    • When a dependent secondary window is activated, its primary window should also be positioned on top.
  • 28. Sizing windows
    • Provide large-enough windows
      • Advantages of large windows:
        • Allow displaying more info
        • Facilitate learning
      • Disadvantages of large windows:
        • Longer pointer movements are requires
        • Windows are more crowded
        • More visual scanning is required
    • If a window is too large, determine:
      • 1) Is all the information needed?
      • 2) Is all the information related?
    • Otherwise, make the window as small as possible
  • 29. Window placement
    • In placing a window on the display, consider:
      • The use of the window
      • The overall display dimensions
      • The reason for the window’s appearance
    • Position the window so it is entirely visible.
    • If the window is being restored, place the window where it last appeared.
    • Dialog boxes:
      • If the dialog box relates to the entire system, center it on screen.
      • Keep key information on the underlying screen visible.
      • If one dialog box calls another, make the new one movable whenever possible.
  • 30. Moving a window
    • Allow the user to change the position of all windows.
    • Change the pointer shape to indicate that the move selection is successful.
    • Move the entire window as the pointer moves:
      • If it is impossible to move the entire window, move the window outline while leaving the window displayed in its original position.
    • Allow the moving of a window without its being active.
  • 31. Resizing a window
    • Allow the user to change the size of primary windows.
    • Change the pointer shape to indicate that the resizing selection is successful.
    • Show the changing window as the pointer moves.
    • You can anchor left-upper corner and resize from the lower-right corner.
    • Allow resizing a window without its being active.
  • 32. Other operations
    • Maximizing a window increases the size of the window to its largest optimum size. The system default settings for the maximum size is as large as the display.
    • Minimizing a window reduces it to its smallest size.
    • Restoring returns a window to its previous size and position after the user has maximized or minimized it.
  • 33. Closing a window
    • Close a window when:
      • The user requires that it be closed
      • The user performs the action required in the window
      • The window has no further relevance
    • If a primary window is closed, also close all of its secondary windows.
    • When a window is closed, save its current state, including size and position, for use when the window is opened again.

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