Rigging<br />Flight Surfaces<br />
Right<br />Green<br />Starboard<br />Left<br />Red<br />Port<br />
Fixed surfaces<br />
Cantilever Wings<br />
Cantilever with strut<br />
Empennage<br />
Empennage<br />
Primary Control Surfaces<br />
Primary Control Surfaces<br /><ul><li>Ailerons
Elevator
Rudder</li></li></ul><li>Primary Control Surfaces<br />
Aileron<br />For roll control<br />
Ailerons<br />Differential ailerons<br />Aileron has greater up travel than down<br />Increased parasite drag help turn ai...
Rudder<br />For yaw control<br />
Ruddervator<br />Combines rudder & elevator<br />
Elevator<br />For pitch control<br />
Control Stops<br />Primary<br />Secondary<br />
Primary Stops<br />Located on the control surface<br />IE. On the aileron<br />Limit travel of surface<br />
Secondary Stops<br />Located on control<br />IE. Control column or rudder pedals<br />Provide “springback”<br />Prevent da...
Springback<br />Ensures hitting the primary stop first<br />Protects control from violent manoeuvres<br />
Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />
Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the ...
Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the ...
Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the ...
Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the ...
Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the ...
Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the ...
Level the aircraft<br />Jacks<br />Tie downs<br />Four people<br />Levels<br />
Neutralize controls<br />Control locks<br />Rigging pins<br />
Connect controls<br />Adjust control tubes to fit<br />Tension cables<br />
Adjust controls<br />For Travel<br />For Neutral<br />
Safety Controls<br />Safety turnbuckles<br />Cotter pin nuts<br />Lockwire bolts<br />Install keepers/guides<br />
Turnbuckles<br />
Turnbuckles<br />Used to tension cables<br />Maximum three threads exposed on each end<br />Left hand & right hand threads...
Independent inspection<br />Ideally use person not involved with the control rigging<br />Must be qualified to perform the...
ICC<br />Independent Control Check<br />Correct assembly<br />Check routing, turnbuckles, deflection<br />Locking<br />Sen...
Auxiliary Controls<br />
Trim Tabs<br />Small moveable portions on the trailing edge of control surface<br />In-flight pilot adjustable<br />Hold s...
Balance Tabs<br />To help with high control forces<br />Same location as Trim tab<br />May be used as trim tab<br />Linkag...
Anti-servo Tabs<br />Decrease sensitivity of stabilator<br />Attached on opposite side of control surface<br />May be used...
Spring Tabs<br />Spring is not compressed during normal operation<br />Compresses when forces are high<br />Allows control...
Servo Tabs<br />Used in large aircraft<br />Operated by control column in the event of hydraulic failure<br />Primary forc...
Adjustable Stabilizer<br />Uses a jackscrew<br />Used to trim aircraft<br />
Auxiliary lifting devices<br />
High Lift Devices<br />Flaps<br />Slots<br />Slats<br />Leading Edge Flaps<br />
Flaps<br />Plain flaps<br />Split Flaps<br />Slotted Flaps<br />Fowler Flaps<br />
Plain Flap<br />
Slotted Flap<br />
Fowler Flap<br />
Cables<br />
Control Cables<br /> - Individual cylindrical rods<br />- Group of wires<br />- Central strand about which the others are ...
Cables<br />Length of Lay<br />The distance measured along a line parallel to the axis of the rope in which the strand mak...
Cables<br />Preformed<br />All aircraft control cables are preformed<br />Wires are shaped in a spiral form before the cab...
Cables<br />
Cables<br />
Cables<br />
Cables<br />Flexible cable cross section<br />
Cables<br />Extra-flexible cable cross sections<br />
Swaged Fittings<br /><ul><li>Small kink required to help hold cable in fitting during swaging
Red paint mark to help identify slippage
Do not tin the cable prior to swaging
Cut cable by mechanical means only</li></li></ul><li>
Cable Identification<br />
Cable Identification<br />
Cable Identification<br />
Cable Identification<br />
Cable Identification<br />
Cable Identification<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
Cable Identification<br />Basic Part Number<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
Cable Identification<br />Cable Diameter<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
Cable Identification<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />	Materials, Cable,<br /> 		& Terminal<br />
Cable Identification<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />Terminals<br />
Cable Identification<br />Length<br />in inches<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
Cable Identification<br />Length in 1/8th<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
Cable Identification<br />Length<br />in inches<br />Length in 1/8th<br />Cable Diameter<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />	Materia...
Cable Identification<br />NAS318C79-1386<br />
Cable Identification<br />¼” cable<br />Corrosion resistant steel MIL-W-5424<br />MS20664 Ball & SA-162-SC Fork<br />MS212...
Cable Length<br />Measurements for length taken from specific points on cable<br /><ul><li>Threaded end – Outboard end of ...
Ball end (single or double) – Inboard of ball
Fork terminal – Center of hole in fork</li></ul>Note: ball fittings will be found at the ends of a cable or in the middle....
Nicopress<br />
Nicopress<br />Must be “proof loaded” after crimping<br />Gradually apply a load of 60% of the cable breaking strength<br ...
Cable Inspection<br />When inspecting an installed cable a bright light and mirror will be needed<br />Running a soft clot...
Cable Inspection<br />
Cable Handling<br />If inspection warrants removal ensure that you do not kink the cables.<br />Ensure that they are route...
Cable Wear<br />Cable wear mostly occurs at pulleys where the cable bends.<br />Note: critical fatigue areas as per AC 43....
Major cause of wear in a cable is friction between the strands and wires<br />
Pulleys<br />Pulleys must be used for cable deflection beyond 3 degrees<br />
Cable tension<br />Pointer Lock<br />Riser block<br />Cable<br />Anvils<br />Trigger<br />Tensiometer<br />
Cable Tension<br />
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Rigging

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Flight control rigging

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  • WingsEmpennageHorizontal StabilizerVertical Fin
  • Canard
  • Most modern aircraft use cantilever wings, which means they have minimal or no external struts or bracingThere is very little adjustment available with cantilever wings. The angles are usually set at manufacture. Some have a cam or serrated washer at the rear spar attachment to adjust wash-in to compensate for wing-heavy flight conditions.
  • Any struts that they do have will be of a fixed lengthSome aircraft using V-struts have adjustment for dihedral and angle of incidenceInstallation basically consists of levelling the aircraft, installing the wings &amp; torquing the attachment bolts.Increased angle of incidence (wash-in) increases the lift of that wing.Final adjust done after a flight check.
  • CantileverBolted to fittings in the fuselage installed with a specific tightening sequence.Some lighter aircraft have wire braced tail surfaces.
  • Wire brace
  • One goes up the other goes downUp travel is more than down travelTo turn port/left/red light we need to lower that wingTo accomplish this we reduce lift by moving aileron up
  • Aileron moving down increases lift and thus increases drag. Because of this the aircraft yaws in the direction opposite the desired turn. The additional up travel on the other aileron produces enough parasite drag to counteract some or all of this.One goes up the other goes downUp travel is more than down travelTo turn port/left/red light we need to lower that wingTo accomplish this we reduce lift by moving aileron upQuestion #10 T1 – When the control stick is moved to the starboard side of the aircraft, which aileron has the greater amount of travel, the side with the red light or the side with the green light?Green light. (right side or starboard side)
  • RudderNot used to turn aircraft it, yaws the aircraftYaw - rotation about its vertical axisQuestion #15 T1 – Yaw is controlled by which primary flight control(s)?Question #9 T1 – Which control activates the tail rotor on a helicopter?Rudder pedals or Tail rotor pedals
  • 6 steps to rigging T1 #2
  • Question #8 T1 – What is the final inspection required for control systems?Independent inspectionQuest. #1 T3 – Names 3 precautions to take when jacking an aircraft. Safe area out of wind and trafficUse proper jacks, jack points, as specified by manufacturerPlacards, safety devices on all jacks
  • ICC is the final inspection of flight control systems – T1 #8
  • Question #11 T1 – What directions does the trailing edge of the elevator trim tab move for “nose up” trim adjustment?DownwardQuestion #5 T1 – If the trim tab on a rudder is moved to the starboard side of the aircraft, what effect does it have on the flight of the aircraft?Yaws aircraft to left (port)Question #4 T1 – You are in the cockpit installing an auto flight control package, you push the port pedal forward, the rudder moves to the port side. Is this flight control operating correctly?Yes
  • Question #16 T1 – What is the difference between a servo control tab and a control trim tab?
  • Question #1 T2 – What is the name of the individual cylindrical rods that make up the cable? - WireQuestion #2 T2 – Name the central strand about which the remaining strand are helically laid. - Core strandQuest. # 1 T4 – Name the materials used to make aircraft cables - Carbon steel - corrosion resistant steel
  • Quest. #3 T4 What is the length of lay of a 3 by 7 cable? - Between 5 and 8 times the nominal cable diameter
  • Quest. # 7 T2 – Name the control cable in which wires and strands are shaped prior to fabrication of the cable. – Preformed cable
  • Mil-W-1511 was the previous mil spec for MIL-W-83420 which is a flexible carbon steel cableQuest. #8 T2 – Which of the 2 common cable materials has the lower breaking load? - Corrosion-resistant steelQuest. #2 T4 – What does IWRC stand for? - Independent wire rope center
  • Mil-W-1511 was the previous mil spec for MIL-W-83420 which is a flexible carbon steel cableQuest. #8 T2 – Which of the 2 common cable materials has the lower breaking load? - Corrosion-resistant steelQuest. #2 T4 – What does IWRC stand for? - Independent wire rope center
  • Quest. #6 T2 – Which control cable has the least deflection capability? - 1 by 7 or 1 by 19
  • Quest. #3 T2- How many cylindrical rods are incorporated in an extra flexible cable? - 133
  • Quest #5 T2- State the only satisfactory method of cutting aircraft control cable. - Mechanical meansQuest. #17 T4 – What is an acceptable method of cutting cable? - Mechanical meansQuest. #18 T4 – What method of cutting a cable is not allowed? - Using a cutting torchQuest. #20 T4 – Are AN swage type terminals usable ob Civil aircraft? - YesQuest. #15 T4 – What 2 cable values are requires for repair and modification of civil aircraft? - cable diameter and strength AC 43.13-1B Para. 7-145
  • Question #7 T1 – How close to a pulley, fairlead, or guide in a control system, may a cable fitting be allowed to approach?2 inchesQuestion #14 T1 – A nicopress must not come closer than 2 inches to any fairlead or pulley.Quest. #19 T4 – Locate splices so the no portion of the splice comes closer than 2 inches to any fairlead or pulley.
  • Quest. #14 T4 – Where on a cable would you most likely find a double shank ball fitting? - At the ends or the center of a cable AC 43.13-1B Para 7-148 a. (3)
  • Quest.#9 T2 – Define proof loading - Load cable to 60% of its rated breaking strength - Gradual application held for 3 minutes and releasedQuest. #16 T4 – How is a cable or splice tested for proper strength before installation - Proof TestQuest. #21 T4 – What kind of fittings use copper sleeves? - Nicopres
  • Question #6 T1 – How may broken wires in an installed cable be detected?Wipe with a soft cotton clothQuest. #23 T4 – What is the most common cause for cable kinking? - Improper handlingQuest. #24 T4 – What must be done to control cables annually or every 100 hours? - Inspect for broken wires and strands
  • Quest. #4 T4 – Where does most cable wear occur? - At the pulleys where the cable bendsQuest. #22 T4 – What is classified as a critical fatigue area, with regards to aircraft cables? - Where cable runs over, under or around a pulley, sleeve, or through a fairlead
  • Quest. #5 T4 – What is the major cause of wear in cables? - Friction between strands and between wires
  • Question #3 T1 – You are doing an inspection on an aircraft aileron system. You find that a cable run is being deflected 3.75 degrees as it passes through a fairlead. Can the aircraft go flying?No – maximum deflection of a cable through a fairlead is 3 degrees
  • Question #1 T1 – What would be the maximum number of threads allowed to be exposed on a turnbuckle?6 total – 3 threads per side
  • Transcript of "Rigging"

    1. 1. Rigging<br />Flight Surfaces<br />
    2. 2. Right<br />Green<br />Starboard<br />Left<br />Red<br />Port<br />
    3. 3. Fixed surfaces<br />
    4. 4. Cantilever Wings<br />
    5. 5. Cantilever with strut<br />
    6. 6. Empennage<br />
    7. 7. Empennage<br />
    8. 8. Primary Control Surfaces<br />
    9. 9. Primary Control Surfaces<br /><ul><li>Ailerons
    10. 10. Elevator
    11. 11. Rudder</li></li></ul><li>Primary Control Surfaces<br />
    12. 12. Aileron<br />For roll control<br />
    13. 13. Ailerons<br />Differential ailerons<br />Aileron has greater up travel than down<br />Increased parasite drag help turn aircraft<br />Compensates for additional drag from aileron on outside of turn<br />
    14. 14. Rudder<br />For yaw control<br />
    15. 15. Ruddervator<br />Combines rudder & elevator<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Elevator<br />For pitch control<br />
    18. 18. Control Stops<br />Primary<br />Secondary<br />
    19. 19. Primary Stops<br />Located on the control surface<br />IE. On the aileron<br />Limit travel of surface<br />
    20. 20. Secondary Stops<br />Located on control<br />IE. Control column or rudder pedals<br />Provide “springback”<br />Prevent damage if primary should fail<br />
    21. 21. Springback<br />Ensures hitting the primary stop first<br />Protects control from violent manoeuvres<br />
    22. 22. Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />
    23. 23. Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the controls<br />Safety the controls<br />Independent inspection<br />
    24. 24. Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the controls<br />Safety the controls<br />Independent inspection<br />
    25. 25. Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the controls<br />Safety the controls<br />Independent inspection<br />
    26. 26. Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the controls<br />Safety the controls<br />Independent inspection<br />
    27. 27. Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the controls<br />Safety the controls<br />Independent inspection<br />
    28. 28. Six Basic Steps to Rigging<br />Level the aircraft<br />Neutralize the controls<br />Connect the controls<br />Adjust the controls<br />Safety the controls<br />Independent inspection<br />
    29. 29. Level the aircraft<br />Jacks<br />Tie downs<br />Four people<br />Levels<br />
    30. 30. Neutralize controls<br />Control locks<br />Rigging pins<br />
    31. 31. Connect controls<br />Adjust control tubes to fit<br />Tension cables<br />
    32. 32. Adjust controls<br />For Travel<br />For Neutral<br />
    33. 33. Safety Controls<br />Safety turnbuckles<br />Cotter pin nuts<br />Lockwire bolts<br />Install keepers/guides<br />
    34. 34. Turnbuckles<br />
    35. 35. Turnbuckles<br />Used to tension cables<br />Maximum three threads exposed on each end<br />Left hand & right hand threads<br />See AC 43.13 for inspection criteria<br />
    36. 36. Independent inspection<br />Ideally use person not involved with the control rigging<br />Must be qualified to perform the inspection<br />AME, Pilot, approved apprentice<br />Airworthiness Notices - C010, Edition 2 - 10 October 2001<br />For correct assembly, locking and sense of operation<br />
    37. 37. ICC<br />Independent Control Check<br />Correct assembly<br />Check routing, turnbuckles, deflection<br />Locking<br />Sense<br />Correct direction of control movement<br />Final inspection of a control system<br />
    38. 38. Auxiliary Controls<br />
    39. 39. Trim Tabs<br />Small moveable portions on the trailing edge of control surface<br />In-flight pilot adjustable<br />Hold surface deflected<br />Minimum tab is on elevator<br />For hands off flight<br />
    40. 40. Balance Tabs<br />To help with high control forces<br />Same location as Trim tab<br />May be used as trim tab<br />Linkage is attached to fixed surface<br />
    41. 41. Anti-servo Tabs<br />Decrease sensitivity of stabilator<br />Attached on opposite side of control surface<br />May be used for trim<br />
    42. 42. Spring Tabs<br />Spring is not compressed during normal operation<br />Compresses when forces are high<br />Allows control horn to deflect<br />
    43. 43. Servo Tabs<br />Used in large aircraft<br />Operated by control column in the event of hydraulic failure<br />Primary force for control surface deflection<br />
    44. 44. Adjustable Stabilizer<br />Uses a jackscrew<br />Used to trim aircraft<br />
    45. 45. Auxiliary lifting devices<br />
    46. 46. High Lift Devices<br />Flaps<br />Slots<br />Slats<br />Leading Edge Flaps<br />
    47. 47. Flaps<br />Plain flaps<br />Split Flaps<br />Slotted Flaps<br />Fowler Flaps<br />
    48. 48.
    49. 49.
    50. 50. Plain Flap<br />
    51. 51. Slotted Flap<br />
    52. 52. Fowler Flap<br />
    53. 53. Cables<br />
    54. 54. Control Cables<br /> - Individual cylindrical rods<br />- Group of wires<br />- Central strand about which the others are helically laid<br />
    55. 55. Cables<br />Length of Lay<br />The distance measured along a line parallel to the axis of the rope in which the strand makes one complete turn about the axis of the rope, or the wires make a complete turn about the axis of the strand. <br />Not more than eight times or less than five times the nominal cable diameter.<br />
    56. 56.
    57. 57. Cables<br />Preformed<br />All aircraft control cables are preformed<br />Wires are shaped in a spiral form before the cable is wound.<br />Will not spring out when cable is cut.<br />Known as a Preformed Cable<br />
    58. 58. Cables<br />
    59. 59. Cables<br />
    60. 60. Cables<br />
    61. 61. Cables<br />Flexible cable cross section<br />
    62. 62. Cables<br />Extra-flexible cable cross sections<br />
    63. 63.
    64. 64.
    65. 65. Swaged Fittings<br /><ul><li>Small kink required to help hold cable in fitting during swaging
    66. 66. Red paint mark to help identify slippage
    67. 67. Do not tin the cable prior to swaging
    68. 68. Cut cable by mechanical means only</li></li></ul><li>
    69. 69. Cable Identification<br />
    70. 70.
    71. 71. Cable Identification<br />
    72. 72. Cable Identification<br />
    73. 73. Cable Identification<br />
    74. 74. Cable Identification<br />
    75. 75. Cable Identification<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
    76. 76. Cable Identification<br />Basic Part Number<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
    77. 77. Cable Identification<br />Cable Diameter<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
    78. 78. Cable Identification<br />NAS314-27-1550<br /> Materials, Cable,<br /> & Terminal<br />
    79. 79. Cable Identification<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />Terminals<br />
    80. 80. Cable Identification<br />Length<br />in inches<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
    81. 81. Cable Identification<br />Length in 1/8th<br />NAS314-27-1550<br />
    82. 82. Cable Identification<br />Length<br />in inches<br />Length in 1/8th<br />Cable Diameter<br />NAS314-27-1550<br /> Materials, Cable,<br /> & Terminal<br />Terminals<br />
    83. 83. Cable Identification<br />NAS318C79-1386<br />
    84. 84. Cable Identification<br />¼” cable<br />Corrosion resistant steel MIL-W-5424<br />MS20664 Ball & SA-162-SC Fork<br />MS21260 LH Terminal, turnbuckle<br />138 ¾” long<br />
    85. 85. Cable Length<br />Measurements for length taken from specific points on cable<br /><ul><li>Threaded end – Outboard end of threads
    86. 86. Ball end (single or double) – Inboard of ball
    87. 87. Fork terminal – Center of hole in fork</li></ul>Note: ball fittings will be found at the ends of a cable or in the middle.<br />
    88. 88.
    89. 89.
    90. 90. Nicopress<br />
    91. 91. Nicopress<br />Must be “proof loaded” after crimping<br />Gradually apply a load of 60% of the cable breaking strength<br />Hold for 3 minutes<br />Gradually release<br />Like the cable fittings and other splices:<br />A nicopress must not come closer than 2” to a pulley or failead<br />
    92. 92. Cable Inspection<br />When inspecting an installed cable a bright light and mirror will be needed<br />Running a soft cloth lightly over the cable run will cause the cloth to snag on any broken wires<br />Movement of the controls will be necessary<br />
    93. 93. Cable Inspection<br />
    94. 94. Cable Handling<br />If inspection warrants removal ensure that you do not kink the cables.<br />Ensure that they are routed properly upon installation<br />
    95. 95. Cable Wear<br />Cable wear mostly occurs at pulleys where the cable bends.<br />Note: critical fatigue areas as per AC 43.13<br />
    96. 96. Major cause of wear in a cable is friction between the strands and wires<br />
    97. 97. Pulleys<br />Pulleys must be used for cable deflection beyond 3 degrees<br />
    98. 98. Cable tension<br />Pointer Lock<br />Riser block<br />Cable<br />Anvils<br />Trigger<br />Tensiometer<br />
    99. 99. Cable Tension<br />
    100. 100. Turnbuckles<br /><ul><li>Maximum number of threads exposed after tensioning is 3 per side.
    101. 101. Turn four threads in on each end for initial assembly</li></li></ul><li>

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