Chapter 4            Helicopter FundamentalsAVAM 3104 Helicopters           Author – Steve Mullis
Orientation   • Basic direction is viewed from the rear     facing forward.   • Right & left of engine correspond to     e...
6 precautions for wheels   • A bar must be used   • Bar must be firmly secured to assy.   • Personnel must stand clear whe...
Ground HandlingAVAM 3104 Helicopters            Author – Steve Mullis
Mooring                        Fig 4-4AVAM 3104 Helicopters             Author – Steve Mullis
Tie Down       Fig. 4-5 One tiedown system used on a fully articulated rotor system.AVAM 3104 Helicopters                 ...
Tie Downs    Fig. 4-6 A protective covering system used in extreme weather conditions.AVAM 3104 Helicopters               ...
Hoisting                                   Fig. 4-7AVAM 3104 Helicopters                         Author – Steve Mullis
Hoisting & JackingAVAM 3104 Helicopters                        Author – Steve Mullis
Torque Values                        Fig. 4-9 Torque wrench extension formula.AVAM 3104 Helicopters                       ...
Torque Values         Fig. 4-10 Standard torque tables & hardware identification charts.AVAM 3104 Helicopters             ...
Ball BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                   Author – Steve Mullis
Ball BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                   Author – Steve Mullis
Bearing Terms  Fig. 4-13 StandardAVAM 3104 Helicopters                   Author – Steve Mullis
Roller Bearings  Fig. 4-14 Various roller bearings that may be used in helicopters.AVAM 3104 Helicopters                  ...
Rod EndsAVAM 3104 Helicopters              Author – Steve Mullis
Rod EndsAVAM 3104 Helicopters              Author – Steve Mullis
Rod End ReplacementAVAM 3104 Helicopters              Author – Steve Mullis
Rod End Alignment          Fig. 4-18 Correct & incorrect methods of installing rod endsAVAM 3104 Helicopters              ...
Rod End BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                      Author – Steve Mullis
Sealed BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                     Author – Steve Mullis
Grease FittingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                     Author – Steve Mullis
Sight GaugesAVAM 3104 Helicopters                  Author – Steve Mullis
Servicing PointsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                      Author – Steve Mullis
Bearing ToolsFig. 4-24 Standard bearing pullers used for removal of roller and ball bearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters         ...
Bearing Removal            Fig. 4-25 Proper & improper procedures for bearing removalAVAM 3104 Helicopters                ...
Bearing AlignmentAVAM 3104 Helicopters                       Author – Steve Mullis
Thrust BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                     Author – Steve Mullis
Thrust BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                     Author – Steve Mullis
Thrust Bearings                        Fig. 4-29 Typical ball bearing installationsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                  ...
Bearing CapsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                  Author – Steve Mullis
Bearing CapsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                  Author – Steve Mullis
Bearing Caps              Fig. 4-32 Micrometer method of determining bearing pinch.AVAM 3104 Helicopters                  ...
Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                Author – Steve Mullis
Advantages of Elastomerics   •   No lubrication   •   No disassembly required   •   No seizure possible   •   Eliminates b...
Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                Author – Steve Mullis
Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                Author – Steve Mullis
Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                Author – Steve Mullis
Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters                Author – Steve Mullis
GearsAVAM 3104 Helicopters           Author – Steve Mullis
GearsAVAM 3104 Helicopters           Author – Steve Mullis
GearsAVAM 3104 Helicopters           Author – Steve Mullis
Gaskets & Seals   • Two main classes        – Static        – Dynamic   • Rotating shafts require radial lip seals or     ...
O rings   •   Also known as packings   •   Specific for the type of fluid   •   Not inter-changable   •   Military specifi...
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Chapter 4

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Helicopter Fundamentals

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  • #2 – stand facing the aircraft from the rear to determine direction of aircraft.
  • #1 – 6 precautions when using ground handling wheels.
  • #13 – Skid gear equipped helicopters require ground handling wheels to be moved on the ground.
  • #8 - The mast nut is the most logical place to lift the whole helicopter from. Done usually to replace skid gear #11 - Required for weight and balance and rigging. Requires the use of jacks, level or plum bob.
  • #7 - Most common type of bearing used in helicopters is the ball bearing.
  • #12 – Roller bearings are used for radial loads
  • #3- Roller staking - Drill press used to swage a sleeve
  • #4 - If working in dusty, sandy, or corrosive environments frequent lubrication is required to prevent containments from damaging the bearings
  • #14- the approved oils & greases will be found in the lubrication chart in chapter 12 of the maintenance manuals.
  • #5 - 3 individual bearings assembled into a matched set is a triplex bearing
  • Pinch – To squeeze between to objects #6 - Bearing is installed with a pinch to prevent bearing race rotation
  • #9 – Give five advantages of elastomerics.
  • #10 - Three types of elastomeric bearings are – cylindrical spherical, & conical
  • #15 - The four types of gears used in helicopters are: Straight tooth Helical Bevel Spiral bevel
  • #16 – the 2 main classes of gaskets & seals are? #17 – Rotating or moving shaft require radial lip seals or shaft seals. #18 – The 2 types of clearance seals are labyrinth & face #19 – Another name for face seal.
  • #20 – O-rings are not interchangeable.
  • Chapter 4

    1. 1. Chapter 4 Helicopter FundamentalsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    2. 2. Orientation • Basic direction is viewed from the rear facing forward. • Right & left of engine correspond to engine position. • Colour coding used for rotating components.AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    3. 3. 6 precautions for wheels • A bar must be used • Bar must be firmly secured to assy. • Personnel must stand clear when raising or lowering • No hand or feet under skids • All locking devices must be in place • Never operate a/c with wheels downAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    4. 4. Ground HandlingAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    5. 5. Mooring Fig 4-4AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    6. 6. Tie Down Fig. 4-5 One tiedown system used on a fully articulated rotor system.AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    7. 7. Tie Downs Fig. 4-6 A protective covering system used in extreme weather conditions.AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    8. 8. Hoisting Fig. 4-7AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    9. 9. Hoisting & JackingAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    10. 10. Torque Values Fig. 4-9 Torque wrench extension formula.AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    11. 11. Torque Values Fig. 4-10 Standard torque tables & hardware identification charts.AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    12. 12. Ball BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    13. 13. Ball BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    14. 14. Bearing Terms Fig. 4-13 StandardAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    15. 15. Roller Bearings Fig. 4-14 Various roller bearings that may be used in helicopters.AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    16. 16. Rod EndsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    17. 17. Rod EndsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    18. 18. Rod End ReplacementAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    19. 19. Rod End Alignment Fig. 4-18 Correct & incorrect methods of installing rod endsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    20. 20. Rod End BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    21. 21. Sealed BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    22. 22. Grease FittingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    23. 23. Sight GaugesAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    24. 24. Servicing PointsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    25. 25. Bearing ToolsFig. 4-24 Standard bearing pullers used for removal of roller and ball bearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    26. 26. Bearing Removal Fig. 4-25 Proper & improper procedures for bearing removalAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    27. 27. Bearing AlignmentAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    28. 28. Thrust BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    29. 29. Thrust BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    30. 30. Thrust Bearings Fig. 4-29 Typical ball bearing installationsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    31. 31. Bearing CapsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    32. 32. Bearing CapsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    33. 33. Bearing Caps Fig. 4-32 Micrometer method of determining bearing pinch.AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    34. 34. Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    35. 35. Advantages of Elastomerics • No lubrication • No disassembly required • No seizure possible • Eliminates brinelling, pitting, & galling • Reduces vibration • Boots & seals are eliminated • Resistant to environmental problems • Extended service life • Reduces number of partsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    36. 36. Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    37. 37. Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    38. 38. Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    39. 39. Elastomeric BearingsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    40. 40. GearsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    41. 41. GearsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    42. 42. GearsAVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    43. 43. Gaskets & Seals • Two main classes – Static – Dynamic • Rotating shafts require radial lip seals or shaft seals • Two types of clearance seals – Labyrinth – Face (carbon seal)AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis
    44. 44. O rings • Also known as packings • Specific for the type of fluid • Not inter-changable • Military specification (MS28775-214)AVAM 3104 Helicopters Author – Steve Mullis

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