Summaries, Paraphrases,            and Quotes
Citing a Source When using an outside source, it is key to cite your use  of the source in your essay. In other words, yo...
Ways of Source Use There are three main ways to use a source:   Summaries   Paraphrases   Quotations
Summaries A summary is restating the main ideas or points of an  outside source in your own words. A summary needs to st...
Paraphrases A paraphrase is when you restate a specific portion of a  text in your own words; usually a sentence or two....
Quotes A quote is copy word-for-word of what the author said  in your essay. It is important to be sure to use quotation...
Integrating a Source Anytime you use a source, it is key that you properly  integrate the outside information into your e...
Explaining Your Source There are several ways of starting the explanatory  sentence of your source sandwich. For example:...
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Summaries, Paraphases, and Quotes

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Summaries, Paraphases, and Quotes

  1. 1. Summaries, Paraphrases, and Quotes
  2. 2. Citing a Source When using an outside source, it is key to cite your use of the source in your essay. In other words, you need to give credit to another person’s ideas. There are two ways of citing an outside source in the text of your essay:  Signal Phrase – using a short introductory phrase that tells who the author is and/or where the outside information is from. Ex. In her book Badlands, Sarah Jones argues…  Parenthetical citation – a citation at the end of the section that uses outside ideas that tells who the author is and/or where the outside information is from. Ex. (Jones 12)
  3. 3. Ways of Source Use There are three main ways to use a source:  Summaries  Paraphrases  Quotations
  4. 4. Summaries A summary is restating the main ideas or points of an outside source in your own words. A summary needs to stay true to what the author of the outside source is saying. A summary is a way of presenting the general ideas of an author to your reader. You should also tailor your summary to meet the goals of your essay. Avoid summarizing information that is irrelevant to the points that you are making. Always use a signal phrase to introduce a summary and use a parenthetical citation if possible.
  5. 5. Paraphrases A paraphrase is when you restate a specific portion of a text in your own words; usually a sentence or two. A paraphrase needs to be syntactically different than the original source. This means that you cannot simply substitute words when paraphrasing. Your paraphrase needs to be written in a completely different manner from the original language. Always use a signal phrase and a parenthetical citation when using a paraphrase.
  6. 6. Quotes A quote is copy word-for-word of what the author said in your essay. It is important to be sure to use quotation marks “” when using a quote. Also remember that a quote can be shorter than a full sentence. The use of a short phrase or specific term from a source will need to be cited. Always use a signal phrase and a parenthetical citation when using a quote.
  7. 7. Integrating a Source Anytime you use a source, it is key that you properly integrate the outside information into your essay, so that it makes sense in your essay. To properly integrate your source it is key to create a Source Sandwich, which has three parts:  A signal phrase (the top bun)  The use of the source (the meat)  An explanation of what the outside information means and how it supports your point (the bottom bun)
  8. 8. Explaining Your Source There are several ways of starting the explanatory sentence of your source sandwich. For example:  Basically, X is saying…  In other words, X believes…  In making this comment, X argues that…  X’s point is that… and as you can see this supports my point by…

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