NoSQL
LQS ylnO toN



               Devoxx 2009
How did we get here?
Daisy
(this is what we do)
                                                      Java




                       open sour...
rather nice query language
rather nice publishing features


wanted to move away from
WCMS
fast access control and facet
b...
Findings
 we learned a lot (about content management) over the past 6
 years (like: versioning, staging, multilinguality, ...
Overhaul
get rid of Cocoon → Kauri
quest for differentation
    “the internet barrier”
    combine massive storage
    wit...
The Internet Barrier
                       fundamental technology gap
             NoSQL
                       buy/use v...
Conclusions

let’s start from scratch (ouch)
a different architecture / foundations
  scale big and be available
  modular...
Storage challenges
sparse data structures
flexible, evolving data structures
lack of good fault-tolerance setups
cope with ...
ACID                                  vs             BASE
atomicity consistency isolation durability              basicall...
Our CAP multilemma
                       scale



    consistency                                  partition
            ...
C?A?P?

Initial gut feeling: cAP
  A was a given
  C would be a function of our datastore choice
  however the P seemed li...
CAPondering

  HBase vs Cassandra
     consistency vs SPOF ?
     possible higher latency vs possibly frailer community ?
...
Comparison Matrix
                        Partitioning              Availability                     Replication          ...
HBase
sorted
distributed         persisted
column-oriented     storage system
multi-dimensional
highly-available
high-perf...
HBase
Apache Hadoop sub-project
hadoop.apache.org/hbase
0.20.1 (12/Oct 2009)
People
Inventors                    Project leads
  Google BigTable ☺            Michael Stack (Powerset/
  Jim Kellerman ...
© lars george
HBase data model
Distributed multi-dimensional   Keys are arbitrary strings
sparse map
                                Acc...
Date: Thu, 12 Nov 2009 18:19:50 -0800
Message-ID: <78568af10911121819x292527b2t7f8b7d857c3650b2@mail.gmail.com>
Subject: R...
E-R


Blog


       partitioning

                            sequential scans
Getting data in and out
 Java API
 Thrift multi-language API
 Stargate REST connector
 HBase shell (JRuby IRB-
 based)
 Pr...
Questions?
stevenn@outerthought.org
twitter: @stevenn / @outerthought
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NoSQL "Tools in Action" talk at Devoxx

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My talk (30') on NoSQL for Devoxx 2009 in Antwerp

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  • Atomicity. All of the operations in the transaction will complete, or none will.
    Consistency. The database will be in a consistent state when the transaction begins and ends.
    Isolation. The transaction will behave as if it is the only operation being performed upon the database.
    Durability. Upon completion of the transaction, the operation will not be reversed.
  • consistency of data: think serializability
    availability: pinging a live node should produce results
    partition tolerance: live nodes should not be blocked by partitions
  • NoSQL "Tools in Action" talk at Devoxx

    1. 1. NoSQL LQS ylnO toN Devoxx 2009
    2. 2. How did we get here?
    3. 3. Daisy (this is what we do) Java open source cms MySQL Lucene system- and full-text indexes metadata filesystem actual content
    4. 4. rather nice query language rather nice publishing features wanted to move away from WCMS fast access control and facet browser requires the active document set to reside in memory cache SCALE?
    5. 5. Findings we learned a lot (about content management) over the past 6 years (like: versioning, staging, multilinguality, searching, access control, publishing) people don’t like Cocoon / XSLT, prefer templating instead a lot of our project specifics were about finding the correct storage model for specific data structures (not all data was fit for our CMS) customers with growing ambitions → Daisy has to follow !
    6. 6. Overhaul get rid of Cocoon → Kauri quest for differentation “the internet barrier” combine massive storage with useful query-ability REST, Maven, Spring, webapps www.kauriproject.org
    7. 7. The Internet Barrier fundamental technology gap NoSQL buy/use vs build focus on architecture and infrastructure SQL rise of semi- or free- structured information layered approach http://github.com/blog/530-how-we-made-github-fast
    8. 8. Conclusions let’s start from scratch (ouch) a different architecture / foundations scale big and be available modularity (pluggability) we’re not a banking application, so consistency might be less important
    9. 9. Storage challenges sparse data structures flexible, evolving data structures lack of good fault-tolerance setups cope with scale CAP vs BASE (Google) BigTable and (Amazon) Dynamo
    10. 10. ACID vs BASE atomicity consistency isolation durability basically available, soft state, eventually consistent Strong Consistency Weak Consistency Isolation Availability First Focus on “commit” Best Effort Nested Transactions Approximative Answers OK Availability? Aggressive (optimistic) Conservative (pessimistic) Simpler! Difficult Evolution (schema) Faster Easier Evolution spectrum slide: Mark Brewer
    11. 11. Our CAP multilemma scale consistency partition availability of data tolerance ping means results ‘cluster splits’ should not block fault tolerance
    12. 12. C?A?P? Initial gut feeling: cAP A was a given C would be a function of our datastore choice however the P seemed like a nice-to-have (aka over-ambitious use-case)
    13. 13. CAPondering HBase vs Cassandra consistency vs SPOF ? possible higher latency vs possibly frailer community ? Cocoon trauma http://www.cs.cornell.edu/projects/ladis2009/talks/ramakrishnan-keynote-ladis2009.pdf
    14. 14. Comparison Matrix Partitioning Availability Replication Storage Consistency Sync/async Local/geo Hash/sort Durability Dynamic Reads/ Failures handled Routing writes During failure Colo+ Local+ Double Buffer PNUTS H+S Rtr Read+ Async Timeline + Y server write geo Eventual WAL pages Local+ Buffer MySQL H+S N Cli Colo+ Read Async ACID WAL pages server nearby Read+ Local+ N/A (no Triple Y Colo+ Sync Files HDFS Other Rtr server write nearby updates) replication Colo+ Read+ Local+ Multi- Triple LSM/ BigTable S Y Rtr write Sync nearby version replication SSTable server Colo+ Read+ Local+ Buffer Dynamo H Y P2P write Async nearby Eventual WAL pages server Read+ Sync+ Local+ Triple LSM/ Cassandra H+S Y P2P Colo+ Eventual WAL SSTable server write Async nearby Megastore S Y Rtr Colo+ Read+ Sync Local+ ACID/ Triple replication LSM/ SSTable server write nearby other Azure S N Cli Server Read+ Buffer write Sync Local ACID WAL pages 100 100
    15. 15. HBase sorted distributed persisted column-oriented storage system multi-dimensional highly-available high-performance adds random access reads and writes atop HDFS
    16. 16. HBase Apache Hadoop sub-project hadoop.apache.org/hbase 0.20.1 (12/Oct 2009)
    17. 17. People Inventors Project leads Google BigTable ☺ Michael Stack (Powerset/ Jim Kellerman (Powerset/ Microsoft) Microsoft) Jonathan Gray (Streamy.com) Mike Cafarella (UMich) Ryan Rawson (StumbleUpon) Jean-Daniel Cryans (SU) Bryan Duxbury (Rapleaf)
    18. 18. © lars george
    19. 19. HBase data model Distributed multi-dimensional Keys are arbitrary strings sparse map Access to row data is atomic Multi-dimensional keys: (table, row, family:column, timestamp) → value
    20. 20. Date: Thu, 12 Nov 2009 18:19:50 -0800 Message-ID: <78568af10911121819x292527b2t7f8b7d857c3650b2@mail.gmail.com> Subject: Re: newbie: need help on understanding HBase From: Ryan Rawson <ryanobjc@gmail.com> To: hbase-user@hadoop.apache.org HBase is semi-column oriented. Column families is the storage model - everything in a column family is stored in a file linearly in HDFS. That means accessing data from a column family is really cheap and easy. Adding more column families adds more files - it has the performance profile of adding new tables, except you dont actually have additional tables, so the conceptual complexity stays low. Data is stored at the "intersection" of the rowid, and the column family + qualifier. This is sometimes called a "Cell" - contains a timestamp as well. You can have multiple versions all timestamped. The timestamp is by default the int64/java system milli time. I have to recommend against setting the timestamp explicitly if you can avoid it. So when you retrieve a row, you can get everything, a list of column qualifiers or a list of families or any combo. (eg: list of these qualifiers out of family A and everything from family B) [...] The terms to use are: - Column family (or just family): the unit of locality in hbase. Everything in a family is stored in 1 (or a set) of files. A table is a name and a list of families with attributes for those families (eg: compression). A family is a string. - Column qualifier (or just qualifier): allows you to store multiple values for the same row in 1 family. This value is a byte array and can be anything. The API converts null => new byte[0]{}. This is the tricky bit, since most people dont think of "column names" as being dynamic. - Cell - the old name for a value + timestamp. The new API (see: class Result) doesn't use this term, instead provides a different path to read data. You can use HBase as a normal datastore and use static names for the qualifiers, and that is just fine. But if you need something special to get past the lack of relations, you can start to do fun things with the qualifier as data. Building a secondary index for example. The row key would be the secondary value (eg: city) and the qualifier would be the primary key (eg: userid) and the value would be a placeholder to indicate the value exists.
    21. 21. E-R Blog partitioning sequential scans
    22. 22. Getting data in and out Java API Thrift multi-language API Stargate REST connector HBase shell (JRuby IRB- based) Processing: MapReduce and Cascading
    23. 23. Questions? stevenn@outerthought.org twitter: @stevenn / @outerthought

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