What is Triangulation? <ul><li>“ Short-hand term” for synthesis and integrated analysis of data  from multiple sources  fo...
Why Use Triangulation? <ul><li>Countries invest time and resources into collecting  </li></ul><ul><li>data and Strategic I...
Triangulation Process Communicating Results   Planning Triangulation Conducting Triangulation
Triangulation Part 1: Planning <ul><li>Present results and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Outline next steps based on f...
Triangulation Part 1: Planning <ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest fr...
Triangulation Part 2: Conducting <ul><ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point person to work in-countr...
Triangulation Part 3: Communicating <ul><ul><ul><li>Summation of Findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop ...
Botswana example: Narrowing Key Questions Final Question(s) Key Questions 16 9 2 <ul><li>Important </li></ul><ul><li>Actio...
Triangulation at IGH: What We Do <ul><li>Conduct triangulation analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate report of findings,...
Capacity Building Activities Total Triangulation Analysis and Training duration is four to six months <ul><li>Initial Stak...
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1368 triangulation summary

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1368 triangulation summary

  1. 1. What is Triangulation? <ul><li>“ Short-hand term” for synthesis and integrated analysis of data from multiple sources for program decision making </li></ul><ul><li>A powerful tool that can be used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate program impact and areas of improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct new programs and policy changes </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Why Use Triangulation? <ul><li>Countries invest time and resources into collecting </li></ul><ul><li>data and Strategic Information (SI): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient tracking data: PMTCT & ARV program data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveillance data: ANC sentinel surveys, DHS+, incidence testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth and deaths: Vital statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research studies: Quantitative & qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information goes up but rarely comes back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data rarely examined side-by-side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of data used for program planning and improvement, and policy-making is often overlooked </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Triangulation Process Communicating Results Planning Triangulation Conducting Triangulation
  4. 4. Triangulation Part 1: Planning <ul><li>Present results and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Outline next steps based on findings </li></ul>Communicating Triangulation <ul><li>Check hypotheses & identify additional data to be captured </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize findings & draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Gather data/reports </li></ul><ul><li>Observations from individual data sets </li></ul><ul><li>Note trends across data sets & develop hypotheses </li></ul>Conducting Triangulation <ul><li>Identify sources & gather background information </li></ul><ul><li>Refine research question (as needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure question is answerable/ actionable </li></ul>Planning for Triangulation What steps are involved? Which part of the process?
  5. 5. Triangulation Part 1: Planning <ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Involvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest from country </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meet with stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop In-country Working Team </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question Identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify key questions of interest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify data sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refine research question(s) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Present results and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Outline next steps based on findings </li></ul>Communicating Triangulation <ul><li>Check hypotheses & identify additional data to be captured </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize findings & draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Gather data/reports </li></ul><ul><li>Observations from individual data sets </li></ul><ul><li>Note trends across data sets & develop hypotheses </li></ul>Conducting Triangulation <ul><li>Identify sources & gather background information </li></ul><ul><li>Refine research question (as needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure question is answerable/ actionable </li></ul>Planning for Triangulation What steps are involved? Which part of the process?
  6. 6. Triangulation Part 2: Conducting <ul><ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point person to work in-country to gather data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect all data possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make observations within data sets and across data sets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop hypotheses to answer key questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis Checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note evidence that supports or refutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and gather more data, as needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose promising hypotheses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Present results and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Outline next steps based on findings </li></ul>Communicating Triangulation <ul><li>Check hypotheses & identify additional data to be captured </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize findings & draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Gather data/reports </li></ul><ul><li>Observations from individual data sets </li></ul><ul><li>Note trends across data sets & develop hypotheses </li></ul>Conducting Triangulation <ul><li>Identify sources & gather background information </li></ul><ul><li>Refine research question (as needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure question is answerable/ actionable </li></ul>Planning for Triangulation What steps are involved? Which part of the process?
  7. 7. Triangulation Part 3: Communicating <ul><ul><ul><li>Summation of Findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop report of methods and findings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next Steps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify any existing data to fill gaps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify research needed to fill gaps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend policy &/or program changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Present results and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Outline next steps based on findings </li></ul>Communicating Triangulation <ul><li>Check hypotheses & identify additional data to be captured </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize findings & draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Gather data/reports </li></ul><ul><li>Observations from individual data sets </li></ul><ul><li>Note trends across data sets & develop hypotheses </li></ul>Conducting Triangulation <ul><li>Identify sources & gather background information </li></ul><ul><li>Refine research question (as needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure question is answerable/ actionable </li></ul>Planning for Triangulation What steps are involved? Which part of the process?
  8. 8. Botswana example: Narrowing Key Questions Final Question(s) Key Questions 16 9 2 <ul><li>Important </li></ul><ul><li>Actionable </li></ul><ul><li>Data Available </li></ul><ul><li>Method Appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul>Key Questions
  9. 9. Triangulation at IGH: What We Do <ul><li>Conduct triangulation analyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate report of findings, recommendations and next steps eg: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Botswana Case Study: http://www.who. int/entity/hiv/pub/casestudies/evaluation/en/index .html </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malawi Analysis and Case Study (under review) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Build capacity through in-country collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint analyses between UCSF and in-country partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practicum-based training using country data and country analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-going mentoring with local collaborators to assure a transfer of skills and capacity </li></ul></ul>www.igh.org
  10. 10. Capacity Building Activities Total Triangulation Analysis and Training duration is four to six months <ul><li>Initial Stakeholder meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders introduced to methodology. Group collaboratively defines area of study and question for triangulation analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task-Force of national technical representatives created to guide triangulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Capture of Data </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twinning with local collaborating researcher for in-country data-collation work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint analysis with local collaborating researchers (long distance, in-country, or in San Francisco depending on capacity, budget, and schedule) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing consultation and review by Task-Force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Training Workshop </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Task-Force members and selected technical personnel from national and provincial offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on practicum-based approach using own-country data. Participants independently recreate & refine triangulation analyses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Final Stakeholder Meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of findings to collaborators, informed by ideas and feedback of training workshop, jointly led by local collaborating researchers </li></ul></ul></ul>
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