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Outdoor security lighting   high-intensity discharge lights
 

Outdoor security lighting high-intensity discharge lights

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Most commonly associated with outdoor flood lights, there are many options to choose from when designing an outdoor security lighting system. The most well-thought systems combine a mixture of lights ...

Most commonly associated with outdoor flood lights, there are many options to choose from when designing an outdoor security lighting system. The most well-thought systems combine a mixture of lights designed for continual use with those designed to instantly switch on and and automatically turn off by means of a motion sensor detector. When properly implemented, the lamps should not only act as a deterrent against potential crime and mischief, but also allow homeowners to clearly see objects in the lit areas.

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    Outdoor security lighting   high-intensity discharge lights Outdoor security lighting high-intensity discharge lights Document Transcript

    • Outdoor Security Lighting - High-Intensity Discharge LightsMost commonly associated with outdoor flood lights, there are many options to choose fromwhen designing an outdoor security lighting system. The most well-thought systems combinea mixture of lights designed for continual use with those designed to instantly switch on andautomatically turn off by means of a motion sensor detector. When properly implemented, thelamps should not only act as a deterrent against potential crime and mischief, but also allowhomeowners to clearly see objects in the lit areas.Many lamp varieties are used in outdoor security lighting. Which lamps you decide to use isgoing to depend, at least in part, on where you want the lights situated and how brightly youwant the area lit. Other factors that will affect your decision are desired light intensity, colorrendering index (CRI), correlated color temperature (CCT), lifespan, and energy efficiency.Color rendering index refers to a lamps ability to faithfully render colors, as compared with anatural or optimal light source. Daylight is the typical benchmark. The higher a light registerson this quantitative index, the more capable it is of faithfully producing colors.CRI does not describe the visible color of the lamp. That is the job of correlated colortemperature.Correlated color temperature refers to the specific temperature a theoretical light sourcewould need to be heated to achieve a light that produces a color of a reference source oflight. It is measured in degrees kelvin (K). Kelvin is a unit of absolute temperature; a topicbeyond the scope of this article.CCT essentially measures the overall warmth or coolness of a lamps appearance. Lowertemperatures refer to warmer light sources, and vice versa. Colors below 3200 K areconsidered warm (red/yellow/gold), while colors above 4000 K are generally considered cool(blue hue).Lamps can be broken down into two main types: high intensity discharge (HID) and halogen.Heres a brief description for HID:HID lamps - have the longest lifespan and highest efficacy of any light source. Efficacy refersto the amount of light produced as measured against the amount of energy expended in theprocess. Simply put, this means they radiate more light per watt of electricity consumedbecause a higher proportion of their radiation is light, as opposed to heat.HID lamps manufacture intense light using an electrical arc. Electrical arc, in this instance,refers to a process that involves a quick breakdown of the resistance of gas contained withinthe bulbs quartz or alumina arc tube. This arc tube contains both gas and metal salts andthe breakdown occurs between 2 electrodes within the arc tube. Gas is used to provide theinitial spark.Once sparked, the electrical arc gradually heats the metal salts contained within the arc tube.The heating of these metal salts forms into a continuous plasma discharge, which greatlyadds to the lights intensity, while at the same time reducing its energy consumption.
    • HID lights require a ballast: a device used to ignite and harness the current flow within the arctube. More specifically, it converts existing voltage into a higher operating voltage in order tospark the gas and metal salts into producing light. Once ignited, it can sometimes takes 5minutes or more for the ballast to fully establish the electrical arc. This means it could takemore than 5 minutes for these lights to produce light once activated.And the upshot of all this is that while HID lights are an excellent source of continual light,they are much less so when it comes to motion sensor outdoor lighting, which requires a lampto immediately produce light. HID lights are best applied when incorporated with otheroutdoor security lighting fixtures capable of instant activation.HID Light TypesThe type of gas used within the tube determines what kind of HID lamp you are working with.Metal halide, neon, xenon, sodium, mercury, argon, and krypton are all HID lamp varieties.Heres a brief overview of a few of the main types of HID lights:Mercury vapor lamps - are the first generation HID lamp. Of all HID lights, mercury vaporlamps are the least efficient. Original models produced a blue/green light, but more recentmodels have toned down the blue/green affect by adding a phosphor coating to the bulbs.The coating improves the CRI (color rendering index) and balances the light spectrum, whichgives the light a “white” appearance. Mercury vapor lights typically have an outer bulb thatcontains the inner arc tube. The arc tube is comprised of quartz and is filled with mercury andargon gas.Metal halide and sodium vapor lamps are increasingly replacing mercury vapor lamps, both ofwhich are more efficient and have better color rendition than mercury vapor. Perhaps thereason mercury vapor lamps have not completely disappeared is because of how long thebulbs last. The average HID bulb life is 24,000 hours or more.Metal halide lamps - emit an extremely bright light and provide the best color rendition of allHID lamps. These lights are most commonly used in construction sites, commercialbuildings, parking lots, sporting arenas, and other areas where safety and security is theprimary goal.Metal halide lamps have arc tubes that contain mercury, argon and metal halide gas. Metalhalide gas facilitates greater light intensity, better energy consumption, and better CTR andCCT than what mercury vapors lamps are able to achieve.Sodium vapor lamps - come in 2 varieties: low pressure and high pressure.Low pressure sodium vapor lamps have the highest efficacy of all HID lights. The gases inthe arc tube of these lamps are solid sodium, argon, and neon. The lamp emits a faintpink/red light as it begins to heat the solid sodium. As the sodium vaporizes, the lights displaythe red/yellow glow they are known for.A downside of these outdoor lights is they produce a monochromatic light. This means
    • objects all appear the same shade of color. These lamps are used in instances where color isnot a primary concern, which makes them useful for such things as highway, parking lot andsecurity lighting.High pressure sodium lamps - as the name implies, work under high pressure and hightemperature. The result is a more visually appealing light, but this is accomplished at theexpense of energy efficiency.