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Thinking about Content
 

Thinking about Content

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    Thinking about Content Thinking about Content Presentation Transcript

    • Oleh : Dewi Rahimah, S.Pd., M.Ed.
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Subject Matter Types of Knowledge Diversity and Content
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Subject Matter Examples of skills and knowledge : Academics : recognizing letters, knowing the structure of plant cells, finding the circumference of a circle. Learning strategies : completing an assignment calendar, reading for comprehension. Social and emotional skills : taking no for an answer, joining in activites, dealing with embarassment. Arts : appreciating baroque music, drawing faces. Health and fitness : bandaging a cut, understanding the effects of drugs, exercising aerobically. Life skills : making a bed, riding the city bus independently, budgeting Cognitive behavior skills : interpersonal problem solving, controlling angry outbursts. Vocational skills : finding a career interest, fixing car engines, using the want ads Technology skills : evaluating Web sites for bias, creating spreadsheets, keyboarding.
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Types of Knowledge Declarative Procedural Knowledge Knowledge
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Types of Knowledge Declarative Definition: to know or know about something Knowledge Definition: factual information Facts Example : 10 is a multiply of 5; names (of states and capitals) objects, events, actions, or situations that share a Definition: set of defining characteristics Concepts Triangle is a concept. All triangles have three sides Example : and three angles. For example isosceles, equilateral. relational rules that prescribe the relationship Definition: between two or more concepts Principles round up numbers five or higher; ; voting is both a Example : right and a responsibility.
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Types of Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Definition: knowing how to do something Example : Knowing how to Knowing how to change a flat tire cut with scissors Knowing how to Knowing how to proofread multiply fractions Knowing how to write a five paragraph essay
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Diversity and Content When thinking about what students need to learn, you also need to consider content that reflects the diversity of the world and the diversity in your classroom Three goals to help structure your decisions in creating a diversity responsive curriculum Teach content about diversity Teach content that is complete and inclusive Connect the content taught to students’ live
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Diversity and Content Teach content about diversity Teach directly about individuals, groups, cultures, traditions, b eliefs, issues, events, and so on, that reflect diversity Select objectives that focus on developing skills for a diverse world Consider using carrier content related to diversity when teaching any subject matter
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Diversity and Content Teach content that is complete and inclusive Include all Emphasize contributors, v To be thorough similarities, av oices, and in your oid focusing perspectives coverage of only on when teaching topics differences subjects
    • Thinking about What Students Need to Learn Diversity and Content Connect the content taught to students’ live Select examples, images, and metaphors connected to students’ experienced and cultural backgrounds Learn about your students’ cultural backgrounds and about the community in which you teach Consider skill diversity Engage students by using content based on their interests Help students learn the skills that will allow them to learn more efficiently
    • Guidance in Choosing What to Teach National Curriculum International Curriculum Profesional Organization Standards National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Big Ideas Economic system are influenced by supply and demand Patterns are everywhere Geographical features affect where people sttle Writes try to persuade their readers to believe or act in certain ways People have created different forms of government to meet their needs School district curriculum
    • Preparing What to Teach Levels of Understanding Organizing Content for Teaching Choosing the Analysis
    • Preparing What to Teach Levels of Understanding Introductory knowledge Develop a thorough understanding of important knowledge and skills Strengthen students’ understanding of previously learned information
    • Preparing What to Teach Levels of Understanding Introductory knowledge The aims : to build background knowledge to expose student to the content to build interest of motivation to prepare students for a series of lessons and activities on a topic to introduce a topic or skill that will be taught completely in a future grade
    • Preparing What to Teach Levels of Understanding Develop a thorough understanding of important knowledge and skills. The aims : to remember the information To to be able to apply it comprehend it
    • Preparing What to Teach Levels of Understanding Strengthen students’ understanding of previously learned information. Teachers may : Provide Provide a additional review practice Provide Provide integrate opportunities content from for different generalization subject areas
    • Preparing What to Teach Organizing Content for Teaching A special Organizing Organizing Key terms Prerequisite note about declarative procedural and skills and memorizing knowledge knowledge vocabulary knowledge information
    • Preparing What to Teach Organizing Content for Teaching Organizing declarative knowledge Subject matter are standard outlines of the specific content to be covered in the lesson outlines A concept analysis is used for teaching concepts, includes : A definition of the concept A list of the critical attributes that are distinguishing feature or characteristic found in all example A list of non critical attributes that are nonesential characteristic not found in all example A list of examples A list non example A list of related concepts if helpful Principles are relational rules that show the relationship between two or more statements concepts
    • Preparing What to Teach Organizing Content for Teaching A special note about memorizing information When we plann for student to memorize significant amounts of information, it needs to be followed by a variety of activities designed to aid memorization, follow frequent and distributed opportunities to practice with an evaluation.
    • Preparing What to Teach Organizing Content for Teaching Organizing procedural knowledge Is used when you plan to teach a how to lesson, that is you want Task analysis your student to do something at the end of the lesson that they cannot presently do. A task analysis can be written in two ways : As a list of sequencial step that must be follow in order (how to do long division, for example) As a list a various subskill that must be completed but not necessarily in a certain order (how to write out a check, for example)
    • Preparing What to Teach Organizing Content for Teaching Key terms and vocabulary Identifying and writing out the definition of key term or specialed vocabulary words to be used in a lesson is another from of content analysis.
    • Preparing What to Teach Organizing Content for Teaching Prerequisite skills and knowledge One part of a content analysis is determining prerequisite skill and knowledge that student must have to be ready for a particular lesson.
    • Preparing What to Teach Choosing the Analysis Write a concept analysis when you plan to teach a concept. Include a task analysis when the point of the lesson is to teach a procedure or strategy, that is, a how to lesson. When teaching about a topic (that is, declarative knowledge), a subject matter outline will be most beneficial. Write a complete principal statement (the conditional and the result or action to be taken) when the objective of the lesson is to teach a principle. Key terms and vocabulary words are important to consider in very lesson or activity. Be sure that words are defined in term that the students will understand. It is always important to consider prerequisite skills and knowledge as part of a content analysis. This will help you write the objective and determine whether the content is appropriate for the students you are teaching.
    • References Price, K.M., & Nelson, K.L. (2007) Planning Effective Instruction : Diversity Responsive Methods and Management. USA : Thomson Wadsworth.