Chapter 2 : Skill Development                                 Chapter 2                          Skill DevelopmentA. Instr...
Chapter 2 : Skill Development6. Responding to question or task   Students prove through an achievement to teachers and the...
Chapter 2 : Skill Development5.   Characterization     Including the ability to appreciate values and formalize it become ...
Chapter 2 : Skill Development                                ReferencesDimyati & Mudjiono. (1999). Belajar dan Pembelajara...
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Skill Development

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Skill Development

  1. 1. Chapter 2 : Skill Development Chapter 2 Skill DevelopmentA. Instructional Activities Gagne in Winkel stated that phases in instructional activities are asfollows:1. Motivation Students are aware of instructional objectives and are willing to get involved in teaching and learning processes. This is a very important role because students maximize their thinking ability. If they have weak levels of motivation, students will tend to let posed problems. In this case, the role of teacher is increasing students’ motivation and awareness of the instructional objectives.2. Attention Students observe relevant elements, so particular perceptual patterns are formed. Students have particular attention on learning materials, so it is guarantee that they have a good concentration.3. Processing Students understand information in the short term memory and process it. In this case, students should explore memory that they have used whichever is appropriate for the problem. If strategies in the memory of the students are not available, they have to create a new strategy and this requires a creative mind, at least a focused mind.4. Feedback Students get a confirmation about how far their performances are right and how their actions are appropriate. Communication can increase or decrease students motivation in thinking. The phases in instructional activities can be applied in activities oncognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Gagne in his book Essential of Learningfor Instruction suggests improvements in phases, namely:1. Attention Students have special attention on teaching materials.2. Motivation Students are aware of instructional objectives and are willing to get involved.3. Retrieval to working memory Students recall from long term memory what they already have known/understood/mastered about learning materials.4. Selective perception Students observe stimulus elements that are relevant to the instructional materials. Students obtained perceptual patterns.5. Processing of information Students give meanings to the perceptual patterns to make the information really means by connecting it to old information that has been extracted from long term memory. Dewi Rahimah, S.Pd., M.Ed. 1
  2. 2. Chapter 2 : Skill Development6. Responding to question or task Students prove through an achievement to teachers and themselves that the instructional materials have been mastered. It gives an indication that specific instructional objectives have been achieved.7. Getting feedback or reinforcement Students receive reinforcement from teachers if their achievement is appropriate, or receive corrections if their achievement is inappropriate.8. Confirming the learning outcomes Students do various tasks in order have deep understading in learning. Students conduct learning transfer and repeat their learning.B. Skill Development1. Cognitive DevelopmentCognitive skills are skills including mental activity (brain).Cognitive development is the development of intelligence and knowledge.Indicators of cognitive skills are namely :a. Knowledge Including the ability to remember about things learned and stored in memory.b. Comprehension Including the ability to get meanings and significances of the study.c. Application Including the ability to apply methods and rules for dealing with real and new problems.d. Analysis Including the ability to specify an entity into parts so that the entire structure can be well understood.e. Synthesis Including the ability to form a new pattern.f. Evaluation Including the ability to form an opinion on a few things based on certain criteria.2. Affective developmentAffective Skills are skills related to attitudes and values.Affective development is acquire a tendency to accept or reject an object,based on an assessment of the object as a useful/valuable (positive attitude) ornot useful/valuable (negative attitude).Indicators of affective skills are namely :1. Receiving Including sensitivity about certain things and willingness to pay attention to it.2. Responding Including a willingness to pay attention and participate in an activity.3. Valuing Including receiving a value, appreciating, acknowledging, and taking a stand.4. Organization Including the ability to establish a system of values as a way of life. Dewi Rahimah, S.Pd., M.Ed. 2
  3. 3. Chapter 2 : Skill Development5. Characterization Including the ability to appreciate values and formalize it become value patterns in personal life.3. Psychomotor DevelopmentPsychomotor Skills are skills to act after someone receives a specific learningexperience.Psychomotor development is development of ability to compile a number ofphysical movements until it becomes an entirety.Indicators of psychomotor skills include:1. Observing Including the ability to sort unique things and to aware of its differences.2. Imitation Including the ability to make movements based on examples or movement imitation.3. Practicing Including the ability to perform movements without examples.4. Adapting Including the ability to make changes and adjustments in patterns of movements with specific requirements. Dewi Rahimah, S.Pd., M.Ed. 3
  4. 4. Chapter 2 : Skill Development ReferencesDimyati & Mudjiono. (1999). Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Rineka Cipta. Jakarta.Majid, A. (2008). Perencanaan Pembelajaran : Mengembangkan Standar Kompetensi Guru. PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Bandung.Sudijono, A. (2009). Pengantar Evaluasi Pendidikan. PT RajaGrafindo Persada. Jakarta. Dewi Rahimah, S.Pd., M.Ed. 4

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