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Skill Development
 

Skill Development

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    Skill Development Skill Development Presentation Transcript

    • Oleh : Dewi Rahimah, S.Pd., M.Ed.
    • Instructional Activities Gagne in Winkel stated that phases in instructional activities are as follows: Motivation Attention Processing Feedback
    • Motivation Students are aware of instructional objectives and are willing to get involved in teaching and learning processes. This is a very important role because students maximize their thinking ability. If they have weak levels of motivation, students will tend to let posed problems. In this case, the role of teacher is increasing students’ motivation and awareness of the instructional objectives. Motivation Attention Processing Feedback
    • AttentionStudents observe relevant elements, soparticular perceptual patterns are formed.Students have particular attention onlearning materials, so it is guarantee that theyhave a good concentration. Motivation Attention Processing Feedback
    • ProcessingStudents understand information in the shortterm memory and process it. In thiscase, students should explore memory thatthey have used whichever is appropriate forthe problem. If strategies in the memory ofthe students are not available, they have tocreate a new strategy and this requires acreative mind, at least a focused mind. Motivation Attention Processing Feedback
    • FeedbackStudents get a confirmation about how fartheir performances are right and how theiractions are appropriate. Communication canincrease or decrease students motivation inthinking. Motivation Attention Processing Feedback
    • The phases in instructional activities can be applied inactivities on cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Gagne inhis book Essential of Learning for Instruction suggestsimprovements in phases, namely: Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • AttentionStudents have special attention onteaching materials. Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • MotivationStudents are aware ofinstructional objectives and arewilling to get involved. Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • Retrieval to working memoryStudents recall from long termmemory what they already haveknown/understood/masteredabout learning materials. Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • Selective perceptionStudents observe stimuluselements that are relevant to theinstructional materials. Studentsobtained perceptual patterns. Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • Processing of informationStudents give meanings to theperceptual patterns to make theinformation really means byconnecting it to old informationthat has been extracted from longterm memory. Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • Responding to question or taskStudents prove through anachievement to teachers andthemselves that the instructionalmaterials have been mastered. Itgives an indication that specificinstructional objectives have been Attentionachieved. Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • Getting feedback or reinforcementStudents receive reinforcementfrom teachers if theirachievement is appropriate, orreceive corrections if theirachievement is inappropriate. Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • Confirming the learning outcomesStudents do various tasks in orderhave deep understading inlearning. Students conductlearning transfer and repeat theirlearning. Attention Motivation Retrieval to working memory Selective perception Processing of information Responding to question or task Getting feedback or reinforcement Confirming the learning outcomes
    • Skill Development Cognitive Development Psychomotor Affective Development Development
    • Cognitive DevelopmentCognitive skills are skills including mental activity (brain).Cognitive development is the development of intelligenceand knowledge.
    • Indicators of cognitive skills are namely : Knowledge : Including the ability to remember about things learned and stored in memory. Comprehension : Including the ability to get meanings and significances of the study. Application : Including the ability to apply methods and rules for dealing with real and new problems. Analysis : Including the ability to specify an entity into parts so that the entire structure can be well understood. Synthesis : Including the ability to form a new pattern. Evaluation : Including the ability to form an opinion on a few things based on certain criteria.
    • Affective DevelopmentAffective Skills are skills related to attitudes and values​​.Affective development is acquire a tendency to accept orreject an object, based on an assessment of the object as auseful/valuable (positive attitude) or not useful/valuable(negative attitude).
    • Indicators of affective skills are namely : Receiving : Including sensitivity about certain things and willingness to pay attention to it. Responding : Including a willingness to pay attention and participate in an activity. Valuing : Including receiving a value, appreciating, acknowledging, and taking a stand. Organization : Including the ability to establish a system of values ​as a way of life. Characterization : Including the ability to appreciate values and formalize it become value patterns in personal life.
    • Psychomotor DevelopmentPsychomotor Skills are skills to act after someone receivesa specific learning experience.Psychomotor development is development of ability tocompile a number of physical movements until it becomesan entirety.
    • Indicators of psychomotor skills are namely :Observing : Including the ability to sort unique things andto aware of its differences.Imitation : Including the ability to make movementsbased on examples or movement imitation.Practicing : Including the ability to perform movementswithout examples.Adapting : Including the ability to make changes andadjustments in patterns of movements with specificrequirements
    • References Dimyati & Mudjiono. (1999). Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Rineka Cipta. Jakarta. Majid, A. (2008). Perencanaan Pembelajaran : Mengembangkan Standar Kompetensi Guru. PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Bandung. Sudijono, A. (2009). Pengantar Evaluasi Pendidikan. PT RajaGrafindo Persada. Jakarta.