Introduction An embedded system is a computer system designedto do one or a few dedicated and/or specific functions “Embedded System", it constantly evolves withadvances in technology and dramatic decreases in thecost of implementing various hardware and softwarecomponents. In recent years, the field has outgrown many of itstraditional descriptions.
Basic PrinciplesAlmost all the Embedded Systemapplications share a common EmbeddedSystem model which includes:Hardware LayerSystem Software LayerApplication Software Layer
Embedded SystemDesigning andArchitectureIn order to design an EmbeddedSystem certain processes are asfollowed:CreationImplementationTestingMaintenance
General Characteristics ofEmbedded SystemsPerform a single taskUsually not general purposeIncreasingly high performance and real timeconstrainedPower, cost and reliability are importantconsiderationsHW-SW systemsSoftware is used for more features andflexibility(R.T.O.S)Hardware (processors, ASICs, memory etc. areused for performance and security
Types of EmbeddedSystem General ComputingVideo games, set-top boxes, wearable computers,Automatic tellers Control SystemsVehicle engines, chemical processes, nuclearpower, flight control Signal Processing Radar, Sonar, video compression Communication & NetworkingTelephone system, Internet
Economical AspectEconomical metrics are mostly used todetermine which COTS should be use or if thesystems will be brought into the market.Unit CostNon-Recurring Engineering (NRE)FlexibilityTime to Market
Importance of EmbeddedSoftwareand Embedded Processors“... the New York Times has estimated that theaverage American comes into contact with about 60micro-processors every day....” [Camposano, 1996]Latest top-level BMWs contain over 100microprocessors [Personal communication]
16 It is estimated that each year embedded software iswritten five times as much as regular software The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-widetoday are used in the embedded market ... ; only a smallportion of CPUs is applied in PCs ... the number of software-constructors of EmbeddedSystems will rise from 2 million in 1994 to 10 million in2012;... the number of constructors employed by software-producers merely rises from 0.6 million to 1.1 million.[Department of Trade and Industry/ IDC Benelux BV: Embedded softwareresearch in the Netherlands. Analysis and results, 1997(according to: www.scintilla.utwente.nl/shintabi/engels/thema_text.html)]Conclusion