Ppt on design of solar photovoltaic generation for residential building
DESIGN OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION FORRESIDENTIAL BUILDING________________________________________________
ABSTRACT>Solar cell is a semiconductor device which is nothing but a P-N junctiondiode and can converts sun lights into electrical energy.>Solar PV module when in touch of sunlight generates voltage and current atits output terminals.>In recent trends, this technology is highly effective because of lessmaintenance and continuous availability of solar energy in the most cleanestform.>In our project we are using this concept and usefulness of solar cell bywhich we are trying to design solar photovoltaic generation system of asample building.>We are estimating no of PV module, calculating the size of inverter, no ofbatteries, solar charge controller sizing and all equipments necessary toconstruct a model generation set for a sample house with propermathematical calculation sample load curve along with cost analysis.
Broad OutlinePV Technologies and AdvancementEnvironmental AspectEconomic AspectIndian ScenarioFuture Prospects
WITH THERMAL POWERThis power plant releases tones of pollutant gas in the free air and the cost offossil fuels are very high, also they need a huge site. Where in solar plant we canget the clean energy and it need not require any plant sites.WITH NUCLEAR ENERGYBi-product generated are radio active where in solar plant there is no harmfulelements.WITH BIO GAS GENERATIONThey produces CO2 and other green house gases, also bio-mass collection isdifficult whereas availability of sun light is endless.WITH WIND ENERGYThey are highly available along the coastal side and much costly, where as thesolar energy is available throughout the world.WITH TIDAL ENERGYSea water contains minerals having a corrosive effects on machineries and costis much higher than solar generating plantCOMPARISON WITH OTHER GENERATION METHODS
Silicon Crystalline Technology Currently makes up 86% of PV market Very stable with module efficiencies 10-16%Mono crystalline PV Cells•Made using saw-cut from singlecylindrical crystal of Si•Operating efficiency up to 15%Multi Crystalline PV Cells•Caste from ingot of meltedand recrystallised silicon•Cell efficiency ~12%•Accounts for 90% ofcrystalline Si market
Thin Film Technology Silicon deposited in a continuous on a base material such asglass, metal or polymers Thin-film crystalline solar cell consists of layers about 10μm thickcompared with 200-300μm layers for crystalline silicon cellsPROS• Low cost substrate andfabrication processCONS• Not very stable
Amorphous Silicon PV Cells The most advanced of thin film technologies Operating efficiency ~6% Makes up about 13% of PV marketPROS• Mature manufacturingtechnologies availableCONS• Initial 20-40% loss inefficiency
Poly Crystalline PV CellsCadmium Telluride ( CdTe) Unlike most other II/IV materialCdTe exhibits direct band gap of1.4eV and high absorptioncoefficientPROS• 16% laboratory efficiency• 6-9% module efficiencyCONS• Immature manufacturing processNon – Silicon Based Technology
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF PV CELL_____________________________________________>PV cells convert sunlight into electricity.>They are made of two semi-conductorlayers, one is positive and other isnegative charged.>When light enters the cell, excite atomsto move freely from negative layer to thepositive.>As a result, current will flow frompositive terminal to the negative terminalof the metallic plate connected across thePV cell.>When two modules are wired together inseries , the voltage across them is doubledand for parallel the resulting current isdoubled.
PROBLEM FORMULATION_______________________________________1.MODULE SIZINGNo of modules required to meet energy requirement =Nm=Selected module energy o/p atoperating temperature/peak sun hours of design tilt from insolation data chart).No of modules required per string =Nsa =Battery bus volt./selected PV module power volt. AtSTCNo of strings in parallel =Np=Nm/ NsaNo of modules to be purchased =N= Nsa x Np2.BATTERY SIZINGNo of batteries in parallel =Na =Required battery capacity (considering an autonomy of 7 daysand allowable depth of discharge of 0.8) /ampere hour capacity of selected battery.No of batteries in series =Ns =battery bus volt. (assumed)/selected battery bus voltage frombattery specification sheet.Total no of batteries =Nb =no of batteries in parallel x no of batteries in series.3.INVERTER SIZINGFrom the load curve of the sample house if the maximum energy demand at peak hours is Wtwatt, then for safety purpose the inverter should be 25-30% bigger in size.4.CHARGE CONTROLLER SIZINGTo select an appropriate charge controller, we need to calculate the Controller Input Currentand Controller Load Current data .Module Short Circuit Current (Is)) x Modules per string (Nsa) x Safety Factor (Sf ) = Contollerinput current (Ip)Total DC Connected Watts (Wdc) / DC System Voltage (Vb) = Max. DC Load Currentie, controller load current (Id).
CASE STUDY__________________________________SL NO COMPONENT NAME QUANTITY SPECIFICATIONS MAKER1.SOLAR PV MODULE 40 MODULES14.8V,1 AMP,47.7 WPSIEMENS SOLARM55 MODULE2. SOLAR INVERTER 13. DEEP CYCLE 10 12V DC,478 A-H EXIDE 6E95-II4.SOLAR CHARGECONTROLLER112V DC,34 AMPTRISTAR TS45CHARGECONTROLLER
Applications @ PV• Water Pumping: PV powered pumping systems are excellent,simple ,reliable – life 20 years• Commercial Lighting: PV powered lighting systems are reliableand low cost alternative. Security, billboard sign, area, and outdoorlighting are all viable applications for PV• Consumer electronics: Solar powered watches, calculators, andcameras are all everyday applications for PV technologies.• Telecommunications• Residential Power: A residence located more than a mile from theelectric grid can install a PV system more inexpensively thanextending the electric grid(Over 500,000 homes worldwide use PV power as their only sourceof electricity)
Environmental Aspects Exhaustion of raw materials CO2 emission during fabrication process Acidification Disposal problems of hazardous semiconductor materialIn spite of all these environmental concerns,Solar Photovoltaic is one of the cleanest form of energy
PV’nomics• PV unit : Price per peak watt (Wp)( Peak watt is the amount of power output a PV module produces atStandard Test Conditions (STC) of a module operating temperature of 25°Cin full noontime sunshine (irradiance) of 1,000 Watts per square meter )• A typical 1kWp System produces approximately1600-2000 kWh energy in India and Australia• A typical 2000 watt peak (2KWp) solar energy systemcosting $8000 (including installation) will correspond toa price of $4/Wp
Payback Time• Energy Payback Time:EPBT is the time necessary for a photovoltaic panel togenerate the energy equivalent to that used toproduce it.A ratio of total energy used to manufacture a PVmodule to average daily energy of a PV system.• At present the Energy payback time for PV systems isin the range8 to 11 years, compared with typical system lifetimesof around 30 years. About 60% of the embodiedenergy is due to the silicon wafers.
PV’nomics …. Module costs typically represents only 40-60% oftotal PV system cost and the rest is accounted byinverter, PV array support, electrical cabling andinstallation Most PV solar technologies rely onsemiconductor-grade crystalline-siliconwafers, which are expensive to producecompared with other energy sources The high initial cost of the equipment theyrequire discourages their large-scalecommercialization
The Other Side• Use newer and cheaper materials like amorphoussilicon , CuInSe2 , CdTe.• Thin-film solar cells use less than 1% of the rawmaterial (silicon) compared to wafer based solarcells, leading to a significant price drop per kWh.• Incentives may bring down the cost of solar energydown to 10-12 cents per kilowatt hour - which canimply a payback of 5 to 7 years.
However ….• If a location is not currently connected to the ‚grid‛, it is lessexpensive to install PV panels than to either extend the grid or setup small-scale electricity production .• PV : Best suited for remote site applications having moderate/smallpower requirements consuming applications even where the grid isin existence.• Isolated mountaintops and other rural areas are ideal for stand-alone PV systems where maintenance and power accessibilitymakes PV the ideal technology.
Present PV Scenario in India• In terms of overall installed PV capacity, India comes fourth afterJapan, Germany and U.S.(With Installed capacity of 110 MW)• In the area of Photovoltaics India today is the second largestmanufacturer in the world of PV panels based on crystalline solarcells.(Industrial production in this area has reached a level of 11 MW peryear which is about 10% of the world’s total PV production)• A major drive has also been initiated by the Government to exportIndian PV products, systems, technologies and services(Solar Photovoltaic plant and equipment has been exported tocountries in the Middle East and Africa)
Indian PV Era — Vision 2012• Arid regions receive plentiful solar radiation, regions likeRajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana receive sunlight in plenty.Thus the Potential availability - 20 MW/km2 (source IREDA)• IREDA is planning to electrify 18,000 villages by year 2012 mainlythrough solar PV systems• Targets have been set for the large scale utilization of PV technologyby different sectors within the next five years
Global Scenario• Solar Electric Energy demand has grown consistently by 20-25% perannum over the past 20 years (from 26 MW back in 1980 to 127MWin 1997)• At present solar photovoltaic is not the prime contributor to theelectrical capacities but the pace at which advancement of PVtechnology and with the rising demand of cleaner source of energyit is expected by 2030 solar PV will have a leading role in electricitygeneration• Research is underway for new fabrication techniques, like thoseused for microchips. Alternative materials like cadmium sulfide andgallium arsenide ,thin-film cells are in development
30% increase in global manufacturing of solar cells every year
Expected Future of Solar Electrical Capacities
Concluding Remarks• The key to successful solar energy installation is to use qualitycomponents that have long lifetimes and require minimalmaintenance.• The future is bright for continued PV technology dissemination.PV technology fills a significant need in supplyingelectricity, creating local jobs and promoting economic developmentin rural areas, avoiding the external environmental costs associatedwith traditional electrical generation technologies.• Major power policy reforms and tax incentives will play a major roleif all the above said is to be effectively realized.
“The Light at the end of the Tunnel”By 2020 global solar output could be 276 Terawatt hours, whichwould equal 30% of Africas energy needs or 1% of globaldemand. This would replace the output of 75 new coal firedpower stations. The global solar infrastructure would have aninvestment value of US$75 billion a year. By 2040 global solaroutput could be more than 9000 Terawatt hours, or 26% of theexpected global demandReport European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) andGreenpeace
‘ Can technological developments and thetransition to a culture that is more awareof the need to safeguard the environmenthelp create a world powered by the Sun’sEnergy ? ‘